Posted at 10.04.2018
The Psychodynamic way came into being in the 19th Century, the most well-known person connected to the methodology was Sigmund Freud. Freud thought that everything we do, say or just how we behave is due to our childhood. That's where Freud came up with psychosexual periods. Freud believed that if anytime through the psychosexual stages there have been problems, this would have a lasting effect on the individual's personality. Somebody who was weaned too early and didn't receive enough suckling pleasures, would be influenced in adulthood and could be too keen on eating, drinking or smoking. (into to psychology)
The psychodynamic approach works together with the intension of liberating a person's hidden emotions and emotions and bringing those to the surface, to allow them to observe, analyse and understand them. Freud developed a collection of different ideologies, which helped him to generate the foundations of the psychodynamic approach to psychology. One of Freud's theories was the mindful brain, the pre-conscious proper and the sub-conscious mind. Freud believed that the individual personality had several aspect to it. That is when Freud discovered that we had a conscious head, pre-conscious proper and a sub-conscious brain. The sub-conscious is where memory that you want's to filter and neglect and are now subversive and invisible. The pre-conscious proper is where memories are stored and can be taken to one's conscious brain when needed or needed to. Freud assumed the human mind was as an iceberg, the conscious mind was above water level and the pre-conscious proper and sub-conscious is under normal water and therefore not easily accessible. (Jarvis. 2000).
"The conscious head may be compared to a fountain learning in the sun and falling back into the great subterranean pool of unconscious from which it increases. "
Sigmund Freud. BrainyQuote. com. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from BrainyQuote. com Site: http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/quotes/s/sigmundfre403586. html
Freud's main assumption about the individuals mind and a person's driving make, which also affects one's behavior, is intimate instinct. Freud said this drive controlled in the unconscious mind, which Freud called as the identification also called the intrinsic drive. Another two areas of your brain Freud came up with was the ego and superego. The ego will there be to mediate the demands coming from one's id. The third personality known as the superego will there be to stand for one's conscience and ideal self. The very ego is like a negative parent or guardian who is letting one know very well what you have done wrong. The id and superego are on complete opposite sides and are in regular conflict with one another. It is the ego's job to reduce the conflict and become the mediator between the two (Donald Pennington 2002).
T times the ego can have a hard time mediating between the identification and the superego, therefore the ego will hire a defence mechanism, which will help defend the ego. Defence mechanisms are being used as an impulsive protection against anxiousness and one's fragile self. Defences are being used by everyone to avoid catastrophic outcomes of a meeting in the exterior world. These defence mechanisms can take the form of:
Denial - not attempting to believe in actuality.
Regression - heading back to an early level such as childhood and behaving in that way.
Displacement - redirecting thoughts onto someone or something else as opposed to the person or thing they may have the anger or harm from. (Counselling skills for Friendly Work)
A term utilized by Freud in his theory of psychosexual development, talks about a boy's emotions of desire and want to his mother and envious, bitter anger towards his dad. Freud thought that the boy wishes to have got his mother rather than have his dad around, as he believes his dad is a rivalling for his mother's affections. The Oedipal complex occurs in the phallic stage of psychosexual development. This ideological was named after Oedipus Rex who killed his father and married his mother.
According to Freud during the female psychosexual development stage a young girl is initially attached to her mother. Once the young lady has discovered that she doesn't have a male organ, she then becomes specialized in her father and starts off to begrudge and hate her mom, as she blames her mom on her behalf castration. Freud assumed that the lady then begins to recognize with her mother out of fear of shedding her love. (http://psychology. about. com/od/eindex/g/def_electracomp. htm )
Carl Rogers was the founding father of person-centred theory. Person-centred therapy is based on the fact that your client in remedy is the expert on themselves and can work out the answers to their problems. Rogers research and experiential work was focused on the internal conditions for allowing the individual to open up communication and empowering themselves to attain their goals and desires. Rogers's theory is dependant on personality and not behaviour and the main idea of this theory is the self. (Advantages to mindset)
". . . the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal flame of reference point of the average person himself. " Pg 399 introduction to psychology
Rogers said that to help a person during person-centred therapy, the therapist will need three center conditions. They are known as empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard, without these central conditions a romantic relationship between your therapist and client cannot be built and a lack of trust to the counsellor is made. http://hubpages. com/hub/The-core-conditions-which-Carl-Rogers-considered-essential-for-effective-counselling Rogers, C. (1980). Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Self-actualisation is the essential driving drive motivating the real human organism to self-actualise and reach their potential to the fullest. Not everyone can plainly perceive which way leads to expansion and which way leads to regression, but once they find the right way that person will choose to grow and progress and not to regress. This will likely lead a person on to self-actualisation. (intro to mindset)
This theory reminded Rogers of an early experience, which worried potatoes that experienced cultivated in his basement at his childhood home. They were kept in a field in the basement and a tiny amount of sunlight was able to shine through a small window. It was very unlikely for these potatoes to develop and yet they have, they grew towards sunlight. These plant life were symbolic to Rogers as he presumed that even potatoes self-actualised.
http://linux-society. blogspot. com/2005/04/carl-rogers-and-humanistic-healing. html
Rogers presumed the self came in three parts, the organismic self, the self theory and the ideal home. The organismic self is who we are really, deep down inside. Very hardly ever is this self applied exposed as there could be too many reasons or pressures to be able to be the true person inside. The do it yourself notion is the self applied we've become because that is the way we feel we have to be, due to your parents, peers or society. The ideal do it yourself is who we would like to be, but can't ever reach, because if we reach their ideal self then it is not ideal any longer. (Stella's handout)
"The organism has one basic trend and striving - to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. " Pg 399 Launch to psychology
Looking at Freud and Rogers at first glance you'll think there were no similarities between the two. Creating a deeper consider both their ideas one will see several similarities, such as:
Both Freud and Rogers talk about innate drives, such as Freud's id and Rogers's organismic self applied.
Like Freud, Rogers developed his theory and ideas through emotionally troubled people.
One of the key similarities between both of these theorists is the time in which they produced their ideas, they time back a long time ago.
Rogers will not analyse a patient's history, whereas Freud thought a person's years as a child was a key part to their problems.
Rogers's ideal home is positive; it is a goal for someone to reach and progress further onto their next ideal personal. Freud's excellent ego is negative, as the ultra ego tells you what you are really doing wrong.
Rogers's believed that this had not been only humans that self-actualised but so do all living things such as family pets and his potato theory. Freud only spoke about and looked at humans.
Rogers treated a person all together, whereas Freud believed we can be found in three parts, like the ultra ego, ego and identification.
In conclusion, we can tell that we now have more differences between the two than there are similarities, but both theories have some very valid details and without these today the psychodynamic theory and person-centred theory may well not work so well in dealing with their clients.
Sigmund Freud. BrainyQuote. com. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from BrainyQuote. com Internet site: http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/quotes/s/sigmundfre403586. html
http://hubpages. com/hub/The-core-conditions-which-Carl-Rogers-considered-essential-for-effective-counselling Rogers, C. (1980). Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
http://linux-society. blogspot. com/2005/04/carl-rogers-and-humanistic-healing. html
Donald Pennington, adding psychology: approaches, topics and methods, Kent, Hodder Arnold
Theoretical approaches in psychology Model illustrated, reprint Publisher Routledge, 2000 Matt Jarvis
introduction to psychology
Psychology a procedure, Michael Eysenck, Longman 1998 New York
http://psychology. about. com/od/eindex/g/def_electracomp. htm