The Faustian Misconception Old And New British Literature Essay

By presenting in detail and by analysing the three key periods of the Faustian legend-invocation, pact, resolution-the second section demonstrates how this misconception acquires impressive, modern sizes in the sense that: there's a new perspective on the partnership man-evil spirits, the agreement with the devil acquires a genuine form and so this means, and the quality implies more than doom or damnation.

From time immemorial, men have feared the devil and have considered him an omnipresent heart lying in wait around of the sinners' souls. Lurking as it may, the amount of the devil becomes multidimensional in his marriage to the individuals in The Expert and Margarita and The Tragical Background of Doctor Faustus-not only is he dreaded but he also curiously actually is an intriguing, mystical being, a respectable friend, and a interesting individual. Both literary works depict the devil as a required evil, a persona who causes all the ensuing happenings of the catalogs and who shows, mocks, and solutions certain flaws of the human being in particular and of modern culture generally.

The first main difference between Marlowe's play and Bulgakov's book is the fact Mephostophilis is invoked whereas Woland is not. Even the chromatics used by both authors announces the appearance of the devil diversely. Faustus summons Mephostophilis by using Latin formulae of conjuration found in the book of necromancy:

Sint mihi dei Acherontis propitii! Valeat numen triplex

Iehovae! Ignei, aerii, aquatici, terreni spiritus salvete!

Orientis princeps Lucifer, Beelzebub inferni ardentis monarcha, et

Demogorgon, propitiamus vos ut appareat et surgat Mephostophilis!

Quid tu moraris? Per lehovam, Gehennam, et consecratam

aquam quam nunc spargo, signumque crucis quod nunc facio, et

per vota nostra, ipse nunc surgat nobis dicatus Mephostophilis! (Marlowe 57)

The incantation is vocalised in a dark, gloomy setting up, under the safety of the night and inscribed in the circle that Faustus attracts, where he writes "Jehovah's name / The breviated names of holy saints, / Statistics of each adjunct to the heavens, / And heroes of signs and erring celebrities, " (Marlowe 57). In this admiration, Michael Mitchell avers:

According to the Clavicula Salomonis or Agrippa's Fourth Reserve of Occult Idea, the group afforded safety from the energy of the spirits that will be called up; in other words it afforded a symbolic space for consciousness which was not immediately immersed in the components of the unconscious, as might happen in dreams or in madness. (58)

The circle becomes a shield, guarding Faustus against the unleashed evil expert that is knowingly asked. Through its defensive function, the circle shows that Faustus is still in question or uneasy about continuing the magic elegance.

On closing the incantation, Mephostophilis appears as a devilish soul: feeling repulsion towards his appearance, Faustus asks that he turn into a Franciscan friar. Many critics have argued that Marlowe selects the image of any Franciscan monk since their religious congregation constitutes an exclusion from the critique targeted at clerical orders through the Reformation. Besides this aspect, the change spirit-body experienced by Mephostophilis may linked to the one between thoughts and reality according to Mitchell:

The projection of an analytically divided part of what is believed, in its prior unconscious state, to be an original unity, is the mirror image of the Gnostic creation process. It allows a 'simple fact' to become perceptible and apparently outside and autonomous. (60)

Suddenly, Mephostophilis equals Faustus' unconscious aspect of the psyche, awoken "per accidens" (Marlowe 58) as the devil obviously sets it: "For when we hear one rack the name of God, / Abjure the scriptures and his saviour Christ, / We fly, in hope to get his glorious heart;" (58).

In The Grasp and Margarita, there is no such invocation. Woland, the devil, looks ex lover abrupto in the 1930s Moscow, during the Passover Week. The book itself opens in multimedia res with two men walking and chattering at Patriarch's Ponds: "The first was Mikhail Alexandrovich Berlioz, chairman of Massolit, " (Bulgakov 11) and the other "was the poet Ivan Nikolaevich Ponyrev, who had written under the pseudonym of Homeless" (11). The pitch dark nighttime no longer creates the background here, although devil shows up at sunset; instead, the environment is dominated by way of a dusty yellow-this color pops up time and again during the novel, for example when the Professional matches Margarita for the first time and she is transporting a bouquet of yellow flowers. The two lovers' assembly is analogised with the one between Berlioz and Homeless at the beginning of the storyline, when the hot weather and the completely deserted street create an eerie, unnatural atmosphere. Even the warm apricot juice the two men drink produces yellowish foam. It is in this framework that Berlioz first notices "a clear citizen of the strangest appearance. . . A resident seven feet extra tall, but narrow in the shoulders, unbelievably skinny, and, kindly take note of, with a jeering physiognomy" (Bulgakov 12). Although this is not the devil himself, but only an associate of his suite, Berlioz seems terrified, questioning his health insurance and sanity. It is only later that Woland springs up from nowhere:

First of all, the man defined didn't limp on any leg, and was neither brief nor enormous, but simply tall. As for his teeth, he had platinum crowns on the left side and gold on the right. (. . . ) under his arm he taken a stick to a dark knob shaped such as a poodle's brain. He looked to be a little over forty. Clean-shaven. Darkhaired. Right eye black, kept - for some reason - green. Dark eyebrows, but one higher than the other. In short, a foreigner. (Bulgakov 13)

The description of his garments and posture discloses a true aristocrat with an air of eccentricity, unlike Mephostophilis who is a mere "servant to great Lucifer" (Marlowe 58).

While Berlioz and Ivan discuss the poet's recent creation meant to deny Christ's lifetime, Woland barges in and requires the two aback when he affirms that Christ is really as real as the devil since he himself observed the Saviour's execution. Woland is immediately labelled an crazy foreigner by both until he presents himself: "the poet were able to make out the word 'Teacher' printed in international type on the greeting card, and the original notice of the last name - a dual 'V' - 'W'" (Bulgakov 18). Given his position of teacher (disregarding the field-black magic) and his elitist attitude, Woland embodies the precise cultural type dismissed by the Soviet routine. Nevertheless, the activities carried out during his three-day stay static in Moscow satirically depict the greedy and corrupt Stalinist modern culture. After all, Woland is most beneficial explained by the novel's motto, taken from Goethe's Faust: "'. . . who are you, then?' / 'I am part of this power which eternally wills wicked and eternally works good'" (Bulgakov 11). He embodies a required evil, much like Mephostophilis in Marlowe's play, whose mission-in the soul of didacticism-is to teach a moral lesson by punishing Faustus. The same as Woland, Mephostophilis confirms God and his kingdom's lifestyle, when Faustus asks him: "FAU. And what are you that live with Lucifer? / MEPH. Unsatisfied spirits that fell with Lucifer, / Conspir'd against our God with Lucifer, / And are for ever damn'd with Lucifer" (Marlowe 59). Additionally, Mephostophilis correlates hell with the human being brain, in the sense that hell becomes an expansion of your brain and that it also equals the second option in its negative electricity (Mitchell 61): "FAU. How comes after that it that thou skill out of hell? / MEPH. Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it" (Marlowe 59). Mephostophilis reiterates this aspect when he exposes the fact that "Hell hath no limitations, nor is circumscrib'd / In one personal place, but where we could is hell" (65).

Both Woland and Mephostophilis have a collection of their own designed to help them and reinforce the purpose of their appointments. Bulgakov's devil's entourage accompanies Woland all over the place; it includes a pet cat, two men, and a female whose sole concern is to follow their master. Behemoth is "a tom-cat, who appeared out of nowhere, huge as a hog, black as soot or as a rook, and with a desperate cavalryman's whiskers" (Bulgakov 43) that can walk on its hind lower limbs and conversation but additionally it is in a position to take the proper execution of humans for some time sometimes. Furthermore, this kitten has a teeth for vodka and it relishes playing chess. Next, Koroviev or Fagott is a ex - choirmaster. He is the main one whom Berlioz spots floating at the start of the book. Koroviev has the ability to create numerous illusions; unlike the others, he will not use assault at any point. Then, Azazello is "a brief but extraordinarily broad-shouldered man, with a bowler hat on his brain and a fang sticking out of his mouth area. And with flaming red mane besides" (68). This redheaded, one-fanged messenger is a fallen angel who, according to the Old Testament, educates women how to build jewels and the way to paint their faces (Reserve of Enoch 8:1-3). Finally, Hella, the "girl who was simply wearing only a coquettish little lacy apron and a white fichu on her behalf head. The girl was distinguished by an irreproachable shape, and the only thing that might have been considered a defect in her appearance was the purple scar on her neck" (157), is the vampire maid. She actually is regarded as a succubus, the domineering female icon of medieval folk tales. Most of them treat Woland with the appellative Messire-a draw of his superior rank-and each of them have specific responsibilities to carry out as my pursuing research reveals.

In Marlowe's play, Mephostophilis disposes of several episodic, petty bad spirits that obey his purchases. Subsequently, there are a number of scenes which depict the conjuration of devils that bring Faustus charms (when his blood coagulates at the start), that dress up in women (to make Faustus' wish of having a wife become a reality), that punish other personas (Benvolio, Frederick, and Martino), that provide on Faustus and his scholars, and finally those that eliminate Faustus' soul in the long run. The only wicked spirits noteworthy of naming are Beelzebub and Lucifer-Satan himself. They come in key moments of the play in order to reassure the protagonist's compliance to the dark kingdom. Besides them, the Seven Deadly Sins are evenly significant in the sense that they provide Faustus a deceiving offer of joy and, moreover, they symbolize the doctor's own personality imperfections: "BEEL. Faustus, our company is result from hell in person showing thee / some pastime. Sit down, and thou shalt behold the Seven / Fatal Sins may actually thee" (Marlowe 70).

Whether exclusively or followed, both Woland and Mephostophilis end up being cunning enough to determine the protagonists to seal a pact with them whereby the latter feel blindly empowered and hint off their souls.

The Gnostic Devil Tricked Them into Signing

The infamous pact with the devil takes place at different moments in the two literary works. In The Tragical Background of Doctor Faustus for instance, the offer occupies most of the play and it constitutes the catalyst for the other occasions. In The Expert and Margarita, on the other hand, the agreement is set after much later, towards the finish of the book. This time around, the agreement signifies only a tiny part of the book's larger opportunity and it changes the traditional terms of the Faustian discount.

Christopher Marlowe's tragedy requires two connected poles on which lay down the accord: the enticed and the tempter. The latter, Mephostophilis, is portrayed as Faustus' equal and counterpart; he mirrors-at the beginning of the play-the scholar's contempt towards drugs, philosophy, legislations, and his spiritual dissidence:

Be your physician, Faustus, heap up rare metal, / And be eterniz'd for a few wondrous treatment. / Summum bonum medicinae sanitas, / The finish of physic is our body's health. / Why, Faustus, hast thou not attain'd that end? (. . . )

Such is the subject of the Institute / And widespread body of regulations. / This analysis matches a mercenary drudge / Who is aimed at nothing but external trash, / Too servile and illiberal for me personally. (. . . )

If we say that people haven't any sin, we deceive ourselves, and there's no real truth in us. / Why, then, belike we should sin, therefore consequently expire. / Ay, we should pass away an everlasting death. / What doctrine call you this? Che sar , sar : / What will be, will be! Divinity, adieu! (Marlowe 51-2)

Faustus' monologue in the incipit of the play causes the invocation of the devil and the next pact because he deems relevant only necromancy and powerful.

After Mephostophilis materialises, the nice and the Bad Angel are released in the play, the past trying to persuade Faustus to repent and ask for God's mercy-"GOOD ANG. Great Faustus, leave that execrable fine art" (Marlowe 62), whereas the last mentioned seeking to encourage the protagonist to go on with his pact-"BAD ANG. Move forward, Faustus, in that famous skill" (62). From this moment on, both angels appear many times and on every occasion, Faustus seems persuaded with what the Bad Angel explains to him; in reality, the two angels symbolize the scholar's inner hesitation and his regular pendulum between Heaven and Hell.

Blinded by images of riches and electricity, Faustus agrees to seal the accord with Mephostophilis. The materials richness and the political power towards which Faustus so fervently aspires have been interpreted as an emblem of colonial authority that mirror the ethnic weather of Marlowe's time: "His ambitions (. . . ) echo precisely the modern day colonial preoccupations of the Western power, and Faustus' special dreams are of the spirit of superior technology, in ships, armaments, " (Mitchell 68). Greediness and visions of electric power make an impression on his initial search for knowledge: "Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please, / Resolve me of most ambiguities, / Perform what anxious enterprise I will?" (Marlowe 53). He even dreams of conquering Africa, taking slaves and rummaging through the Orient for goods and opulence: "fly to India for silver, / Ransack the sea for orient pearl / And search all corners of the new found world / For nice fruits and princely delicates" (Marlowe 53). In order to achieve these, he is resolute to hint the pact with the devil. Performed just like a ritual, the written bond

On these conditions pursuing:

First, that Faustus may be considered a spirit inform and material;

Secondly, that Mephostophilis will be his servant and at his command;

Thirdly, that Mephostophilis shall do for him and bring him whatsoever;

Fourthly, that he shall be in his chamber or house invisible;

Lastly, that he shall may actually the said John Faustus at all times in what form or form soever he please;

I, John Faustus of Wittenberg, doctor, by these presents do give both body and soul to Lucifer, prince of the east, and his minister Mephostophilis, and furthermore grant unto them that, four-and-twenty years being expired, the articles above written inviolate, full capacity to fetch or take the said John Faustus, body and heart and soul, flesh, bloodstream, or goods, into their habitation wheresoever.

By me John Faustus. (Marlowe 64)

is designed as a mind-boggling remarkable world where an ill-omened "Homo Fuge!" (64) warns Faustus not to continue. Not surprisingly caveat meaning, Faustus' hesitations are done away with by smaller devils providing him jewelry and his blood starts running again once Mephostophilis fetches a "chafer of open fire" (64).

The reality the pact between Faustus and Mephostophilis is structured as a written connection is of greatest significance. On putting your signature on and closing the pact in blood-"the token of its physical simple fact" (Mitchell 72), the scroll becomes a modern, legal paper that binds its parts to respect its terms. This agreement represents the propitious basic for the next events and it marks the onset of capital build up, as uncovered by the precepts of Marxism: "In the beginning was the Deed" (quoted by Hedges 95). Additionally, the pact mentions a time limit of twenty-four years. This time span refers to adulthood also to the protagonist's potential to discern between good and evil-hence, Faustus' supposing responsibility for his own decisions; but it similarly "symbolizes the a day of your day, and thus amount of time in general, subordinate to the laws and regulations of entropy, " (Mitchell 72).

There are a number of key shows that recognise the periods of the pact; of the, the comic relief displays will be handled in the next chapter. Besides them, on other situations, Faustus is advised to travel extensively throughout European countries and farther but also in Heaven to learn the secrets of astronomy; he evenly punishes those who cross him and invokes the spirit of Alexander the Great in a make-believe struggle with the Persian ruler Darius, thus impersonating a demiurge for the German emperor Charles V. Crucial for the development of the play stay the parade of the Seven Deadly Sins and the conjuration of Helen of Troy. Various reviewers, among whom Lorraine Kochanske Stock in Medieval Gala in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus (372-85), have underlined the correlation between the Sins and Faustus' defects, especially greed and pleasure. The pageant of the Sins is as a result of Beelzebub and Lucifer who intimidate Faustus when the second option thinks of repenting and of requesting Christ's forgiveness: "LUC. Discussion not of paradise or creation, but indicate the show" (Marlowe 70). Despite being personified and imbued with voice, the Seven Sins (Pride, Covetousness, Envy, Wrath, Gluttony, Sloth, and Lechery) are but mere "zoo or circus animals" (Mitchell 74), somewhat undisruptive, "'caged' by the traditional buildings and hierarchies of Religious society and religious beliefs" (74). Relating to L. L. Adam' article in the Litteraria Pragensia (1995):

What is properly discovered in Faustus, however, is the fact that the topic is duped by his own desire (as the desire of the Other); by the chimerical things of dream, those objects creating Faustus' desire and at the same time - which is the vital paradox - posed retrospectively by his desire. (30, author's emphasis)

James clearly shows that the Sins represent the epitome of Faustus' intuition or unconscious drives. Therefore, in the light of Freud's theory and his notion of identification, one can easily vacation resort to a psychoanalyst reading of the pact with the devil. As for Helen of Troy or Helen of Greece, the same may be applied; she is summoned to seem towards the end of the play, when one of the scholars accompanying Faustus asks to "observe that / peerless dame of Greece, whom all the earth admires for majesty, " (Marlowe 103). She is thought to embody the anima or the female side of the psyche and she means "the Gnostic Helen of Simon Magus, the 'first thought of God', the Ennoia, principle of wisdom" (Mitchell 72), whose image is incurred with poetic solemnity: "FAU. Was this the facial skin that launch'd a thousand boats / And burnt the topless towers of Ilium? / Special Helen, make me immortal with a kiss. / Her lips suck forth my spirit: see where it flies!" (Marlowe 106). Helen's introduction presents the tragic climax of the play, resulting in Faustus' denouement and directing out that even a malevolent character longs for love and understanding.

Mikhail Bulgakov's novel presents not a written, but a verbal deal between your tempter, this time around one of Woland's followers-Azazello-and the enticed, Margarita Nikolaevna, the uninterested housewife who painfully recounts of 1 year of parting from her much loved Get good at. Unlike the isolated environment in Marlowe's play (Faustus' review), here the agreement is decided upon in a park, a general public space where onlookers inadvertently witness it: "Margarita appreciated her last night's dream, appreciated how, exactly this past year to your day and the hour, she possessed sat next to him upon this same bench" (Bulgakov 171). As much a servant to Woland as Mephostophilis is to Lucifer, Azazello pops up of nowhere and interrupts Margarita's thoughts while she ponders in the identity of an deceased person whose procession is moving by. Initially considering the redheaded stranger a crook, Margarita seems baffled when Azazello recites a passing from the Master's novel. After that, she is gained over and blindly agrees to take up Azazello's invitation, on condition she regains her fan:

'I implore you, inform me only 1 thing. . . is he alive?. . . Don't torment me!' 'Well, he's alive, he's alive, ' Azazello responded reluctantly. () 'Forgive me, forgive me, ' the now obedient Margarita murmured, 'of course, I got angry with you. ' () 'It's half an hour now that I've been wangling you into it. . . So you'll go?' 'I will, ' Margarita Nikolaevna responded simply. (Bulgakov 173-74)

This time the accord is stuffed in fewer words than that of Marlowe's play. There is no prolonged expectation, no warning sign such as Faustus' homo fuge, not the dichotomy Good Angel-Bad Angel that is meant to reflect the protagonist's inner doubt. At this juncture, the extended question-answer session that people witness in The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus about the origin of the world and the restrictions of knowledge does not exist ever again. Instead, the questions and answers focus on certain individuals' destinies, thus no longer exposing the myth in its fundamental form but rather conforming to a routine of "myths by analogy" or "relative myths" (Jolles 48).

In The Professional and Margarita, the pact is not anchored out of boredom or dissatisfaction but actually grief or despair and the pursuit of knowledge (the primacy of intellect) is substituted by the main one of love (the primacy of have an effect on). Margarita's first companion-Azazello-is not invoked like Mephostophilis, nor is he the equivalent of the heroine like Mephosto is Faustus'. On the other hand, the two heroes in Bulgakov's e book reveal an androgynous romance, of the sort distributed by the coexistence of male and female features, regardless the actual fact that Azazello's clumsiness regarding women is honestly expressed: "'Difficult folk, these women!' 'Why, for instance, was I sent upon this business? Behemoth should have ended up, he's a charmer. . . '" (174).

In terms of colonialism, the narrative does not hint at so many areas of electric power and governance as does indeed in Marlowe's play, although there are certain key depictions that suggest a colonial interpretation of the pact. For example, the audience may notice continuing images of Black subservient lifeless men providing to the needs of the guests during Satan's Ball: "some naked negroes with magic bands on their heads who have been standing by the columns. Their faces turned a dirty brown from pleasure when Margarita flew into the ballroom with her retinue, " (Bulgakov 200-01) or "Next to them negroes in scarlet headbands dashed about, filling flat mugs from the pools with silver dippers" (201). A similar romance between dominator and dominated is alluded to when the narrator reveals Margarita as Queen Margot; everyone bows before her during the Grand Ball and stands in awe when she strolls by. Margot speedily assumes the role she has been attributed, ornamented by various servant-like minor devils. At some point, Woland even drops Margarita "A hint: one of the French queens who lived in the sixteenth century would be very impressed easily would be leading her lovely great-great-great-granddaughter on my arm through the ballrooms of Moscow" (193). Therefore, Margarita's image is associated to the European Renaissance when colonial power seek to expand their territories.

Moreover, the agreement between Margarita and Woland is developed by moving through key shows, just as in the tragedy written by Marlowe. Amongst them, Satan's Ball is relevant because of its net of intertextual representations but especially for providing the audience with at least three major secrets of interpretation: a psychoanalytical one, a marvelous realist one, and a Stalinist one derived from Marxism. Often determined with the Walpurgis Night in popular culture, the sumptuous festivity hosted by Woland and Margot alludes to famous musicians (Johann Strauss), historical characters (the Roman emperor Caligula) as well as countless other dukes, earls and barons, all of whom are restricted to Hell because each of them has a major flaw, an basic drive that helps to keep surfacing which rules their personality: greed, selfishness, lie, homicide, or betrayal. Thus, every person is reduced to one unconscious instinct that governs their afterlife: "A confirmed counterfeiter, a traitor to his authorities" (203) or "this one was a queen's enthusiast and poisoned his better half" (203) or "she gave labor and birth to a young man, had taken him to the forest, stuffed the handkerchief into his mouth area, and then buried the young man in the ground" (204). Besides this, people are even reduced to pets or animals in order to demonstrate the same aspect associated with their unconscious drives' of course, the most obvious literary analogy here's to George Orwell's Animal Farm. For example, Margarita's neighbour, Nikolai Ivanovich, is became a hog-like traveling servant that Natasha-Margarita's maid-rides through Moscow.

When it involves enchanting realism, the explanation abounds in supernatural elements such as coffins popping out of the fireplace-"A half-rotten little coffin ran from the fire place, its lid fell off, and another

remains tumbled from it" (202), blood-flooded baths, alcohol fountains springing from the wall membrane-"Between these walls fountains spurted up, hissing, and bubbly champagne seethed in three pools" (201), exotic forests ethereally materialised, and garments transformed in the blink of an eyeball. Most of these moments are being used metaphorically as they satirize the Stalinist Moscow that constitutes the historical framework in which the book is written. One of many allegories of this type is referred to when Berlioz's severed head is changed into a goblet by Woland; and since Berlioz is the chairman of the Massolit, the devil's gesture carries the weight of your punishment directed against those who have the power to determine literary censorship during the Stalinist time. In an identical episode that tips at the sophisticated website link between Bulgakov himself and a possible identification with his hero, Margarita retaliates against Latunsky, the critic who causes the barring of the Master's manuscript through his judgmental article: "The devastation she wrought afforded her a using pleasure, yet it seemed to her all the while that the results came out somehow meagre" (Bulgakov 182). Also, other easily recognizable traces of Marxism are evinced in the relationship between the ruling school and the working course, for illustration the rapport between Margarita and Natasha Nikolaevna, as well as in the latter's try to outclass her interpersonal status.

Whether limited by a particular apartment in Moscow and an individual nighttime or deployed in another country over many years, the pact with the devil changes the span of the occasions and grants or loans its signers sudden endings.


The beginning of the end announces the unavoidable fatality of the protagonists in both Get good at and Margarita and in The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. There are certain aspects that foreshadow not only death but also the living of afterlife.

In Bulgakov's novel, the image of the black-goggled "angel of the bottomless pit" (Revelation 9:11)-Abaddon-hints at mortality. Besides this, much prior, at the beginning of the narrative, Woland talks about Kant's theory composed of five proofs designed to display that God will not exist; however, he also mentions that the philosopher himself devises a sixth moral facts that dismantles his earlier hypothesis: "(. . . ) old Immanuel's thought (. . . ) he roundly demolished all five proofs, and then, as if mocking himself, produced a 6th of his own" (Bulgakov 15). Even Woland comes up with a seventh so-called "experiential" (Amert 3) evidence matching to which afterlife prevails: it identifies Berlioz's suspension system in the afterlife when his take off head is became a chalice and employed by Woland to drink to being. In this way, death is shown to be a non-ending process: "Allow it become a reality! You get into non-being, and from the glass into which you are to be transformed, I'll joyfully drink to being" (Bulgakov 209). Another illustration of the pattern life-death-afterlife occurs when the Professional and Margarita-having already been resurrected-doubt their very lifetime: "'Ah, I am aware. . . ' the professional said, glancing around, 'you've wiped out us, we're useless. ' () 'you can think, just how can you be useless?'" (Bulgakov 282). Susan Amert within the Dialectics of Closure in Bulgakov's Get better at and Margarita considers that episode can be an allusion to the famous Cartesian maxim cogito, ergo total (4).

Similarly, Marlowe's tragedy includes at least two visible signs or symptoms which prefigure Faustus' transient future and his eventual death. The first one shows up when the necromancer is about to sign the written bond; what "Consummatum est" (Marlowe 64) undeniably refer to Christ's previous words on the cross, meaning that everything is completed but also carrying an ironic build (White 81). The second one emerges through the encounter with Helen when Faustus utters: "Her lip area suck forth my heart and soul: see where it flies!" (Marlowe 106); certain critics have considered this line a guised invitation addressed to the devil who awaits Faustus' soul (Besnault 22).

The authors of both literary works feature a great relevance to literature and written documents. Thus, Bulgakov's narrative exposes that one of Margarita's granted desires (besides requesting Frieda's forgiveness and being reunited with the Master) is the retrieval of her lover's manuscript which is miraculously salvaged since, regarding to Woland, "manuscripts don't burn up" (Bulgakov 219). This quotation definitely points to the immortality of knowledge, research, and learning generally speaking and that of Bulgakov's work in particular. Paradoxically, too much knowledge of a certain aspect is similarly dismissed only a few paragraphs later in the novel when Koroviev burns up the Master's medical documents from the medical clinic: "Koroviev flung the medical documents into the fireplace. 'No papers, no individual, ' Koroviev said with satisfaction" (220). In a similar attempt of individuality erasure, Faustus desires to lose his cursed necromancy catalogs that have brought about his damnation: "would I experienced never seen Wittenberg, never read booklet!" (Marlowe 108) or "I'll burn up my books!" (112). Consequently, the scholar ascribes his downfall to learning. As Marlowe's protagonist increases knowledge, he becomes the perfect archetype of the Renaissance humanist perfectible individual who succeeds in manipulating the truth "by way of a mastery of causality" (Mitchell 77). Nonetheless, this ability proves misleading, destined by the twenty-four many years of the pact and Faustus eventually longs to become "significantly less than a man" (Leap 36), "some brutish beast" (Marlowe 111) condemned only to extinction and not to eternal damnation. Hence, regarding to Martin Versfeld's article Some Remarks on Marlowe's Faustus, the scholar deals being for non-being when he discards the "principle of personality, A is really a, God is God, being is being and not non-being, this pencil is this pencil, Helen is Helen, and a lifeless Helen is not really a live Helen" (quoted by Mitchell 75).

There is not a degradation of the individuals condition apparent in The Get good at and Margarita. The fate of the restored few is set a priori when Matthew Levi, the previous tax collector and now Christ's messenger, gets there to inform Woland that "'He has browse the master's work, ' said Matthew Levi, 'and asks someone to take the get better at to you and reward him with peace'" (Bulgakov 274). You can find no other emissaries besides him; Azazello is delivered to poison both lovers and he's also the main one who resurrects them without the prior notice. Unlike Bulgakov's, Marlowe's protagonist is went to by both iconic angels right before his last monologue. This time around, the Bad Angel talks more than the Good One; he addresses Faustus previous, shaping only a little part of what hell appears like and foretelling the dreadful stopping of the play: "Hell is learned. / BAD ANG. Now, Faustus, let thine sight with horror stare / Into that great perpetual torture-house" (Marlowe 110). In addition to their emergence, the play introduces an Old Man, presumably a last heavenly envoy that attempts to convince Faustus to repent. Embodying the scholar's long-lost innocence, the Old Man softens Faustus' heart and soul and he in the beginning seems eager to pray for God's mercy: "OLD MAN. O mild Faustus, leave this damned art" (104); instead, Faustus ends up in total despair and even requests Mephostophilis to punish the Old Man, thus obliterating any potential for salvation: "FAU. Accursed Faustus, where is mercy now? 70 I really do repent, yet I really do despair;" (105) and "FAU. Torment, special friend, that basic and older man" (105). Fearing the devil's risk "Revolt, or I'll in piecemeal rip thy flesh" (105), Faustus renews his relationship. This fact obviously shows that the initial pact did not make repentance impossible; nevertheless, suspense is taken care of throughout the play, as the sinner's heart and soul may somehow be saved in the long run, in line with the design of morality plays.

The most dazzling moment within the Tragical History of Doctor Faustus remains the protagonist's final monologue, a steady accumulation of stress that culminates into a "final paroxysm of dread" (Hirschfeld 19): "Enter Devils. / My God, my God! Look not so fierce on me! / Adders and serpents, let me breathe awhile! / Ugly hell, gape not! Come not, Lucifer; / I'll lose my catalogs!-Ah, Mephostophilis!" (Marlowe 111-12). This "crescendo of dread and remarkable expectation" (Healy 177) is replete with fragmentary utterances of the sort "Ah, Pythagoras' metempsychosis" or "curse thyself, curse Lucifer" (Marlowe 111) that are designed to build momentum. The veritable crisis of conscience that the scholar undergoes during his final soliloquy is proclaimed by the "frenzied speech of multiple addresses" (Hirschfeld 19) that is illustrated by means of hyper-metricality: "The actors move still; time runs; the clock will punch; / The devil should come, and Faustus must be damned. / See, see where Christ's bloodstream channels in the rmament! / One drop would save my heart and soul, half of a drop. (Marlowe 110). Faustus is both mixed up and horrified and his mental involvement climaxes when he additionally pleads for mercy from Christ, Lucifer, and God, not recognizing any more who the most sufficient judge is. Certain exegetes like David Zucker go one step further in their examination and identify one instance of dramatic irony placed by Marlowe through this larger tragic construction: "For, as he makes an attempt to reach up to heaven in supplication, he also reaches out to the infernal trinity watching him from above" (quoted by Besnault 38). The Unholy Trinity takes Faustus' soul away to hell when the clock hits midnight. The scholars find his dismembered limbs "O, help us, heaven! see, here are Faustus' limbs, / All torn asunder by the hand of loss of life" (Marlowe 112) and gaze in terror as of this appalling image.

The last atmosphere is completely different in The Grasp and Margarita. Here, the result of the pact with the devil will not equate a gruesome closing; instead, the couple is forgiven and delivered to an Eden-like setting up a lot like "Pushkin's dream of the 'faraway abode of work and 100 % pure pleasure'" (Amert 5): "The get better at walked with his friend in the brilliance of the first rays of morning over a mossy little stone bridge. They crossed it. The faithful addicts remaining the stream behind and strolled down the sandy path" (Bulgakov 291). The narrative denouement puts frontward not only the Get good at and Margarita's perpetual love story but also another closing that I will focus on in my following chapter, specifically the closure of the story revolving around Pontius Pilate who's also awarded forgiveness and is reunited with Yeshua Ha-Nozri.

Both literary works are closed off with an epilogue meant to edify the audience and to meet his expectation. On the main one side, in Marlowe's tragedy, Faustus becomes an exemplum of wrongful behaviour an impartial chorus seriously warns against: "Faustus is gone: respect his hellish street to redemption, / Whose fiendful fortune may exhort the wise / And then ponder at unlawful things, " (Marlowe 113). With the precise goal of reinforcing a conventional and appropriate carry out, Marlowe uses the routine of your morality play and didacticism to underline his point; as G. K. Hunter confirms: "if Marlowe 'was an atheist in the modern sense in any way, he was a God-haunted atheist', who implies a passionate identication with the experience of concern with damnation, repentance, and worship" (quoted by White 86). Alternatively, the long epilogue of Bulgakov's book presents a sudden explanation of all astonishing occurrences that occurred in Moscow over the last three days-although such explanation seems rarely believable-and present another and last stopping of a tale to the audience; this time around, it is Ivan Homeless, now Professor Ponyrev, that the narrator comes after intimately to be able to disclose a series of three dreams that torment his sleeping annually through the Paschal full moon: the first one respect Gesta's assassination, the second one pictures Yeshua and Pilate debating the first wish, whereas the last one signifies Ivan's meeting with the Expert and Margarita. This previous dream is the most important one insofar as it constitutes a universal finish and it bears an aphoristic expression that seals off the novel entirely: "'It finished get back, my disciple, ' answers the person, and then your woman arises to Ivan and says: 'Of course, recover. Everything is finished, and everything ends. . . '" (Bulgakov 301).

Overall, The Tragical Background of Doctor Faustus as well as the Master and Margarita add new dimensions to the fundamental stages of the Faustian myth-invocation, pact, resolution-and they verify the legitimacy of this myth, showing which it remains convincing whether it respects the traditional routine or it changes the terms of the formula.

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