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The Construction Material Concrete Building Essay

The process of curing concrete, handling it in various climatic conditions and the various diseases that can occur in concrete set ups are the tips of this paper.

The word concrete comes from a latin term "concretus"this means small or condensed. Cement is a thick composite artificial natural stone 'like materials which is made by mixing cement (generally Portland concrete) and various other aggregates, such as fine sand, pebbles, gravel, shale, etc. , with normal water and allowing the concoction to harden by hydration. Since the ancient times it had been used in constructing structures and today also it can be used more than any other man 'made building material in the world.


Depending upon the reqirement of the structure, the proportions of the primary ingredients mentioned below are assorted to avail different kinds of concrete. By doing so the completed product can be customized to its program with varying power, density, or substance and thermal resistance properties.


Portland cement is a basic ingredient of cement. It involves an assortment of oxides of calcium, silicon and aluminium. Portland cement and similar materials are created by heating system limestone (a source of calcium mineral) with clay, and grinding the product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum).


When water is added in a cementitious materials, cement paste is made through the procedure of hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate jointly, fills voids within it, and allows it to stream more smoothly. Normal water should be added in the combine very carefully as less normal water in the concrete paste will produce a stronger, more durable concrete; more water will give an free-flowing concrete with an increased slump. Impure water used to make cement can cause problems when setting up or in causing premature failing of the structure.

In the procedure of hydration numerous reactions occur at exactly the same time. As the reactions carry on, the merchandise of the concrete hydration process little by little bond together the average person sand and gravel debris, and other components of the concrete, to form a solid compact mass.


The occurrence of aggregate greatly increases the robustness of concrete above that of cement. Following are the several goods that could be utilized as aggregates:

Sand, natural gravel and crushed stone

Recycled aggregates (from structure, demolition and excavation waste) and made aggregates like air-cooled blast furnace slag and lower part ash

Decorative stones such as quartzite, small river stones or crushed goblet are sometimes combined with the top of cement for a decorative "subjected aggregate" surface finish.


The term treating concrete signifies the procedure of stopping freshly poured cement from blow drying too quickly. Unless the concrete mass is not healed, or if it is overlooked to dry alone, you won't develop the full bond between most of its ingredients. In order to form a drinking water cement paste, normal water is added in Portland concrete after which chemical substance reactions happen in the concoction converts the paste into a bonding agent. This effect is known as hydration and it produces a stone-like small substance'the hardened concrete paste. Both rate and amount of hydration, and the resulting durability of the final concrete, rely upon the curing process that uses positioning and consolidating the cheap concrete. As long as the mixture contains normal water and the temperature conditions are advantageous, the procedure of Hydration continues, though at a decreasing rate. The strength of concrete is dependent on crystal expansion within the concrete matrix through the process of hydration If normal water is not enough, the crystals cannot grow, anticipated to which the concrete struggles to attain the desired strength. The presence of drinking water through proper curing of the concrete helps the crystal expansion that encloses the gravel and sand mix, leading to interweaving with one another.

. The time-span of the process of Curing commences from the time of consolidation and ends at the point where the concrete extends to its design strength. The period may differ from a few days to per month or longer. For some structural use, the curing period for cast-in-place cement is usually 3 days and nights to 14 days. During this time period, the concrete mass should be placed moist and since in close proximity to 73'F as functional. Bridge decks and other slabs exposed to weather and chemical attack usually require longer curing periods. The time course of the healing period also is determined by the factors such as

' kind of cement used

' combine proportions

' required strength

' size and shape of the cement mass

' weather conditions and temperature

' future coverage conditions


A proper and effective curing process helps in improving various properties of concrete such as

' freeze and thaw resistance

' strength

' watertightness

' wear resistance

' volume steadiness.

' Serviceability and apperance

The compressive durability of concrete that has been properly cured is 75 to 95 % more than the cement that has not been cured. Physique 1 illustrates this by assessing the compressive durability of concrete(at 180 days) that the surface has been either stored moist for the entire duration of 180 days and nights or is maintained damp for various intervals and allowed to dry out or is allowed to dry out from enough time it was initially made. It is quite clearly depicted that the compressive durability of the cement is highest when it's fully treated for the entire amount of 180 days.

Fig 1:Damp curing influence on compressive power of concrete source:www. tpub. com

The permeability and absorptivity of concrete mix depends upon the porosity of the blend ie if the pores and capillaries are discrete or interconnected. The porosity of the combination is reduced overtime through proper and effective healing of concrete thus increasing the toughness of concrete. Also, proper curing of concrete mix will reduce crazing, dusting and scaling of the slab thereby ensuring better serviceability and appearance.


After the concrete mix have been put, it is imperative to keep it moist and maintain given concrete temperatures. The procedure of curing starts immediately after the keeping concrete and it goes through two stages :

Initial curing stage: time of placement to initial set in place.

This stage would include all the deliberate action used between position and last finishing of concrete. Approximate conditions through the initial curing period should be forecast prior to building. Under this stage, the rate of strength gain of the concrete is little.

The various aspects to be handled construction 'initial curing period as shown in diagram here are :

verifying evaporation conditions: concrete temperatures, wind velocity, air temperature, and relative dampness must be taken into consideration during location. These elements are used to make nomograph to assess the evaporation rate and to determine whether critical drying rates exist. Making use of the concrete placing heat, enough time of initial environment can be approximated. The time of initial environment is the optimal time for request of final curing.

Major items requiring attention during construction-initial curing period. Source : www. fhwa. dot. govt

Onsite changes for Excessive drying: To be able to reduce evaporation rates of bleed drinking water the next two alterations could be made-

reducing concrete positioning temperatures- Chilling aggregate stockpiles, cooling mixing water, or using snow for mixing water are very effective means of reducing concrete temperature.

use of evaporation reducers. Evaporation reducers are water emulsions of film-forming chemical substances. The film-forming ingredient is the active ingredient that decreases evaporation of water. Gleam take advantage of the water portion of the evaporation reducers, in that it compensates to a tiny degree for losses of mixing water to evaporation. Evaporation reducers may need to be applied many times, with respect to the conditions.

Concrete that are prone to quick drying is required to be covered with moist gunny bag or damp hessian towel properly squeezed, so that the water does not drip and at the same time, does not allow the concrete to dried.

This condition should be retained for 24 hours or at least till the final environment time of cement of which duration the cement will have assumed the ultimate volume.

The Final healing stage: The final curing period is thought as the time interval between application of curing strategies and the end of deliberate healing. Final treating methods get caught in four categories:

Water curing : Water healing can be carried out in various ways like immersion, ponding, spraying or fogging and moist covering. This is by far the best method of treating as it satisfies all certain requirements of curing, namely, promotion of hydration, reduction of shrinkage and absorption of heat of hydration.

Curing a house slab by flooding. Source: http://www. builderbill-diy-help. com/curing-concrete. html

The precast concrete items are usually immersed in curing tanks for a certain period. Pavement slabs, rooftop slab etc. are protected under water by causing small ponds. Vertical keeping wall membrane or plastered floors or concrete columns etc. are cured by spraying water. In some instances, wet coverings such as wet gunny hand bags, hessian material, jute matting, straw etc. , are wrapped to vertical surface for keeping the concrete wet. For horizontal floors saw dust, globe or sand are used as damp covering to keep the concrete in moist condition for a bit longer so that the concrete is not unduly dried to prevent hydration. The diagram below summarises the major criteria for using water-added curing methods.

Major top features of curing with added water.

Membrane healing : this curing method is mainly used when there exists less option of water in the region where curing is performed. Under this method, cement could be protected with membrane which will effectively seal off of the evaporation of normal water from concrete. A continuous seal above the concrete surface is looked after by means of a firm impervious film to avoid moisture in cement from escaping by evaporation. A number of the materials, which is often used for this function, are bituminous compounds, polyethylene

PLASTIC SHEETING source:www. builderbill-diy-help. com

or polyester film, waterproof newspaper, rubber substances etc. When waterproofing paper or polyethylene film are used as membrane, treatment must be taken to see that these aren't punctured everywhere and also see whether sufficient lapping is given at the junction and this lap is effectively covered.

Application of heat : When concrete is subjected to higher heat range it accelerates the hydration process resulting in faster development of strength. Concrete can't be subjected to dried out heat to speed up the hydration process as the existence of wetness is also an important essential. Therefore, subjecting the cement to higher temps and maintaining the mandatory wetness may be accomplished by subjecting the cement to steam curing.

The publicity of concrete to raised temperature can be done by Steam healing at common pressure, Steam curing at high pressure, Curing by Infra-red radiation, Electrical healing.

Traditional steam healing of concrete pipes (www. construction-int. com)

Miscellaneous : Calcium chloride can be used either as a surface layer or as an admixture. It has been used satisfactorily as a curing medium. Both these methods derive from the fact that calcium chloride being truly a sodium shows affinity for moisture content. The sodium not only absorbs dampness from atmosphere but also keeps it at the top. This moisture presented at the top inhibits the mixing water from evaporation and in so doing helps to keep the concrete damp for a long time to promote hydration. Formwork prevents escaping of water from the cement, particularly, in the case of beams and columns.

Keeping the form work intact and closing the joint with wax or any other sealing compound inhibits the evaporation of moisture content from the concrete. This process of promoting hydration can be viewed as as one of the miscellaneous ways of curing.

At the finish of the curing process most cement gets hydrated. There is sluggish rate of compressive durability gain of around 50-100 psi/hours and little exothermic heating generation.

In the complete process of healing if one of the healing procedures is used initially, it might be replaced by one of the other strategies after the concrete is one day old, provided that

the concrete surface is not permitted to be dry anytime.

After the termination of the healing process the adequacy of your healing program could be confirmed. Although durability is the principal variable around which treating specifications are centered several other methods can even be used like

Surface Normal water Absorption: the amount of drinking water a dry concrete specimen absorbs in the first minute or so after contact with liquid water is immediately related to the quality of the healing of the near-surface zone of the concrete. This technique has immediate applicability to verifying curing. The technique is reasonably put on cores, that can be dried to a regular low dampness content before tests.

Rebound Hammer: The rebound hammer method fundamentally steps the modulus of elasticity of the nearsurface concrete. This may actually recommend the method for use in analyzing the healing of concrete pavements, where near-surface effects are considered most important. The test method is suited to in-place measurements. Lab work shows that rebound numbers of uncured concrete subjected to modestly severe drying are reduced by about 50 percent at seven days in accordance with well-cured concrete.

Strength of Cores: The effectiveness of concrete is highly affected by inadequate curing, and, theoretically, could be discovered by measuring power of cores. the effects of poor curing are only firmly apparent in the properties of the top 50 mm of concrete, or even less.

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity: The ultrasonic pulse speed (UPV) method is an indirect way of measuring the modulus of elasticity of cement. The modulus of elasticity of concrete tends to increase with increasing hydration (or quality of healing) of the cement paste portion of the cement. UPV assessment can be create in several configurations, each of which tends to give attention to slightly cool features of the cement. A straightforward pulse velocity used through a bit of concrete, which is the traditional way of using UPV to research concrete properties, offers information on the average quality of the concrete.

Abrasion Resistance: The amount of healing has been proven in various research magazines to be strongly mirrored in the abrasion amount of resistance of the cement-paste portion of cement. This the fact is easily confirmed qualitatively using an electrically powered wire brush and observing the easiness with which the near-surface mortar can be taken off a small location of concrete. Inadequately cured cement is easily abraded away, while well-cured concrete is quite difficult to abrade away with such equipment.


Deterioration of concrete properties is becoming a reason behind concern now a days. Often the buildings located along wide open water, lakes, rivers and oceans are really vulnerable to strike from the tough environment i. e. sodium, moisture, humidity, carbon dioxide, etc. cracks, spalls and rust stains are some of the visual symptoms of the deterioration of concrete.


Crack is the most typical diseases of concrete buildings and it occurs because of this of materials discontinuity. Thermal and shrinkage cracks can be associated with high cement content and high power concrete. Usually cracks occur in the concrete buildings credited to various reasons such as excessive drinking water in the blend, rapid drying of the concrete, improper power concrete poured on the job, lack of control bones, if Cement is poured on frozen floor, alkali-silica reactionetc.

In order to prevent cracks in concrete buildings, following preventive actions could be studied:

' Estimate in advance the quantity of normal water to be blended to get the mandatory concrete combine. Adding too much drinking water in the combine is one of the main causes of cracked concrete

' Do not pour concrete on the iced floor. A compacted subgrade could be utilized to pour cement upon to prevent cracking

' Chop control joints into the concrete so that the slab will be able to shrink and extend with heat range changes. Control bones should be cut the same depth of the slab and spaced a maximum of three times the thickness of the cement.

' The slab must retain enough moisture so the drying and shrinking happens as gradually as possible in the times and weeks after pouring. Treating helps the concrete to retain dampness in the cement so that it can continue steadily to gain strength to resist breaking.


Source:www. homebuildinginformation. com


When the cement is critically saturated i. e. around 91% of its skin pores are filled up with drinking water then deterioration of concrete from freeze thaw activities may occur. When drinking water freezes to snow it occupies 9% more amount than that of normal water. In case there is no space in cement for this expanded volume, a kind of distress is induced which will lead to loss of concrete surface.

A surface productive agent should be put into the concrete mix in order to prevent frost in a concrete framework. This creates a large number of tightly spaced, small air bubbles in the solidified cement which would act as expansion chambers to relieve the pressure build-up. It really is to be observed that cement with high drinking water content and high drinking water to cement percentage is less frost repellent than cement with lower drinking water content.


Hydraulic Concrete constructions are damaged by Abrasion-erosion because of the action of particles rolling and milling against surface. The sources of the rubble include construction garbage still left in a framework, riprap brought back into a basin by eddy currents because of poor hydraulic design or asymmetrical discharge, and riprap or other dust tossed into a basin by the public. Mechanical abrasion is usually characterized by long shallow grooves in the concrete surface and spalling along monolith joint parts. standard abrasion and cavitation erosion brings about coarse aggregate open concrete surface, concrete uneven surface, leading to holes.

In order to avoid the structure to have problems with abrasion the cement should include the utmost amount of the hardest coarse aggregate that's available and the cheapest practical w/c. Furthermore, high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWRA) and condensed silica fume have been used to develop high compressive strength cement 97 MPa (14, 000 psi), as of this strength the concrete combine assumes a greater role in resisting abrasion-erosion harm. Also vacuum-treated cement, polymer cement, polymer-impregnated concrete, and polymer portland cement concrete could also be used to raise the abrasion level of resistance. In existing constructions, balanced moves should be retained into basins by using all gates to avoid discharge conditions where eddy action is widespread.

ABRASION source:www. nrc-cnrc. gc. ca


Carbonation is a chemical reaction between atmospheric skin tightening and and hydrated concrete compounds which causes a reduction in the alkalinity of the cement. The permeability and moisture content of the concrete directly affects the pace of carbonation.

"Pop-corn" like calcite crystals present in carbonated paste.

source:www. concrete-experts. com

In the process of carbonation the calcium bearing stages present in the concrete mass are attacked by carbon dioxide of the environment and converted to calcium carbonate. In this technique the alkalinity of the concrete is lowered from a short pH of around 13. 5 to around 8. 5 over some years.

One approach to testing a structure for carbonation is to drill a fresh hole in the surface and then treat the lower surface with phenolphthalein sign solution. This solution will transform [red] when in touch with alkaline concrete, rendering it possible to see the depth of carbonation.

In order to battle the process of carbonation aquron products from Allcrete companies could be utilized which helps in the following ways

' seals out moisture to a depth of 100mm or more

' reduces air permeability by a pore-blocking process

' brings up the alkalinity of the concrete

' purging and binding chlorides in the colloidal silicate hydrogel shaped in the pores and capillaries of the concrete

It is to be noted that when Concrete is cured within 24 hours of casting, it will be protected for life against carbonation problems and older concrete, once cured, will become immune system to help expand deterioration.


Corrosion of metallic reinforcement in concrete set ups established fact to be "Cement Cancer", which happens to be a substantial area of concern in the region of infrastructure and building across the world. Corrosive kinds can get into the concrete blend if the substances of the concrete combination such as drinking water, aggregates, additives are polluted. When such corrosive kinds reacts with the chemical substances under the porous character of concrete, the issue of corrosion occurs.

Corrosion damage to the reinforcing metal results in the build-up of voluminous corrosion products, creating internal stresses and following cracking and spalling of the concrete as shown schematically in the diagram below:

Figure 2source:www. corrosion-club. com

source:www. zoranthepainter. com

Corrosion mechanism Concrete Cancer

The most frightening thing is usually that the corrosion can be happening under the top and can not be noticed until the concrete starts off visibly disintegrating. The results of such corrosion is the fact that cement reduces its strength as well as the steel re-enforcing within the concrete can rust and the pressure this creates can cause the concrete to split and crumble. Properties in coastal areas are especially in danger.

The preventive procedures to avoid such kind of concrete cancer are listed below:

Epoxy covering: The concrete buildings that face deicing salt may benifit from use of epoxy-coated, hot drop galvanised or stainless rebar. Epoxy layered rebar can easily be recognized by the light green color of its epoxy coating.

Applying Sealants: Following the process of treating, penetrating sealants must be applied. Sealants include coloring, plastic foams, videos and aluminium foil, felts or cloth mats sealed with tar, and layers of bentonite clay, sometimes used to seal roadbeds.

corrosion inhibitors: calcium nitrite can be added to this inflatable water combination before pouring concrete. Generally, 1'2 wt. % of calcium nitrate regarding cement weight is required to prevent corrosion of the rebars.

Extreme climate such as high ambient and concrete heat, low relative moisture or only 40' F or less average daily air temp for more than 3 consecutive days, have a tendency to impair the quality of freshly blended or hardened concrete thereby giving detrimental results. Therefore, it becomes vital to handle concrete with extreme caution both in extreme hot and cold weather.


' Over the compressive strength: If the temperature of cement is high concrete hydrates at a much faster rate, it sucks up drinking water and grows crystals round the aggregate particles but don't have time to increase strong. Although, the first strength will be higher but 28-day power suffers. When the concrete is approximately 18' hotter than normal (for example, 88' rather than 70'), the best compressive power of the mixture will be about 10% lower.

' In the colors of integrally shaded cement: under hot weather conditions, slump decreases swiftly as the cement sets up and plus more mixing water is necessary. In integrally shaded concrete, this can lead to variants in drinking water content which can lead to significant differences in concrete color between adjacent pours.

' Surface drying: high cement temperatures and hot dry blowing wind across the concrete can cause more drying and surface shrinkage.

' Thermal differentials: sometimes the warm weather condition makes one area of the concrete mass warmer than another part. If this differential is higher than about 20'F then concrete gets cracks.

' Difficulty in retaining air content can be a problem in warm cement. Mixing is much more likely to operate a vehicle air from the concrete making the particular level difficult to control.

Dealing with warm weather concreting

Plastic shrinkage is a particular problem in warm weather concreting. As a general rule, each 10o F upsurge in ambient temp reduces slump about 1". A swap from ASTM C494 Type A to Type D water reducing and arranged retarding mixture may participate an effective arrange for hot-weather concreting.

Aggregates forms a significant part in a concrete mixture so it's temperature has the greatest effect on concrete temps. Shading of aggregate piles is ideal, although not necessarily possible. Using cool water is another way to get cool concrete. Ready mix providers in hot climates use chilled water or ice to lessen the concrete temps.

Retarding admixtures can also add towards controlling cement in warm weather. When the cement is hot, the setting time is very quick. In those days Retarder can be added at the herb or face to face site. Retarders delays the environment time however they also give the concrete more time to dry, so curing is crucial. Retarders come as right retarders or as water-reducing and retarding admixtures. Mid-range normal water reducers can improve the air content of the concrete. For concrete that is usually to be stamped, consider using step retardation--adding retarder to the mixture after 1 / 2 of the batch or after one-third and two-thirds have been located. For textured concrete one of the most powerful things you can do in warm weather is step retardation.

In order to avoid slump loss superplasticizer (high-range drinking water reducer) could be utilized. These admixtures can increase slump without influencing the concrete's final durability or appearance.

Before positioning the concrete over a subgrade damp down everything, subgrade and varieties, with cool water so moisture isn't utilized from the concrete, which can result in cracking.

In order to avoid the evaporation of surface water use a monomolecular film or evaporation retarder as soon as the concrete is down and bull floated. These materials evaporate after a couple of hours. Monomolecular film will prevent plastic material shrinkage cracking and surface crusting.

In hot and dry weather curing needs to start as soon as finishing businesses are completed. A white pigmented curing chemical substance could be used with plain gray concretein order mirror sunshine. Also the white curing blanket could be used for the same purpose.

A white pigmented curing mixture on plain grey concrete white curing blankets keep the concrete chiller by reflecting can help reflect some warmth from sunlight the sun

In a hot environment, stain the cement in the coolest area of the day as staining concrete relies on a chemical reaction that happens faster in hot weather. If cement is stained in 95' to 100' weather, it can spoil the whole job.

Staining is most beneficial done early in the day when the cement is cooler

For an overlay unit installation it is recommended that the concrete surface heat range should be between 50' and 80'. Putting in an overlay during the hottest area of the day amidst sunlight could adversely affect the quality of the effect.


During winter until the concrete gains compressive strength of 500psi, it is under threat of either getting freezed up which could split up the matrix or the concrete combination sets at a very slow speed. Below 40'F the hydration effect basically stops and the cement doesn't gain any further strength. when the bottom is chilly, the concrete in touch with it will be cold and can set more gradually. This can lead to the problem of crusting, with the very best area of the concrete set in place and the bottom still smooth.

During the procedure of shifting the concrete mix from the ready blend plant to the job site there will be some heat reduction. While positioning concrete in wintry it is recommended to remove all snow and snow from that area. Also any status water should also be removed that could easily get mixed in to the concrete. In case of a frozen land, it is a good idea to thaw it using hydronic heat pipes and blankets (such as those from Ground Heaters), or electric blankets (check out Power Blanket). It is also suggested to Warm up anything that will come in contact with the cement, including varieties and any embedments, to at least 32'F. Covering everything with tarps the day prior to the pour, could keep it dry and warm enough. also blankets could be utilized for the same purpose as well. Place triple layers of insulating blankets at sides and edges that can freeze. Wrap any protruding rebars. Make certain the blankets won't blow off at night time.

Ground heaters Inc Portland cement association

While placing ornamental concrete in cold weather it's advocated to use a dial pocket thermometer or an infrared thermometer to check the concrete temperatures as it is required to be stored above 50'F for the concrete to keep increasing durability. Also on external surfaces cement, customers should be reminded to keep deicing chemicals off the top during the first winter. Deicers can result in spalling of newer concrete.

During the process of completing concrete in winter, it is advisable to let all the bleed drinking water to evaporate first normally water-cement percentage would increase surface of concrete would get fragile. Bleed water is basically the concrete debris settling (like mud in a stirred up pond) and squeezing out all the extra water. Vacuums can be used for this purpose. It will also be mentioned that sealing concrete in winter conditions is very dangerous.

Power blanket Layfield Group

In order to keep carefully the slab warm hydronic heating up pipes or electric heating up blankets could be used. These are laid together with the slab and insulated. Also, in the event it is too chilly to even place the cement, then the only choice departed is to enclose the task and heat the air. In case of an enclosure, it is required to consider the potential problem of carbonation. With unvented heaters (salamanders), or even with gas-powered equipment, the carbon dioxide levels can increase. This carbon reacts with the concrete, setting up a chalky carbonated level at the top which is undesirable. To fix this issue use heaters that exhaust to the outside associated with an enclosure or building and blow in heated air. Maintain the concrete heat range above 40' certifications Fahrenheit for at least four more days after the use of the insulation blankets or heated enclosures.

Also In cold weather conditions, concrete is cured without additional water; adding water will keep the concrete saturated so that freezing will affect it even after it grows to 500 psi compressive strength.

A drop of 20o F can twin the time it requires concrete to set. . Consider using concrete mixes which contain accelerating admixtures or Type III Hi-Early cement that require shorter protection time from freezing. ASTM C494 Type C accelerators or a Type F combination of accelerators and water reducers may be the answer.

Concrete offers the owner, engineer, and service provider many advantages over other materials. Apart from being extremely strong in compression it provides certain other benefits like sturdiness, flexibility, beauty and economy. It can therefore be said that concrete is the material of choice for superior constructions.

Short Project Time & high Cash Flow

Preordering and extended delivery time is typical with steel building whereas in case of cast-in-place concrete, project planners can depend on just-in-time delivery from local suppliers as the materials are plentiful. The ready availability of concrete can conserve to 20 weeks or more from the time management gets notice to check out actual construction start.

Start-Up Time

Credit: The Ceco Corporation

Cash Movement Comparison


Credit: The Ceco Corporation

Reduction in Begin to Finish Time

Perception is the fact material is faster than concrete. The local labor in the concrete industry is available in a great deal, it is quicker to hire workers thereby keeping time in hiring. During Building, the new generation of concrete admixtures and super plasticizers make concrete stream more easily than in the past. Today's concrete solutions occur lower temperature ranges. So, site-cast concrete construction can proceed year round.

With very plasticizers high concrete advantages can be achieved swiftly, and pouring on successive surfaces can proceed more quickly. Cast-in-place concrete engineering can end, and other deals can can get on the floor quicker. Electrical, mechanical, plumbing and HVAC systems as well as interior partitions can be installed as the body is progressing upward.

The overall flexibility of cast-in-place concrete expedites project completion, enables previous occupancy and enhances ROI.

Start to Finish Time

(For Office Properties)

Credit: Concrete Floor and Roof covering Systems

published by Portland Cement Association

The industry data show that once building commences 13 percent fewer delays are reported during framing compared to steel.

Energy Savings

Industry studies show that in comparison to steel development, concrete complexes have decreased heating and cooling expenses. Over a 24 hour period, heat gain computed by btu / ft2, can depend on 50 percent less accumulated to a substantial savings.

Thermal Reservoir Comparability:

Concrete vs. Steel

Credit: Publicized by Portland Concrete Association

Reinforced Value in Building Construction

After construction is complete cement continues to reinforce its value with cosmetic quality, energy personal savings, built-in-fire resistance, durability, strength and zero-maintenance. The ROI of concrete carries on long after development is complete.

Maximizes Marketing Space

High-strength mixtures and advanced reinforcing design systems allow technical engineers and architects to create much longer spans with fewer and smaller columns making more useable living area available.

Building Level of Cement vs. Steel

10 History Building

Credit: The Ceco Corporation

Concrete has a shorter floor-to-floor elevation than material by up to two feet per floor.

Engineers and architects have more versatility with cement. Because a smaller footprint is required, it is possible to build on smaller limited sites and grow the use of available land. Furthermore, less space is necessary for staging during development adding overall flexibility for smaller sites and additional lowering investment costs.

Fire Resistance

Concrete is in a natural way fire-resistant.

Concrete structures typically qualify for reduced flames insurance rates'up to 60 percent less on fire and long coverage for warehouses and safe-keeping buildings.

If fire does occur, concrete wall surfaces and partitions effectively divide the building into compartments, separating areas and limiting the amount of property destruction. Research shows that some defenses have a far greater chance of restricting a fire's spreading than any solitary mechanism only. Installed together with automated sprinkler and smoke/warmth ventilation, concrete provides an effective, multiple phase fire defense system.

Durability, Power, Low Maintenance

Because cement can hold up against catastrophic loading and there is less activity with concrete buildings, buildings have a longer life expectancy. They also are weather-tight, require lower maintenance and also have higher resale value than other set ups.

Aesthetic Value

Today's concrete technologies provide innovative alternatives for architectural interest and flexibility in design. New colouring admixtures provide attractive, cost-effective alternatives to external surfaces finishing. And cement is flexible to a variety of surface treatments and designs resulting in structures that placed graciously into any environment.


One main drawback of concrete is that all structures created from it will split at some point. Cement can also crack consequently of shrinkage, which happens when it dries out. These breaks develop within a few days of laying the structure. This can generally not limit the sturdiness of a structure

Another drawback of concrete is its low-thermal conductivity. While cement is normally used as a layer of fireproofing between walls, it could be badly harmed when exposed to intense high temperature. The concrete will contain the pass on of a hearth but can be unusable along the way.

Concrete also easily corrodes when exposed to seawater. The effects are quick if the concrete is totally submerged for long periods of time. Cement can be worn away by waves and by the sand and other materials taken the ocean.

Concrete is vulnerable in handling tension. Because cement is a britile material the strength upon shear (specially at 45 degress) must be examined.

Since cement is a porous materials, concrete domes often have issues with closing. If not treated, rainwater can seep through the roofing and leak in to the interior of the building. On the other hand, the seamless structure of concrete domes avoids air from escaping, and can lead to accumulation of condensation on the inside of the shell.

eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/about_4570836_disadvantages-concrete. html#ixzz1LpqHl5zr

http://www. rc3online. com/advantages. html

http://www. infolink. com. au/c/Allcrete-Industries/Concrete-carbonation-n75664

http://www. aboutcivil. com/curing-of-concrete-types-methods. html

http://www. bpesol. com/bachphuong/media/images/book/3081_98. pdf

http://www. tpub. com/content/construction/14043/css/14043_202. htm

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