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Self Reference Criterion And Subculture Teams Cultural Studies Essay

One of the secrets to success pointed out Cateora (2001) to attain a successful international marketing is to adjust to environmental variations between a market and another. (Cateora, 2001). He defines the self-reference criterion (SRC) as a guide unaware of our own cultural values, experiences and knowledge as the basis for our decisions. The SRC hampers the ability to assess a overseas market in its true dimension.

The self-reference criterion (SRC) is especially functioning in the customs business. If you don't understand the customs of our overseas counterparts, are more likely to assessment behavior of the people in terms of what's appropriate to us.

It is important to notice that you of the main approaches for success in international negotiations is to consider cross-cultural examination so concerning isolate the influences of benchmark job or self-reference criterion when making decisions, since it is vital to comprehend culture of the overseas market in order to avoid cultural shock and errors when you begin a negotiation based on adaptation to the environment in which it works, and, moreover ethnocentrism which restricts our ability to accept cultural differences and therefore reduces the opportunity to develop effective international marketing programs. To conclude, when formulating and producing a global marketing program must consider the possible occurrence of these barriers as determinants of decision making.

To avoid disappointment for joining and left over in foreign marketplaces, it's important to have respect for cultural dissimilarities in each one of the market segments of different countries and it is very important to learn the history, traditions and fads of potential market segments for generate a global conscience and implement strategies with ethical trend in each of them.

The key to adapting is to keep up one's culture but to develop a entendimien and a determination to accommodate the differences. An effective marketing professional has learned that China is important to provide opinions without frustrating arguments, criticism, even though requested, may cause the web host "lose face. "

In Germany it is considered impolite to use first labels unless the first is specifically invited to do so, you should always dwelling address a person as Herr (Mr), Frau (Mrs. ) or Fraulein (Pass up) with your name.

In Brazil shouldn't be offended by the propensity to touch the person with whom he converses. This custom is not really a violation of personal space but the Brazilian form of greeting or stress one aspect to or gesture of goodwill and camaraderie.

For the employer you want to export as the international internet entrepreneur and specialist in international trade will need to have a type of vision to see and detect the different elements which may be important in the introduction of its function.

These views contain:

The eyesight of company, which is to take into consideration the capacities, aims and interests of the company.

The national perspective that involves considering the positioning, the options and trade contracts and government and private support of the united states of the offered.

The vision for the country of the prospective market is to take into account the realities, obstacles of prices, culture, norms and customs of trade and business of the united states that addresses the export work.

The overall eyesight is to consider the general situation and sectoral styles, technology and international marketing as well as the regionalization and globalization functions of international norms set up by entities such as the OMG and the ICC











Adjusted for variations requires putting aside our own cultural ideals. James E. Lee suggested that the natural self-reference criterion - the unconscious mention of our cultural beliefs - is the main of most international business problems. However, understand and confess this, it is quite difficult. (Negocios Internacionales, Michael R. Czinkota, Ilkka A. Ronkainen, Michael H. Moffett, 7th Edition, Pag 60)

By disregarding important ethnic aspects, it can show up in to the self-reference criterion, for example the unconscious mention of cultural values. Thus, it has been the reason for many problems in international business and even more, when it came to high-context. Avoid ethnocentrism as well, which is to consider their own culture as superiors to others (Czincota and Ronkainen, 1996)


There are numerous potential issues of the home reference criterion:

Failure to explore the necessity to take precautions

Do not measure the differences between the civilizations of different countries.

Having an offensive answer with the web host response

The steps for Mix Cultura Analisys:

To clarify the condition of home business

To clarify the situation of the foreign

Separate the SRC, analyzing in detail an elaborate problem

Determine the situation with no SRC

The improvement of a global awareness

Different ethnicities must be tolerated

To know and agree to different cultures, making working with others whose culture is different.

Have an understanding of different global civilizations, such as background, social and politics problems.

Focus on global awareness

Selecting professionals with global knowledge

Having relationships with folks who are from other countries or nationalities

Cultural variety within the business executives



Acoording to Usunier and Lee J. in the publication Marketing across Civilizations, Perceive the French about other civilizations are:

The Germans: Pretentious and offhand. Fashionable, womanizing, frivolous, fickle, well-mannered, resourceful.

The Uk: Nationalistic, chauvinistic, intransigent, centralist, reliant on their state, polite however, not open up minded, humourless, short tempered.

The Americans: Chauvinistic, well mannered, mixture of good food and good discussion, interested in foreing people, pretentious, talkative, pleasing, intelligent.


Properties of ethnocentrism can include the following tendencies:

(1) to tell apart different groups;

(2) to understand events in conditions of their own group hobbies (economic, political and public);

(3) to see one group as the guts of the world and consider your lifestyle more advanced than others;

(4) to distrust other categories and negligible;

(5) to see one group as superior, strong and honest;


The occurrence of ethnocentrism is a threat to global marketing. Ethnocentrism is never to buy a foreign product not since it more expensive or lower quality, but the fact of being one's own country. People damaged by this reality tend to think that the product of your country is always better. Immoral even consider buying things from in foreign countries. It is curious that in other countries, like Spain, the contrary happens: when a foreign product appears better. An Italian creator suit seems more beautiful than a nationwide costume.

The ramifications of ethnocentrism on the procedure of marketing and sales can sales tactics to coexist rational and irrational anticipated to marketing consumer ethnocentricity (Walle, 1986). The central role of personal provide satisfaction and customer support quality may be adversely affected by wider affect of marketing in the development and communication of individuality corporate (Thomas and Hill, 1999). Similarly, ethnocentrism can also have an impact on adversely to the transfer of technology from countries with economies of under-developed developed nations, because of the ethnocentric and stereotyped action on the part of developed market, this is specially true in technology transfer sociable, for example, in the region of organizational development (Bourgeois and Boltvinik, 1981).

Consumer ethnocentrism relates to the country result origin, either as an unbiased concept (Herchen, 1992), or considering it, from academic point of view, a further factor of the idea of country of source on the explains how the patriotic feelings impact attitudes toward products and buy intentions (Han, 1988; Hadjimarcou, Hu and Bruning, 1993, Good and Huddleston, 1995; Huddleston, Good and Stoel, 2001)







Internationalization Strategies

Ethnocentrism: Oriented to the country of origin. The business has targeted its sales focuses on in the local market will eventually be bought from other markets only when you have any order. Consider export as a sideline, offering priority to local operations. There is no change in the industry mixture.

Polycentric: Focused to the united states of destination "Each country is considered as an independent certainty, planning and marketing strategies are defined in line with the needs of the market. - The distribution is done with equipment sales programs and target market. - Take part in the national market but in a disorganized and unplanned. - Standard medium enterprises or those with some experience in overseas markets. - It is expensive to establish the composition and oil business management, emerging problems of coordination and Control.

Region Centric: Oriented to the region, is building a strategic plan for the entire region. - A local sales concentrate on, market coverage "program is planned and designed sales.

Geocentric: global orientation.


The subculture is a definite group in a culture. Its associates can meet for various reasons, such as age group, ethnicity, sexual id, musical likes or aesthetics, among others. It is typical that the subculture identifies itself in opposition to the dominating culture. There are times; however, that such opposition is not radical.

The members of an subculture often promote a similar appearance that recognizes them as a specific hairstyle (the ridge in the case of the punks) or the colour of the clothes (dark for Goths or emos). In just a subculture usually speak a particular dialect or uncommon terms used in other communities.

The emergence of an subculture is established by the life of distributed symbols. This distinguishes the simple groups of men and women who meet common tastes of subcultures. In the mentioned case of the goth subculture, its users charm to the dark-colored clothes and white makeup to convey their skepticism and insufficient hope for the development of mankind

Cultural subgroup is the denomination to define those sets of individuals who show common goals and ways of representation communes.

Sub cultural examination to segment the marketplace to reach the needs, motivations, perceptions and attitudes that are distributed by people of a particular subculture group. A subculture is a definite social group that prevails as an identifiable area within a more substantial and more technical society. Its associates have beliefs, principles and traditions that set them aside from other customers of the same society. The main sub-cultural categories are: nationality, race, religion, geographic location, age group, making love and education.



The origin of the word "emo" itself is puzzling, most people associate it with the term "emotional" from the '90s. More recently, the word "emo" was seen as a contraction of "emotional hardcore" or "emocore", that have been popular designations music genre. The term "emo" has also been used in modern times on the Internet by different field, especially to the people who seem emotionally unpredictable. Others use the word "emo" to describe a sense of depression. In British the term 'emo' is also used as an abbreviation for the term "emotive" so this means affective or mental.


Flogger is actually a trendy teenager from Argentina, which is strongly related to Fotolog. com, a website where you upload photographs and where users can touch upon them. It has become very popular among young people, to become almost a behavior or lifestyle. Flogger The term originates from "flog", short for Fotolog. The level of popularity of a photoblog is dependant on the number of signatures (remarks) daily images and their friends / favorites. The photos uploaded in their particular fotologs often self-portraits.


This is a movement in a number of countries. It started in the UK between the overdue 70s and middle 80s in the gothic rock and roll landscape, a derivation of the Post-Punk. His visual and ethnical inclinations come mainly from the influences of horror books, horror films, and also to a lesser scope, the BDSM culture. The goth subculture distributed aesthetic preferences, musical and ethnic common ground. Although Gothic music includes several sub-genres and styles, all talk about a propensity to look and appear "dark" or "dark. " Varieties of dress within the subculture, taking influences from death rock, punk, androgynous style, and even the Renaissance design of dress, but goths are aesthetics, which targets black. Gothic


This exists in the UK since the early on 70's where a stream of young people in Britain and other industrialized countries experienced that the rock and roll had opted from being truly a means of manifestation for teenagers, to a mere marketing tool and show off to the grandeur of the music artists of the time, pressing the music of normal people. Punk surfaced as a mockery to the rigidity of the conventions that concealed forms of communal oppression. Idea punk can be summarized as: "Do it yourself", "own it the right path. " Rejecting the dogma and not to seek an individual truth. concern and contradict everything Usually do not operate according to the fashion and multimedia manipulation not only is it against consumerism. Think yourself.


The skinheads are skinheads or groups considered to be Nazis. They advocate the ideology of German leader Adolf Hitler and say they would like to rid society of what they call "scum", although this will have recourse to violent methods they know as "clean-up squads. "

The Rastafarian

These originates from Jamaica, is from the liberation of dark people, looking for the earthly paradise in this case would ethiopia, so their characteristic colors, green, yellow and red, the rasta culrtura greater than a movements is a faith provided when transporting off underneath of the letter, not consuming beef, and based on pure marijuana intake, on the lands that the Bible mentions that God has created all the plant life for use by men, also prevents at status of "trip" to attain a better meditation.


Culture is described largely consumer behavior of a given society. However, within a culture more homogeneous subgroups coexist with a standard customs and values. Distinguish consumers in each subculture helps the setting of brands and products targeted at a culture. Segmentation in subcultures is based on a socio-cultural and demographic factors were obviously identifiable. Marketers should be aware of how sub-cultural affects interact, not simply segmented by a unique subculture.

The classification of subcultures is usually done based on national origin, era, religion, intimacy and lifestyle. However, this type of segmentation is valid provided that belonged to 1 of the subgroups relating behavioral habits and identifiable characteristics, because the fact of being dark-colored or white, yuppie or a housewife, may well not be considered a factor significant for the purchase of certain products. If subculture is determined as the band of adolescents between 14 and 18, is basically because they have a different habit than for people between 25 and 32, for example.

In Spain, the development of advertising campaigns are often differentiated mainly by era, gender and lifestyle, rather than racial affects, for although the amount of immigrants is increasing, especially from the first '90s, an organization is not so ingrained as, for case, Hispanics or DARK-COLORED. The choice of fitness (form, appearance, color) cannot ignore the symbolic meanings associated with the ethnic environment.

An example: Nestl launched a dairy products preparation characterized by containing effective bifid us and a wealthy supply of calcium mineral. It differs by the bigger calcium mineral content and pleasurable preference. And in Latin countries the gratification of flavor is an integral factor for the food products sector. If your taste or consistency is not good, the product will not succeed.

That makes it especially attractive given a subculture from the perspective of marketing is the fact that it presents a portion of consumers with original shopping habits, that involves a substantial purchasing power for the business.

If cultures change, and when consumers behave diversely, marketing strategies must also adapt to different conditions can be discovered. In this sense, be thought to be ethnic adaptations in general market trends and strategies of the marketing mix, product, price, distribution and communication.

In any communal group variations in manifest habit patterns for marketers this simple fact offers benefits and drawbacks. Negatives as identify a lot more distinctions in a modern culture should lead to the segmentation process to continue to pass on to other possible groupings that show homogeneous habits or ethnical features, design marketing activities appropriate to each section or some of them, and increase business costs arising from the differentiation. Advantages specifically because the marketplace segmentation us to potential target sites which may constitute or niches where the company can relax, protect, or be strong.

In a culture there are groupings that are usually beliefs and ethnic homogeneous, but that differ from other teams, all members of the macro social group. What is important for the marketing director is to understand this potential cultural variety, and then follow an activity similar to the following:

Analyze ethnical diversity in a specific social group.

Identify the types existing subcultures relating to nationality, contest, faith or geography.

Analyze the key social and behavioral differences

Examine the profiles of every group for demographic, psychographic and behavioral.

Measure the potential of each subculture as goal market

Determine the implications for marketing and its key parameters.

In the light of new fads that contain been enforced in the marketing, regarded as a social process, there has been a approach reinforced by the relativistic paradigm. The culture has started to be seen as the background which ultimately shows the consumption patterns and also some products that have attained a symbolism not dreamed before (Lindridge and Dibb, 2003). Because of this, beyond instrumentalist concerns, sociological, communal, mutually beneficial exchange, tactical, administrative, and anatomist (Pramo, 2004) has surfaced highly in recent ages on the world of academics and researchers, a tendency to see marketing within a specific culture (Douglas and Isherwood, 1979; Arnould and Wallendorf, 1994; Pramo, 2000a, 2000b).

This craze has upset the paradigm of a country seen as a synonym of the same culture (Rao, 1997), since societies are constituted mainly by subcultures that match the existing human groups. In fact, for over twenty years marketing has witnessed a continuing progress of curiosity about the study of cultural differences between ethnic categories and its implications for marketing which has pressured him to vacation resort to ethnicity and culture as standards segmentation.

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