Calorimetry lab report format: introduction to the calorimetry methods

The term ‘calorimetry’ is associated with measuring heat. In the deep past, when science was predominantly a matter for philosophy paper topics, people spoke of different energies and imagined heat as a special concept, giving it a separate place among nature energies – thus, heat energy coexisted with other substances of a system and, say, electrical or vital energy. From a point of view of contemporary science, there exists only one energy stored in a body – the internal energy, which has a multitude of forms and reveals its appearance as kinetic, electrical or heat energy. Therefore, the form of energy such as heat is conceived only as coupled with energy changes and is always associated with a heat flow. One may say in a calorimetry lab report, that calorimeters are the instruments employed for the measurement of the amount of energy that exchanged within a given period of time in the form of a heat flow.

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Students often seek someone who can write a research paper for them because modern calorimetry has grown as a complex and sophisticated set of methods. For centuries, it has been known as a highly effective method in natural sciences. Nowadays, an extensive base for progress in classical physical chemistry and thermodynamics exists due to the possibility of precise measurement of heat of reaction, heat capacity, the heat of combustion, the heat of fusion as well as other caloric quantities. With the progress in computer science and microelectronics, the classical approaches in calorimetry and a calorimetry lab report format have been much revised since it became possible to create and develop new fields of application and new types of calorimeters. Taking into account how many students choose to do their GCSE ICT coursework using newly-designed calorimetry methods, one could say that contemporary calorimetry experiences growing interest from different fields of science, which now are eager to employ this cheap, easy and powerful approach for various investigative purposes.

Many fields, such as pharmacy, medicine, biology and biochemistry as well as material and food science benefit from using modern calorimetry. It enables scientists to determinate the energy content of fuels and conduct safety investigations, also one could easily find a research paper to buy related to the usage of calorimetry for food quality control. More detailed examples of successful applications are illustrated below:

  • - a life sciences example. Regardless of the frictional and incidental heat, all living organisms produce heat as the result of metabolic reactions in the cells. The heat production significantly differs, depending on the temperature of the organism and other parameters such as nutrients, respiration, and atmospheric conditions. Naturally, the heat production remains constant if the conditions of the environment and the organism temperature are kept constant too. Hence, according to a calorimetry lab report format, the same cells produce a characteristic amount of heat under the constant conditions. In case this quality is precisely known for, say, certain microbes, it is possible to track down their amounts using a microcalorimeter (detectable heat can be as low as 1-3 pW per bacterial cell). Furthermore, it has been shown in many microbiology thesis examples that bacterial heat-flow profiles are highly specific, so a microcalorimeter can help find them much faster than it could be performed with traditional inoculation on a culture medium.
  • - a material science example. Technological processes that implies molding of non-amorphous polymers often leads to partial crystallization of polymers on cooling. However, crystallized polymers change their properties for the worse and therefore, these changes should be avoided. Preventive methods are based on very quick cooling and heating technology. Unfortunately, the most commonly used differential scanning calorimeters have significant limitations regarding the heating and cooling rates (not less than 100 K min-1) due to the thermal inertia of the instrument. Finally, that problem was overcome with chip calorimeters, which have a very small mass as well as good thermal conductivity. The student may write in a calorimetry lab report example about the characteristics of chip calorimeters: their low time constants together with very thin and small samples (10 µm and 1 ng, accordingly) eliminate the problem of thermal inertia almost completely (thus, heating and cooling rates go up to 106 K s-1).
  • - a legal metrology example. Many students know about fuel problems in legal metrology from textbooks with an AP Statistics homework help. It is well known that the commercial value of fuels depends on the amount of energy, which a given portion of fuel contains. Traditionally, gas chromatography has been used to estimate the caloric value of fuels and natural gas. However, many biogases and nonconventional fuels such as shale gas and landfill gas comprise components absent in natural gas. Consequently, it incomparably increases the cost of gas chromatography. At present, gas calorimetry succeeds other expensive approaches as a quicker and cheaper method, which is also fully automatized and computer controlled. On the Internet, there is a freely available calorimetry lab report that describes the principal scheme of gas calorimeters in details. Firstly, two gas streams (gas fuel flow and combustion airflow) come out from special nozzles and then become mixed and burned. At the exit of the heat exchanger, the resulting heat is measured. The more energy comprises the fuel the hotter is the exchanger. The density of the gas is also measured in order to obtain a special output of the calorimeter, the Wobbe number, which represents the calorific value of the fuel.

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