Pros And Cons Of Economic Integration Economics Essay

, economics deals with the allocation of scarce resources in order to best maximise tool. Regarding a country the power concentrate is on its creation of all goods which is measured by its budget in world marketplaces, i. e. the amount of wealth that it creates for the country. A Production Prospects Frontier (PPF) graph (Fig 1) may be used to show the maximum creation of goods that a country can perform given its limitation of resources and current technology. A combo of goods outside of the curve, e. g. point C is extremely hard, while one under the curve (e. g. point A) means that the economy is underperforming, in other words is not using all of its resources effectively (as in the case of point B). A final point to notice from this graph is that an increase in creation of 1 good will result in a chance cost in development loss of another good.

It will be shown that if countries do trade widely among themselves then not only will they be able to break through their PPF but they may also be able to achieve this at reduced costs. With all this truth, the question as to why governments may actually resist beginning their market segments to free trade and competition will also be answered.

This essay will treat issues as they influence New Zealand and its own relationship with Malaysia.

Basic Economics and Trade Barriers

Consider the Supply-Demand curve in physique 2. Let's assume that there is no foreign trade, there will be a cost and amount equilibrium (Pe, Qe) where in fact the domestic source (Sd) and demand (D) intersect. Imagine now that overseas exporters enter the marketplace and they can provide you with the product at the entire world price of Pw (which is lower than Pe). As the new source is a world supply, its source curve will be horizontal (i. e. flawlessly stretchy) since it won't be affected by the relatively small use of its new market (Mankiew, Bandyopadhay & Wooding, 2007). As is seen, this will drive the domestic supply down to Q1 but demand up to Q2. Not only does this bring about the buyer of the home market being able to buy more at a lesser price but it is also possible that imported level of Q2-Q1 might easily result in the PPF of the home market being exceeded.

As a result of the price decrease, domestic suppliers won't be willing to produce as many goods and therefore labour will be let go and in some instances businesses may close. In order to try to protect their domestic industries, Governments may impose an transfer tax (called a tariff) on the overseas product. Amount 2 once more shows what will happen. This will cause Sw to go up vertically by the amount of the tariff to Swt. Sure more domestic producers are prepared to supply the goods and earnings of FG-DG is produced for the federal government. However consumer surplus (difference between what consumers are prepared to pay and what they need to pay) shrinks by the total amount symbolized by area   ABC to that of the area of   ADE. There is also a dead weight loss (inefficiencies between marginal profit and cost) represented by area   FGH+  EDB. The effect also includes domestic consumers having to pay more costly prices as well as the possible souring of relationships with a county's trading partners who in turn might impose tariffs on goods coming into their own country.

Although government authorities use trade barriers (like tariffs) to protect their own local trade, it can be seen from the above that this will not produce efficient marketplaces that are advantageous to both consumer and company. An easier way would be for countries to have free trade but then trade with one another predicated on their comparative advantages. Consider the next, New Zealand and Malaysia can each produce both milk products and petroleum. New Zealand can however produce dairy products at lower opportunity cost than Malaysia while Malaysia can produce petroleum at a lower opportunity cost than New Zealand. If New Zealand therefore produces more dairy (but less petroleum) while Malaysia produces more petroleum (but less dairy), the two counties can not only achieve a larger combined output of each product (at a lower cost) nonetheless they can source each other's needs for the alternative product. While this might enable these to exceed their PPF it also makes them determined by each other and for that reason vulnerable should future disagreements happen.

Benefits of your Malaysian RTA with New Zealand (MNZFTA)

Malaysia is New Zealand's eighth most important export destination; larger than either India, Germany or Singapore. (NZMAF, 2009) In spite of this trading between the two countries is much less efficient as it ought to be because of this of the responsibilities that exports from New Zealand to Malaysia attract ($12. 6 million in 2008, NZMAF, 2009). As New Zealand is trading with Malaysia anyways, it makes sense to just work at removing these barriers so that each country can improve the level of their product exported while keeping prices at the cheapest possible selling price. This not only benefits the consumers in each country but will also continue steadily to stimulate development in each one of the sectors as demand expands. So far as this specific RTA should go, New Zealand kiwifruit, beef, wool, dairy, seafood, forestry products, liquid dairy, some material lines, some paints and varnishes and a number of cheap products stand to take advantage of the reduction of tariffs as result of this agreement. This represents a broad cross-section of New Zealand industry and there for will not only have an optimistic effect on the GDP but also should influence many New Zealanders straight.

Another positive side-effect is the fact that as Malaysia gets into into agreements with other countries, New Zealand will automatically reap the benefits of these agreements. This is because of the reciprocal Most Favoured Country (MFN) condition in the agreement. This condition ensures that all trading countries are cared for equally amidst themselves. Beside the trading benefits, there's also benefits in areas like:

Environment - this covers agreements over exhaust gases, sewage, sound control and environmental safety,

Movement of natural people - this helps it be easier for New Zealand entrepreneurs to type in and transact in Malaysia.

Education - this addresses joint-ventures by New Zealand educational suppliers in Malaysia and recognition of New Zealand certification.

The great things about an RTA are only as good as the RTA itself. In this regard, the MNZFTA has some shortfalls. As a result of religious, safeness or environmental concerns, Malaysia has retained tariffs on some eighty-eight products (NZMAF, 2009). Also certain products have placed tariff rate quotas; liquid milk being one of these, (NZMAF, 2009). An obvious matter would be that as marketplaces open up, countries commence to become more reliant on one another for the merchandise they consume. This can put one country at the mercy of another if the politics of the time change for the worse. Besides domestic industry coverage, this is another strong reason why many government authorities may put into practice a certain degree of protection in their marketplaces. It could cost more but offers them a larger sense of security.

Multilateral trade initiatives and RTAs

Multilateral trade bonuses involve a number of get-togethers and are therefore generally more difficult to finalise than that of a RTA between a few countries. Furthermore, certain requirements needed to meet the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) approval are more strict than those required by way of a Regional Free Trade Agreement (RTA). First of all, a WTO backed resolution for a specific agreement can only just be passed when there is full agreement between all members. Also (because the Uruguay round of the WTO) quotas are not permitted (WTO website); this theoretically makes the Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQs) on New Zealand's liquid milk, in the MNZFTA, illegal. Even though WTO would not hint off on this agreement, they are doing allow it as they view it within a transitioning period to a truly free market i. e. they see it as a part of the right path.

An financially compromised agreement is still better than no agreement. As a result, countries that enter into such RTAs have the ability to more quickly reach contract on goals that they would like to achieve and then identify the procedure and timeframes on how they'll bring them into WTO conformity. In the case of the MNZFTA, this arrangement allows certain goals to be achieved quicker than they'll be under the AANZFTA agreement e. g. faster tariff eradication. It also permits "greater co-operation and dialogue on a variety of economic issues of common interest" (NZMAF, 2009, p. 14).

My Business

Given the progress in business ventures and investments between New Zealand and Malaysia it seems sensible that a business that desires to increase into Malaysia (and its surrounding locations) would welcome such an agreement as the MNZFTA. First of all the MNZFTA levels the performing fields for all people involved ensuring that everyone is at the mercy of agreed and translucent guidelines. This not only leads to free and fair trading but also offers all gatherings security and steadiness for the future. This is particularly true in the regions of environmental and labour compliances. As the MNZFTA includes these areas, providers in both countries will be afflicted by the same constraints and costs, adding them on the same trade footing regarding these issues.

The MNZFTA will also give New Zealand businesses a competitive edge over those countries that aren't part of the arrangement. While preferential treatment is frowned on by the WTO it'll definitely help New Zealand businesses to grow into the Malaysian market. Also as more nations enter these sorts of agreements, the MFN condition will eventually lead to all being cared for equal.

This contract also helps lay a foundation on which to build a future FTA for your Asia Pacific region. Thus this agreement may ultimately open just how for a New Zealand business in Malaysia to broaden beyond Malaysian edges.

Although hard to estimate, administrative costs in secured marketplaces may equal up to 15% of the value of the goods traded (OECD, 2005). This alongside the added tariffs (which drive export sales down) brings about unnecessarily high costs for the distributor. Trade agreements reduce these hidden costs (making things cheaper for the company). Due to reduced or removed tariffs, prices show up, demand increases and the dealer is ready (and eager) to export more.

Free trade may put stress on local market segments as growing competition competes for market-share. At exactly the same time though it also causes domestic marketplaces to restructure and become more efficient.


Trade barriers like tariffs are used by governments to safeguard domestic industries which secure people' employment. Also, they are used to improve national security. Having said that it has been shown that markets are more efficient when they are permitted to interact openly without government interference. It also allows for poorer or smaller countries to utilize their comparative advantages to not only better their positions but also to add positively to global economies.

WTO contracts and FTAs provide the framework (both implementation and legal) within which companies can safely open up, and trade with each other, now and in the foreseeable future. Besides addressing economical issues these agreements also strengthen global associations and address honest and environmental concerns.

Since New Zealand's trade with Malaysia is growing it makes sense to engage in a RTA (or FTA) with them as this can not only keep your charges down to New Zealand businesses (and consumers) but also increase their already growing trade. Although never perfect the great things about these agreements very good outweigh the concerns.

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