Each step of a chemical reaction has a different speed. To determine the examples of chemical properties, a substance’s internal qualities must be altered. The properties include:
Examples of chemical properties are applied when determining the type of a substance that cannot be determined by touching, smelling and looking. As seen from every chemical case study analysis, chemical change alters the identity of a substance due to the breaking and formation of new chemical bonds. The chemical properties and the physical properties produced are linked directly to the substance’s physical properties. The most common physical properties are density, odor, boiling point and melting point. When a chemical substance transforms as a result of interacting with another substance, a chemical reaction occurs. Exchange of energy between the constituents and within the system environment takes place. A chemical reaction can form or dissociate molecules. Molecules can break apart to form two or more tiny molecules or rearrangement of the atoms across or within the molecules. Dissociation, reduction, oxidation, molecular rearrangement and acid-base neutralization are the most common kinds of chemical reactions. Chemical reactions are symbolically depicted by a chemical equation. In a non-nuclear chemical reaction, the type and number of atoms on both sides of an equation are equal. In a nuclear reaction, both sides of the equation are equal only in nuclear particles like neutrons and protons. The stepwise sequence of chemical bonds reorganization during a chemical reaction is called a mechanism.
Science of Everyday Things 2002 Encyclopedia mla format paper explains the equality of atoms in both sides of a chemical equation. The chemical substance concept was established in the late 18th century. This was after a chemist named Joseph Proust worked on the composition of pure chemical compounds like the basic copper carbonate. He found out that all sampled compounds had the same composition. The proportion mass and elements found in each compound was the same. This is the law of constant composition. A chemical element is an atom species and contains the same number of protons in its atomic nuclei. There exist 119 elements in which 94 of them occur naturally and the remaining 24 are synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that contain one stable isotope and 38 contain radioactive isotopes. These radioactive isotopes decay after some time and become elements. The most abundant element on earth is iron and the most common element in the earth's crust is oxygen. All the ordinary matter of the universe is made up of chemical elements. Astronomical observations, however, show that the observable matter is approximately 15 percent of the universe matter and the remaining is dark matter whose composition is unknown but it is not made up of chemical elements.
In examples of chemical properties, the term “element” is used in atoms with a certain number of protons regardless of whether they are ionized or not or even bonded chemically. Every chemistry custom paper and a number of chemistry books contain a lot of information about elements. Examples of elements include hydrogen found in water and the pure chemical substances that contain a single element like hydrogen gas. A single element can create multiple substances of different structures which are known as allotropes of the element. When elements are combined chemically with atoms holding them together by chemical bonds they create chemical compounds. There are very few elements that are uncombined as relatively pure minerals. The most common of such elements are silver, copper, gold, sulfur and carbon as graphite, diamond or coal. All but a few of the inert elements such as noble metals and noble gases are often found on earth in a chemically combined form. About 32 of the chemical elements occur in uncombined forms and most occur as mixtures. Atmospheric air, for example, is a mixture of argon, oxygen and nitrogen, and solid elements are found in alloys like nickel and iron.
The history of discovering and using examples of chemical properties and elements started with primitive human societies that discovered native elements like sulfur, carbon, gold and copper. Civilization later extracted tin, copper, iron and lead from ores by smelting. Chemists and Alchemists subsequently discovered many others with all of the elements that occur naturally. Chemical element properties are summarized on a periodic table that organizes elements by increasing the atomic number into rows and columns that share recurring chemical and physical properties. Quantum mechanical model is the recent model of atomic structure. The interaction between atoms results in the rearrangement of chemical bonds that hold atoms together. Today these behaviors are studied in chemistry laboratories. The chemical synthesis methods have advanced and many new techniques and chemical elements in analytical chemistry are being used in isolation and purification. Chemical substances are classified according to their phase, structure and chemical composition. The chemicals are analyzed using the chemical analysis tools like the chromatography and the spectroscopy. The scientists who engage in chemical research are referred to as chemists and most of them specialize in several sub-disciplines. The disciplines include organic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, theoretical chemistry and medicinal chemistry. The most essential concepts in chemistry are the atom, matter, element, molecule, substance, reaction, equilibrium, bonding, energy, redox, ions and salt.
The various chemistry disciplines and concepts are always highlighted when formatting an essay during the chemistry course. Specialists in all of those disciplines are still doing researches on examples of chemical properties and more is yet to be discovered to advance the chemistry subject. The chemistry history is similar to civilization history and human beings always seek to identify, use and alter the environment materials. The early potters, for example, used beautiful glazes to preserve and decorate their wares. Vintners, brewers and herdsmen used fermentation techniques to make beer, cheese and wine. Smiths combined tin and copper to make bronze and craftsmen made glass and leather. A Muslim astronomer by the name Jābir ibn Hayyān is one of the first to study materials using scientific methods. Also known as Geber in Latin, Jābir ibn Hayyān was a scientist and a philosopher people regarded as the father of chemistry. He was the author of 22 scrolls that describe methods of crystallization, sublimation, distillation and evaporation. Geber invented the alembic. This is an instrument used to study and distil acids. He also came up with a chemical system of classification through the use of material properties that he studied. His categories were non-malleable substances which include materials like the stone that can be changed into powder. The other category is metals which comprise of lead, tin, iron and copper. The last category is spirits which comprises of materials which change to vapor when heated.
Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian chemist developed the first Periodic Table of the Elements. He wrote down the 63 known elements together with examples of chemical properties on cards. After arranging the elements in an increasing atomic mass order, he then grouped the elements with similar properties. He made a few exceptions; every 7th element had similar features. The noble gases and the 8th chemical group had not been discovered by then. Dmitri Mendeleev realized that leaving spaces for those places where the unknown elements fit into, the pattern was more exact. With the blank spaces in his table, he managed to predict the properties of the undiscovered elements. Dmitri Mendeleev’s original table has now been updated to include other 92 elements which occur naturally and 26 synthesized elements.
There are many uses of chemicals. Ammonia for example, apart from having negative effects as seen in the case study of Fate and Effects of ammonia spills, it is useful in several ways. Ammonia is a molecule of hydrogen and nitrogen. It is a colorless pungent-smelling gas that is soluble in water. Examples of chemical properties of ammonia is that it forms salt through reacting with acids and it is neutralized by acid fertilizers like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate to offer plants nitrogen which is an essential element. When oxidized with water, Ammonia forms nitric acid which is used in manufacturing fertilizer and organic dyestuff. The other uses of ammonia include the manufacturing of nylon and its aqueous solution is used in oven cleaning products. Acids are also useful. They react with oxides, metals, carbonates and hydroxides to form salts. The large organic molecules created by polymerizing unsaturated molecules (alkenes that have C=C double carbon = carbon bond group) like the methyl acrylate, acrylic acid and acrylate. These acrylic materials are used in making sticky resins that can solidify or can be used in making tough flexible plastics. Polymethyl acrylate in emulsion form is used in leather finishes, paints, lacquers, textile, safety glass layers, and adhesives. Alcohols which are organic compounds of O, H and C atoms are colorless molecules at room temperature. They are used in esters, fuels, solvents and as a starting molecule in the creation of other molecules.
Medicines and drugs are often organic and inorganic compounds as well. A drug is a particular molecule with a certain pharmacological action. Medicine is the formulation of the means of administering a drug to a patient. A drug is administered externally and it alters the body’s chemical reaction. It can alter the incoming sensory sensations, physiological state, emotional state, consciousness state, coordination and activity performing level. Medicines like aspirin and other analgesics contain active organic molecules. Electrolytes are also chemical compounds or mixtures. They are any molten material or aqueous solutions that contain iron which move freely and can carry an electric current. Examples of electrolytes are molten ammonium oxide and sodium chloride solution. Industrial uses of electrolytes include the electrolysis process. This includes the extraction of aluminum from purified bauxite ore and purifying of copper by use of copper (II) sulphate solution and copper electrodes.