Posted at 11.01.2018
Project management has an integrated framework for project company, planning and control which is designed to ensure the timely and cost effective productions of all products and services and keep maintaining high quality standard of products and services to meet all stakeholders interest.
A process method of job management define step-by-step procedures that a project supervisor need to try effectively control the task and gratify all stakeholders interest. For instance, the chance Management Process will tell how to recognize, analyse and keep an eye on project risks better. It also describes the functions and responsibilities of every team member, when getting involved in task risk management.
A process strategy starts off with initiations and then undergoes planning, implementation, monitoring and control and then finalisation of the project. So a project has a life where it starts off and then after a finite time period it ends. Some tasks are small that only matter from some time whereas some last for a long time. Because need for specialisation, almost all of the tasks needs multidisciplinary groups. These teams members are most of the time participate in the parent organisation but some of the task are being done by subcontractors, consultants or partners. Organisations that get excited about the projects are sometime find it very difficult to coordinate with each other's which is the big problem for the project manager to cope with this problem. Time pressure, limited budgets, tight cash flows and uncertainty always require task supervisor to make trade-offs between these factors with the implicit goals of balancing dangers and benefits.
Burj khalifa is the globe tallest building in Dubai with 164 flooring. That is an iconic building with the finish of the world architecture design and wonder of metal building. With 900 rooms and home of many indoor entertainments, this job was a large task. After 6 years, this aspiration comes true with the sterling silver tower shaped keep position in the heart and soul of U. A. E.
A process is a group of activities that are designed to transform an input into an result. This transformation contains the data and information, decision making and implementation and control. First of all, design of a process must addresses about the data. What could possibly be the data resources, how the data should be gathered, stored, retrieved and presented to decision designers. Secondly, the display required to decision designers should be clear and clear. Whenever a real problem is too complicated to solve or some information is lacking, simplifying assumption are made and model is developed. Last but not least, data and model integration should be used. Data from the data source should be included with the help of model and then information generated from the model by using data of data centered should be provided to the decision producers. A Project process have different periods entail in it. Those are (1) Initiation (2) planning and control (3) closure (2)
Every task has a start point. Before start of job, interest of certain stakeholders is talked about and need for job is finalised. You will see a variety of ideas and opinions about the reason and opportunity of the task, what the final product of the project will be, and the way the job will be carried out. The Project Initiation Stage can be involved with taking these ideas and motives and producing them into a formal, prepared, resourced and funded task. Burj khalifa was decided by the ruler of Dubai Sheik Muhammad. It was just a theme in the mind of His Highness Mr. Muhammad. Later that theme was mentioned and decided to build that building(task). Project is not began yet. But they are the eye of certain stakeholders (3)
This stage starts with the handing over of task to the organisation or individual who will deal with it.
The project was kicked off with the handover of task to EMAAR (Abu Dahbi's biggest building Company)
In order to define a project in this way, it is first essential to obviously and explicitly explain what the task is intended to achieve and what its range appealing will be. By defining this first, a benchmark is established for assessing the quality of what is actually produced at the end of the job. So this task was talked about with the users of the government to Dubai to the part of recognition of Dubai as an international business city. The Opportunity of the job was high as this was $1. 5 billion and it was said to be an icon for Dubai. The objective of the task was to present Dubai as a global city in front of world. It is also necessary to develop a process where the project objectives can be achieved. Work Breakdown Structure is a technique to get the structure of the procedure that should be done in the job. A WBS diagram expresses the project scope in simple visual terms. The diagram starts with a single container or other graphic at the top to represent the whole project. The project is then split into components, with related activities listed under them. Generally, the upper components are the deliverables and the low level elements will be the activities that create the deliverables. (4)
(2) http://www. projectsmart. co. uk/pmbok. html
(3) http://burj-khalifa. eu/featured/tall-order
(4) htttp://www. brighthub. com/office/project-management/articles/2645. aspx
Project was planned to complete in 4 years but it finished in 6 years. Starting time was January 2004 and it was organized to finished in 2008. Its budget was $1. 5 billion. There are different tools and technique that can be used to manage schedule and budgeting. The first is Gantt graph that is around for many years. These are excellent models for scheduling and then for budgeting, and then for reporting and delivering and communicating task plans and improve easily and quickly, but generally Gantt Charts aren't as good as a Critical Avenue Analysis Movement Diagram for figuring out and exhibiting interdependent factors, or for 'mapping' a plan from and/or into all of its comprehensive causal or contributing elements. Critical Path Analysis is another technique that is being used for the scheduling of the task. This technique calculates the lowest conclusion time for a project combined with the possible start and finish times for the task activities. Indeed, many texts and managers respect critical path arranging as the only usable and sensible scheduling treatment. Computer programs and algorithms for critical journey scheduling are accessible and can proficiently handle projects with a large number of activities. (5)
A Southern Korean company Southern Korean company, Samsung Anatomist & Building, which also did work on the PETRONAS twin towers and Taipei 101.
Control of each stage of the process is important as this will have an impact on the next level. This process will typically involve following a number of jobs and creating a range of products during the task. The duties produce the merchandise. For clarity of purpose as well as for control reasons it pays to to set up these duties in a top down composition, which progressively identify the mandatory work in more detail. Burj khalifa tower task was divided into several small chunks and then each level was control with a different procedure.
Initial stage also defines what resources and associated time commitment must perform the project. The work breakdown structure offers a basis that this estimation can be executed. The resource and time determination can be used to calculate a finish night out for the job and an estimate of its cost. Resources necessary for Burj khalifa was important to manage the move of work. Metallic was found in a very big amount that was brought in from India. As the land of Dubai is mostly sand as well as for the safety goal, the basement was filled with the land from other area of the world.
The overall task plan is not at length to allow the allocation of genuine resources to jobs, or even to control progress. It is vital to make a more detailed plan for these purposes. This comprehensive plan is merely produced for another stage of the project, usually covering an elapsed time of two to four weeks.
(5)http://pmbook. ce. cmu. edu/10_Fundamental_Scheduling_Procedures. html
The way the task is monitored and executed is the main element to its success. The participation of the right people for data record and decision making is also very important. It's important to recruit these folks in the beginning of the project and define the project organization structure. It is also necessary to establish the procedures that will be used by the individuals in the Task Organization Structure to carry out and control the task work.
Finally, in order to establish a resourced and funded project, it's important to establish a and convincing business circumstance for the job. This business circumstance should be researched, and ideally accepted by management. The business circumstance will identify the projected advantages of meeting the targets of the task, and balance these against the costs and dangers associated with noticing these benefits. The business case may also be used as a standard to compare against real results, costs and benefits to be able to assess the ultimate success of the job. The Job Initiation level is defined here as a sequence of steps. In reality, once the objective and scope have been identified, several steps arise in parallel, and the step products are developed iteratively, since there a wide range of dependencies between the steps. It's important to plan the Task Initiation stage, albeit in an informal manner. Therefore it is important to make a Project Initiation Start Plan scheduling the activities and resources. (6)
3. 3 Execution
During this level of the task, the target should be on carrying out the work organized for the level there a wide range of project management activities that need to be completed in addition to the task work itself. These activities are established into some steps. A step to initiate the stage, steps that are carried out on an on-going basis throughout the level, steps that are carried out by the end of the level and a step that is merely carried out in an exception situation.
To control the follow of the procedure and to control activities through the process stages, project manager should keep an eye on and control job progress, by using regular checkpoints relating to the job team and formal reviews with task mother board. Also, quality of the product and changes in the baselined products are also been able. There can be many issues that arose through the processes and those issues should be removed. The constructions of Burj Khalifa had not been easy as the building progresses, the filling up of concrete into the surfaces was a problem. The vertical method was used to place the cement from the very best. It had been a risky as well as complex challenge. Also, the use of heavy equipment from the very best and how to fix that machinery at the top was also an issue of protection.
Several of the activities will lead to changes to the level schedule. The Stage Manager should ensure these changes are created smoothly, and that these changes are communicated to all or any worried. Any changes designed to individual work assignments should be affirmed in the standard checkpoint conferences. If there as any issue occurs during any level then stage plan will be modified to control that deviation.
(6)http://dijest. com/tools/pmworkbench/pmtemplates/pmoredocs/pmprocess. htm
The documents of all processed and levels should be maintained and revise regularly. Digital and hardcopy record structures are create to constantly maintain and administer project management and development products. All documentation techniques for the level should be proven and the team should comprehend what these are for, the way they are employed, and what their specific tasks are.
Emaar set up a repository for the Burj Khalifa project to keep an eye on all the procedure also to discuss it with all the current management mixed up in process to show what is going on. This allows the project director and other staff to communicate one another more exactly and take appropriate action if there is any deviation. The complete project was divided into small assignments and whole team was split into small project clubs who control these small jobs.
A Project Plank of Burj Khalifa is the professional authority of any project. It authorizes the job to continue, approve any change or if possible stop the task. It enters in to a contract with the Task Manager through the Task Initiation, Task and Stage Ideas, to supply the professional support and resources necessary to execute a task that will deliver the specified products to plan and budget. The Project Mother board should view the task as an investment designed to deliver gain business benefits. Inability to accomplish those benefits displays as much upon the control exercised by the Project Board as it does on the execution of tasks by the Job Manager and Task Team. The Task Board meet at the end of each stage, including Task Initiation, to examine the achievements of the concluded level and authorize proceeding to the next. Project Manager program standing Project Mother board meetings at the start of the project. Confirm the logistics of the next meeting, namely date, time and discussion room. Also, job manager are accountable to the Project Mother board the results of the Post Implementation Review. This evaluate the performance of the new system against the objectives planned. It also identifies and captures metrics and factors that will improve the development process. PERT analysis can be used to monitor the actions along with Gantt graph and CPA (Critical Journey analysis)
Every job has a life. It begins and then over time it ends. All good things must come to a finish. Projects are made to end sooner or later this is the nature of project work. Burj Khalifa job were only available in Jan 2004 and it done in Jan 2010. To gain maximum benefit from a project, the project experienced a formal close down. There may be some excellent work that needs to be completed on the merchandise of the job. The job will have been using several lists and traffic monitoring mechanisms, like the change request log and the issues log. These need to be formally shut down. The members of the Job Organization will have learnt how to handle this type of project better in the foreseeable future, and will have a much better idea of the length of time the many activities upon this type of job will need to do. These learning's should be captured for future use. There will be a great deal of information produced during a job, and this will have been stored with differing levels of formality by the participants of the Task Organization. These details needs to be formally filed away for possible future use. By this time around in the project, all project work should have been completed, and the products of the task must have been accepted by the customers. It is possible however, that the ultimate products do not totally meet up with the original targets and requirements. Before the project is totally done, any outages in the products should be recognized and evaluated. If it is chosen that the outages have to be fixed, it'll be necessary to setup a mechanism to transport this out. This can be by a fresh job, or a maintenance program. Ensure that the evaluation includes an analysis against the Business Success Criteria which were defined through the Project Initiation Stage. However, additionally it is important to evaluate the entire quality of the final product in respect of its ability to meet current requirements. Review the changes that are suggested to the procedure applied to the job. Examine each change and decide if it's likely to connect with future projects of this type. Change the standard process predicated on these reasons. (7)
As all the projects have an integral part i. e. scheduling. Scheduling can be an important part of any job as this breakdown the work in small chunks that are easy to control. But there are a few projects in which scheduling are not important. Including the project of US conflict with Afghanistan. War is began but there isn't set plan of procedding. Programs are changing within an hours or days and nights but no clear agenda. You will discover no stages require as everything taking place as the change of weather. Although this project has a starting point and there will be an ending point but there isn't set process for this.
A challenging job is made manageable by first breaking it down into specific components in the task breakdown structure, or the WBS. That is a hierarchical composition that shows that main part and then its subparts. This is split into small chunks that can easily be maintained by the management as compared to whole big project. Such a framework defines tasks that may be completed separately of other tasks, facilitating source of information allocation, assigning obligations to differing people, and dimension and control of the job.
Each business uses its terminology for Work Breakdown Structure components according to their own needs. For example, some organizations refer to different levels as main jobs, sub-tasks, and work plans, as shown below. Others use the several terms stages, entries, and activities.
The WBS may be planned around deliverables or stages of the job life routine. Higher levels in the structure generally are performed by organizations. The cheapest level in the hierarchy often comprises activities performed by individuals, though a WBS that emphasizes deliverables does not necessarily identify activities.
(7) http://theconstructor. org/structures/burj-khalifa-dubai-opening-ceremony/1003/
The wearing down of a task into its component parts facilitates tool allocation and the task of individual obligations. Care should be taken to use a proper level of detail when making the WBS. On the main one extreme, an extremely higher level of detail will probably cause micro-management. On the other extreme, the jobs may become too large to control effectively. Defining jobs so that their duration is between several days and some months is effective for most jobs. (8)
Below is the work breakdown structure used in construction and related to Burj khalifa
(8)http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/wbs/
(9)Case study about scope-cost-time integrated model with work malfunction structure http://cife. stanford. edu/online. publications/WP115. pdf
Gantt Charts are extremely useful task management tools that is employed mostly in arranging and budgeting. The Gantt chart is named after US engineer and advisor Henry Gantt (1861-1919) who devised the technique in the 1910s.
Gantt charts are great models for scheduling and then for budgeting, and for reporting and showing and communicating job plans and improvement quickly. Gantt graph can be made by using MS Excel. Every activity has a separate bar. Produce a time-line throughout the project. Colour can be used to show enough time blocks to denote kind of activity (for example, digging, piling, concreting, completing, etc. ). A Gantt graph can be used to keep track of progress for each and every activity and how the costs are operating. In Burj khalifa task, Gantt chart really helps to manage step-by-step activity. Enough time blocks around can be moved to survey on actuals versus prepared, and re-schedule, and also to create new plan updates. Costs columns can show plan and actuals and variances, and determine whatever totals, averages, ratios, etc. , that you'll require. Gantt Charts are probably the most versatile and useful of all job management tools, but remember they don't very easily or obviously show the importance and inter-dependence of related parallel activities, plus they won't clearly show the necessity to complete one activity before another will start. Project planning tools in a natural way become used also for succeeding project reporting, presentations, etc. , and you will make life easier for everybody if you use formats that individuals recognize and find familiar. (10)
Critical path examination / method are an efficient way to analyse intricate projects. CPA presents the critical set of activities to complete a task. Critical journey helps us to give attention to important activities which can be critical to perform the project. After the critical activities are revealed, we can devote good resources and prioritize the same consequently. CPA also provides us a good basis for arranging and monitoring for improvement. One of the most important thing it does is allows the task manager to concentrate on important activities.
This method requires the longest time then the other methods.
(10) http://www. businessballs. com/project. htm
(11) Mind Mapping RESEARCH STUDY to aid Gantt chart method
http://www. matchware. com/en/forms/mindview2%20case%20studies/case_history_form. pdf
CPM models the actions and events of a project as a network. Activities are shown as nodes on the network and events that signify the beginning or closing of activities are presented with lines between the nodes. The above is an example of a CPM network diagram. (13)
Burj Khalifa was not just a project. From the milestone in the history of Dubai which boosts the projection of Dubai in the modern world. Even as we land on Dubai air-port, this tower welcomes you using its shinning image from Arabian Sea. It's a design of real human cleverness which satisfied all its stakeholders with nothing at all below then positivity. As this is actually the tallest tower, the gravity was a concern which was solved with the look. The success of the project is that it's the sole highest synthetic tower on the planet earth that was completed finally in 2010 2010. Second of all, the world famous designer ARMANI opens its store in the tower. Also, the celebrated business is going to open their offices for the reason that tower.
Project management of a powerful field using its knowledge of taking care of from a small activity to substantial job. This field is very interesting in the sense that it provides step-by-step approach to finish a particular job. I researched many case studies from a construction to the Deli Olympics, from Football World glass to Cricket World cup events. I did not mention these events in my tasks but I look for similarities of controlling these tasks. Although there are not much difference between your methods used in these events but there are specific requirements that are required for a particular assignments. I am working as a supervisor in a retain chain and I see these procedures of project in my work indirectly. I am very much interested in task manager in my own future and I found these approaches helpful for the implications of my job role. I am aware from this module that as a project manager how can I initiate, airplane, control, monitor and close my projects.
Before this module, I was not aware of the role of project manager. I was taking this job as a normal person job that just acquisitions material and present it to employees and just shop around. But after understanding this component and its different facets, I come to the idea that task management can be an important field atlanta divorce attorneys aspects of human life from inside a living house to an international consignment. The eye in this role if you ask me is the different stages those are involved in this field.
As a task director the changes that I will make in my approach are
Documents all the activities
Work Breakdown into small chunks
(12) Case Study of baking a loaf of bakery to aid Critical path analysis
http://teacher2u. net/business/production/critical-path-analysis. htm
(13)http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/cpm/
Manage each stage separately
Communicate my plan with my staff effectively
Evaluate each activity
Monitor each activity
Control of the workflow
http://www. gizmag. com/go/3555/picture/7485/
http://www. projectsmart. co. uk/pmbok. html
http://www. brighthub. com/office/project-management/articles/2645. aspx
http://pmbook. ce. cmu. edu/10_Fundamental_Scheduling_Procedures. html
http://dijest. com/tools/pmworkbench/pmtemplates/pmoredocs/pmprocess. htm
http://theconstructor. org/set ups/burj-khalifa-dubai-opening-ceremony/1003/
http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/wbs/
Case research about scope-cost-time built in model with work break down structure http://cife. stanford. edu/online. publications/WP115. pdf
http://www. businessballs. com/project. htm
Mind Mapping Case Study http://www. matchware. com/en/forms/mindview2%20case%20studies/case_history_form. pdf
Baking a Loaf of Bread Case Study http://tutor2u. net/business/production/critical-path-analysis. htm
http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/cpm/