- What Is a Lab Report?
- What Is Biology Lab Report?
- Biology as a Science
- Biology Lab Report Format
- Materials and Methods
- How To Write A Strong Introduction
- How to Write a Biology Lab Report Methods Section
- How to Write a Strong Results Section?
Biology Lab Report is written based on the outcome of the assignment, within which the student receives practical skills and finds the application of his theoretical knowledge. In its structure, the report does not differ much from other types of scientific work. Particular attention is paid to the design of graphic elements.
What information should be in the lab report:
- data on the work (topic, discipline), name of the author and teacher;
- search goals and objectives;
- object and subject of research;
- conventions and terms;
- theoretical input evidence;
- availability of technical equipment;
- the chosen technique of the experiment;
- the outcome obtained during the research;
- analysis and figure of the result of the practice;
- conclusion and conclusions.
We want to do everything quickly and easily. But not always assignments from teachers are so simple that they can be completed at once and forgotten. Scientific reports require a lot of effort, so stick to the plan, so you don't forget anything.
What Is a Lab Report?
The student will help with manuals, from which you can search for enough information. In addition to studying the theoretical part, the student should also understand the purpose of the workshops. And the rules for working with the necessary devices that will use in the course of research.
As a rule, each student must purchase an A4 notebook, in which he will make notes about the goals of the work, his actions, the knowledge used and the devices used, and the outcome obtained. Such a notebook is called a laboratory journal.
It is on it that a synopsis will draw up; it is the journal that mostly answers how to do lab reports in biology and any other discipline. The fundamental difference between such work and similar research in chemistry is the less strict safety measures.
What the Purpose of Writing Lab Reports?
Laboratory work is an integral part of the entire discipline and explains to you to confirm your theoretical knowledge. Also, for each subject, a list of competencies is fixed that should forme in studying this discipline. Based on this, the goals of the lab report included:
- in-depth development by the undergraduate of general provisions on the topics of specific tasks, as the development of separate partitions of the discipline. And also confirmation of academic skills obtained during lectures and practical classes directly by the outcome of research;
- teaching each student to keep a workbook and work with it competently;
- it is instilling the desire to anticipate the expected outcome of the experimenter's performance to develop students' logical thinking.
Drafting the Lab Report
Control at each stage of the experiment, which increases the accuracy of measurements. Materials for all stages of work should be contained in a workbook for each student individually. Everything else should be the result of the student's independent work. Lack of independence in the report is punished by a decrease in the rating, up to the cancellation of the current job outcome.
Implementation of the report, which consists of two stages:
- Carrying out the necessary measurements: entering them into the report tables. When completing this part of the story, the experimenter must monitor the implementation of the material;
- Analysis of the outcome obtained: building the necessary dependencies, diagrams, etc., calculating the parameters required by the methodological instructions based on the measured values.
What Is Biology Lab Report?
An essential place in the study is the biology lab report. The essence of the story lies in the use of practical teaching techniques to form modern knowledge and practical skills.
The reports are part of the curriculum and are mandatory for every teacher. The program indicates the required minimum of such work.
Biological science contains a lot of factual information about the world around us and about ourselves. Teaching this science is associated with the consistent acquisition of knowledge and their further change. This facilitates a set of biological techniques aimed at finding facts and developing theories.
College biology programs involve research aimed at the formation and development of individual and overall educational skills. They are one of the forms of enhancing the cognitive activity of schoolchildren.
Biology as a Science
Biology is the science of living organisms, the origin and development of living nature, and this development's general laws. Wildlife is diverse: about 500,000 species of plants and more than 1.2 million species of animals. Biology is the foundation of modern medicine, the basis of agriculture.
Biology deals with disclosing life's primary manifestations, the principles of stabilization, and the flexible management of life processes. The introduction of the necessary program is in living cells' activity under conditions of deviation from the norm.
Biology is a synthetic science that studies the overall development patterns, the organization's origin, and living organisms' features. The introduction of chemical laws and chemical characteristics of plants' structure contributed to biology's connection with chemistry, which gave rise to biochemistry. It takes a lot of work to become a bachelor of science in biology.
Biology Lab Report Format
Before the lesson, the researcher should get acquainted with its content. To investigation the theoretical foundations of the method and techniques that are necessary for the work. Check the degree of your readiness for the lesson by answering the control questions given for each topic.
Before the laboratory lesson, the student must prepare a protocol containing the following data:
- number and title of work;
- date of the experience;
- the purpose of the work;
- the essence of the analysis method under investigation and its implementation (weighing accuracy, required temperature, additional calculations);
- necessary formulas and explanations of the accepted symbols;
- the name of the product sample obtained for operation;
- results of observations;
- necessary calculations (or statistical figure of outcome);
- analysis of the collected evidence and conclusions.
If the annotation is a brief description of the work, it is necessary to write about the essential thing. The reader wants to understand the purpose of the work and the outcome, achievements. First of all, they want to get acquainted with the object of research: a physical phenomenon, experimental setup, or problems, its parameters, characteristics.
A functional annotation always contains numerical values. We can say that if there is no statistical evidence, there is no annotation. Such annotation is still not specific. The reader does not understand: "What has been done, received? What's new?"
Only numerical values will decorate the work and allow the physicist to understand it. At the end of the annotation, it is useful to explain which specialists may be interested in your work and which areas of knowledge the task belongs to.
At the beginning of the report, the student describes the work's purpose and the tasks to be solved. Jobs are a technique of achieving a goal. Further, the rationale for the need for the experiment formulates why it should be carried out and how its results can affect the development of the issue under investigation.
The object and subject of research also consider. The purpose is the studied scientific area; the issue is a specific part, problem, or question of this area.
As for the introduction, the essential thing here is to formulate goals and objectives correctly. You cannot put them so that after the end of the experiment. It will be impossible to make ends meet and tie the research to goals. Remember that the main thing in laboratory work is the usefulness and practicality of the experiment.
Materials and Methods
This hands-on teaching method included specific equipment for the job and a suggested combination of different ways in the course of its execution. Research for teaching ecology is very high since a full knowledge of natural processes is intricate without experimental work. During the experiment, students develop intellectually.
Lab work can organize as an individual, group, or link. In each group, students do the job independently, and the pace of action may be different; that test, undergraduate do it not simultaneously.
The teacher must determine the sequence in the course of a lab report: setting a goal, instructing, conducting observations and experiments, making sketches and writing in a notebook, summing up the job done, formulating conclusions.
This part of the work does not provide for rewriting the observation diary or the experiment protocol. If this publication is necessary, this should be done at the end of the work in the form of an in-the-text "Results" to make links to them.
This is most easily done in faunistic or floristic research. For example, we were observing the species composition of birds in a city park. A list of species present in a systematic order and some information reports about each species. It is essential to separate your observations from those taken from the literature.
In experimental or ecological work, it sometimes happens that a student seeks to summarize all the outcomes in one or several tables, graphs, or diagrams and limit himself to that. It is not right.
In the discussion of the results obtained that the "scientific face" of their author, individuality, and ability to generalize and draw conclusions manifest. The order of analysis of the outcome is usually as follows.
First, most overall patterns present, then more particular ones. For example, when comparing the behavior of hamsters and mice, you first need to say a few words about the type of action of mammals that you study overall, then rodents as a whole. And at the end - the specific species of hamsters and mice with which the experiments carried out.
Very often, the outcome obtained needs to compare with those already available in the literature. Simultaneously, in some moments, the author confirms the literary evidence, and in some, he can refute them. The most important thing when contradicting information is convincing reasoning.
Schoolchildren usually underestimate the importance of this mandatory part of the work. The list of references contains a list of all articles and guides mentioned in the text. It is needed to find any guide or item from the evidence in the file. The list compiles according to a certain standard, which can found in any scientific article.
Articles and books on the list are usually sorted alphabetically by the names of the authors. Suppose there are several authors, the place determined by the name of the first of them. Typically, the following entry order is used: surname, initials, book title, the publication (city), publisher name, year. If we are talking about an article, the order is as follows: surname, initials, article title, magazine, volume, number, year, pages.
How To Write A Strong Introduction
The introduction is the first chapter of the work and introduces the reader to the course of the matter: in the introduction, it is necessary to reflect the relevance, novelty and practical value of the problem under study. The presentation shows how fluently the author owns the topic of the work, his overall erudition.
It should bear in mind that quite often busy readers look only through the introduction and principal conclusions from the entire work. This makes it clear that the opening is of particular importance. For example, if the calorimetry lab report introduction is poorly writing, the reader may put your work aside.
The purpose of the work should be explicitly formulated, and not in overall terms. For example, you cannot write, "The purpose of our work is to investigate seagulls' behavior." It contains two inaccuracies at once.
The intention is the primary tool for realizing your goals. How to use this tool correctly? You need to know precisely how to formulate an intent for it to work as efficiently as possible. From the experience of program participants, we know that few people are correctly writing an intention the first time.
The intention should sound in the affirmative, as a fait accompli. Forget about the words "if," "it would be good," "I would like to." To writing your intention correctly, writing it on your behalf. Remember: only you are the essential character of your plan and the creator of your reality.
Yes, sometimes it isn't easy to imagine that your intention realizes if you have just started and have not even gotten down to business. However, to correctly formulate the plan, it is necessary to transfer to the future.
The research hypothesis is part of the introduction to student work. It is located after the goal with objectives and before the research technique. Despite its modest volume (no more than a paragraph), this element's development is significant, since it is the pillar of the entire study, its driving force. The work creates to confirm or refute the formulated suppose in the process of research.
For the sake of its confirmation or refutation, you choose bibliographic sources, carry out theoretical and practical research, format your work. After the diploma or coursework, you assess whether the hypothesis put forward corresponds to the truth. If so, then it will become the theory that you have proven with your work. If not, it rejects, because refutation is also a valuable conclusion.
With the help of correctly asked questions and answers, you can successfully convey your thoughts, ask for clarification of what was said, and build a chain of inferences leading to the necessary conclusions. They serve as one of the most effective ways to engage the interlocutors in communication.
The list of sources and literature covers all documents used in the execution of writing work. The menu has continuous single numbering, following through all sections. The bibliographic link is a part of the document's reference apparatus and serves as bibliographic information about materials - link objects.
Work on the assignment yourself using reliable sources of information. Borrowing someone else's text, you do not just repeat someone else's mistakes, but also share someone else's views, sometimes directly opposite your own.
How to Write a Biology Lab Report Methods Section
Use the simple past tense in this section. Also, use the passive voice whenever possible, but sometimes you can also use the active voice. Recently, many articles have proven ownership of research using phrases such as "we completed," "we rated," "we implemented." Whatever style you prefer, writing in plain language.
Please be aware that fellow researchers refer to this partition if they wish to reproduce your outcome. Therefore, provide as much quantitative and statistical data as possible and any other small but essential information. The lab report example can be viewed only for inspiration, but you are writing all the information yourself.
To effectively present information, organize each experiment or procedure as a separate unit. It is sometimes better to give the research plan and system as a whole, as this will help readers understand the research. In this section, only the materials and methods present and nothing else.
Contents in student papers are a list of partitions that indicate the pages on which they locate. This makes it easier to find the part you want. It all starts with the design. Since the content is the second page of the work, the teachers pay close attention to it. Even the main body cannot boast of such honors.
To find out how to correctly compose the content, you should contact the manager. The standards spell out the norms for the design of any scientific work. However, each university has its rules and requirements, so do not be lazy and go to the methodological office - this is the best way to avoid mistakes.
Properly designed content allows, first of all, to assess the structure of the work. And this is important because finding the information you need and quickly determining which page it is on is the content's primary task.
The author individually determined the article's structure, taking into account the task of the text. The overall structure assumes an attractive headline and body text, separated by paragraphs and subheadings.
A bulleted list and images that visually divide the article into several parts will also improve readability. Also, the central region has a specific structure, depending on the ultimate goal of the text. For example, you can take an APA format paper for the design of the study.
Its peculiarity is that each new paragraph follows from the previous one. In this case, the central idea place in the first paragraph, and then its detailed disclosure follows. This structure is convenient for analyzing information. Of course, the author himself decides how to write an article, but at the same time, it is worth considering the needs of the audience.
How to Write a Strong Results Section?
Here is a summary of observations, practices, measurements, comparisons, calculations, and discussion. The job description does not provide for rewriting the observation diary. All received evidence must be processed and comprehended.
Bringing all the received evidence into tables or presenting them in graphs and diagrams is the most visual and economical way of processing primary evidence. But by themselves, charts, pictures, and figures are only material for descriptions and reflections. This should be the primary content of this chapter. Also, in this chapter, it is advisable to discuss the obtained evidence and compare them.
All outcome to discuss should reflect only their observations and experiences. They can compare with the evidence contained in the literature on this topic, with the obligatory link to the sources used. Follow the recommendations and luck will find you. We all start with small steps, and eventually become great people!
The work is difficult, but it is possible to perform, we give tasks for personal development. Without them, the world's existence is impossible; we all have to develop and not stand still, take the challenges as another test, after which victory awaits you! Being a scientist is not easy, not everyone has a knack for it, but once you try, you may want to create something else for the future.