Posted at 11.01.2018
This project requires the selection requirements of the materials used to create a three tale university building superstructure at the brown field site. Generally superstructure is the above groundwork/ground level area of the building. The main goal of the report is to analyze several materials and the suitability for superstructure engineering. We will examine the following materials; strengthened concrete, metallic, timber and then select one the most suitable material for our project. The main goal of the statement is to analyze three of the possible materials suitable for the superstructure and select the best option materials for different elements while considering the sites universal and specific implications.
Components of an superstructure
Before we evaluate and present a recommendation of the greatest appropriate materials for a superstructure it's important to understand the various components that make up a superstructure. This includes; columns, slabs, walls, roofs and beams. In details
Columns are the perpendicular fill bearing elements of the superstructure and can be either for architectural or engineering purposes. Architectural columns are majorly for aesthetics while anatomist columns are for support/load bearing and are used to transmit launching to the footing then to the bottom. In some instances structural columns are decorated to boost its looks. Columns can be made in either strengthened concrete, steel or timber based on several suitability factors like how big is the structure, materials supply etc. Because of this case we use steel structures encased in concrete cover for columns. Column structure will involve; Colum formwork, Colum support, cement pumping and formwork lifting.
These are the toned and horizontal the different parts of the building where in fact the weight scheduled to varying elements like occupancy action on. Slabs can be produced of either strengthened concrete, steel or timber. Because of this case we use concrete slabs. . Slab works contains the next steps: Slab formwork, concrete pumping and lastly the formwork lifting
Beams are the horizontal elements used to transfer the constructions weight to the columns which then transmit the weight to the footing then to the ground. They can either be made of reinforced concrete, steel or wood. Because of this project metal beams will be utilized. The structure of the metal beams that will then be encased in concrete. Beam construction will involve Beam encouragement, beam formwork, concrete pumping and lifting of the formwork.
Walls will be the building enclosing buildings and can either be load bearing or non-load bearing part of the superstructure. Walls can either be made of strengthened concrete for fill bearing walls and either timber, masonry bricks, straw, etc. for non-load bearing walls.
Roofs will be the overall top area of the structure typically used a color and safety of the building from excessive rain and sunshine, The roof composition design is inspired by many factors like, the span of the building, the types of roof cover to be utilized, roof covering cover and weather weight, cost, aesthetics
It takes a combination of several different materials to complete a building building project
Reinforced concrete a mix of concrete and steel reinforcements. Cement is one of the most ancient construction materials and it was utilized by romans as early 100 BC and has extreme compressive durability. To achieve higher tensional strength while constructing, cement is blended with steel bars to create strengthened concrete that comes with an overall greater power than either metallic or concrete only, Benham, 1983.
Reinforced concrete is trusted in the construction of various components of a superstructure of complexes; columns, beams, slabs and shear wall space. Concrete is generally poured around material formwork and the form depends upon the encasements used to limit the motion of cement. The cement is then kept to dry to attain the various structural elements and maximum power. (Abdulla 708477)
There are several metals found in construction but material is the most popular of these all and it's been used over centuries now. Steel has got numerous applications that range between decorative to structural support to reinforcements.
Steel applied separately and not in concrete is recognized as structural metal. Structural steel is mainly used to make reference to hot rolled metal areas, plates and patterns. The various structural steel shapes are as a result of passing warmed steel strips through successive rollers with respective molds. (Ali 708389)
Wood is one of the earliest materials ever used in development and continues to be being widely used despite the recognition of concrete and material. Wood is mainly used for structural framing (finish carpentry), cabinetry, cut, floors. Hardwood has high power in compression, anxiety and bending with regards to its weight. Wood also has good impact level of resistance. In current times there can be an increased use of timber as plywood (Glue laminated timber) to attain even much great durability and lengths. In this particular glue laminated timber wooden frames are arranged at right angles to one another. This maximized the strength of the hardwood. (Mohammed 729291)
MATERIAL SELECTION (REINFORCED Cement FOR THE SLAB WHILE Material FRAMES FOR SLABS AND COLUIMNS)
Our material of preference for this case is reinforced concrete and steel. Concrete is the most used structure material world-wide and its own application is very ancient with hardly any changes introduced along the years. For this reason few variabilities in development, concrete execution strategy in constructions are more developed in order to achieve perfect constructions. Steel follows directly with it being favored by multi story buildings.
Concrete is an artificial mixture created from Portland concrete, aggregates and normal water. Cement has been in use about the world for numerous years but the most commonly used cement today (Portland concrete) was invented in Britain in the entire year 1824. Portland concrete is produced by mixing earth limestone, shale or clay, sand and flat iron ore then your mix is high temperature to 1600 certifications Celsius in the rotary kiln.
Concrete is made by blending the Portland concrete and aggregates and normal water whereby a chemical substance process called hydration occurs. The hydration process forms concrete which is in plastic state and it changes into solid express in about 2 time. The concrete regularly gains power on chilling with maximum power at the 28th day given the curing is done correctly,
SUITABILITY OF Cement FOR THE CONCRETE SLABS
The pursuing properties of cement makes them the best suited materials for development of slabs. Cement is a variety of several materials developed through solidification of concrete, drinking water and aggregates (either fine or course aggregates or both). Reinforced concrete is steel rod enhanced concrete to attain a much higher strength.
The strength of concrete is normally higher than most of the other construction materials. The effectiveness of concrete is determined by the - cement ratio and the lower the ratio the higher the final strength of the given cement. There are two components used in classifying the effectiveness of concrete as the right construction material, Neville, 2011
Compressive strength of concrete
This the maximum resistance potential of concrete to axial launching at an get older of 28 times after mixing, location and healing. Compressive durability of cement is assessed in Pounds per square in. (psi). During the first 28 days and nights, concrete achieves about 90 % of its durability which is important to ensure sufficient treating disallowing drying/freezing in order to achieve this power. The concrete's compressive strength would depend on quality and proportions of the concrete's substances and the healing environment. Neville 2011,
Reinforced concrete derives its tensional durability from using metal reinforcement bars. Metallic has extremely good tensional strength with relatively low compressive power as compared to concrete. The combination of both funnel the compression and tensional durability of one another to achieve higher overall durability. Mtallib, 2010.
It is a lot easier to work with concrete in building of the excellent structure. This is due to its plastic condition within the 0 - 2 hour range. Workability can be referred to as the ease with which it can be mixed, set, compacted and finished. There are however several factors that impact the workability of concrete which include; Characteristics and level of the cementing materials, the slump (concrete consistence), length of time and the technique of travelling, the percentage of the entrained air, the aggregate grading, surface feel and shape, normal water content, ambient and concrete air temperature, presence of admixtures
The workability of cement can be driven by using a test called slump test that is actually the sign of this particular content of a combination. This particular content to a great magnitude determine the workability of any given cement.
One of the major factors that produce concrete the most accepted materials in construction over ages is its great adhesion capability with different materials and way more with metallic reinforcements. The relationship strength between cement and steel support bars are as a result of mechanical interactions, chemical reactions and thermodynamics response that happen after placement of concrete to metal formwork. Kendall, 1983
The corrosion amount of resistance capacity of concrete makes reinforced concrete materials suitable against corrosion as compared to other construction material like solid wood and timber. Corrosion generally affect the metal reinforcement and least concrete. Steel reinforcements are usually encased within cement covering to reduce corrosive action of the surroundings and other materials to the steel reinforcements, Neville, 2011.
Concrete has very high heat resistance in comparison to steel and real wood construction material. Reinforced concrete materials failure due to high temperature is mostly because of the failure of steel bars under extreme temperature. However to counter this the concrete cover provides a good insulation of the protected reinforcement steel bars in extreme fire conditions. This provides more time for flames extinguishing and recovery in case of a fire threat.
The corrosion level of resistance of concrete is high hence may survive numerous types of environment. On the other hand reinforcement steel react to numerous areas of our conditions including humidity causing rust. Reinforced concrete is designed in a way that the more resilient concrete protects the much delicate steel pubs.
The density of reinforced concrete is actually the way of measuring its device weight which is average weight density of 150 lb/ft3 (pcf). . This thickness is enough enough to protect the building from aspect makes and other natural or induced pushes that make a difference the given structure
SUITABILITY OF Metallic FRAMES FOR BEAMS AND COLUMNS
Steel was selected for development of the beam and column structural people due to the following reasons.
It is much easier to assemble steel as the different steel frames can certainly be fabricated to the required shape and size in the factory and then be taken to the given site for assembly. Additionally it is easier and faster to fabricate material at site when compared with concrete and wood making it inexpensive to build the given substructure. All this increase the structure process while preserving the required small construction tolerance
Steel has relatively high compressive and tensional power so that it is very ideal for construction of beams and columns. Increasingly more stronger structural material has been developed on the way and the produce strength of most structural steel in use today is more than 50, 000 psi.
Most steel is fabricated in the factories where its properties are meticulously monitored and managed conditions by using very modern and recent technology in quality assurance
Construction of properties using metal can be optimized by use of slender columns maximizing the floor space designed for other things. Typical metal column occupies 75 % less space as compared to a concrete column