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Key Elements Of Industrial Relations Business Essay

Worldwide about 6, 000 workers lose their lives every day of the yeas anticipated to work-related accidents, incidents, or diseases. An estimation of 2. 2 million people across the world die every year because of work-related accidents and diseases and 270 million other people have problems with serious incidents and 160 million people are affected short or permanent illness scheduled to work each year. As this is an extremely high number and a critical issue in worldwide ILO has been in the centre of ILO's plan, to safeguard against sickness, disease and injury taking place due to employment. Therefore this topic can be seen as an important concern in the IR systems of the world.

The objective of this project is to see and come to a finish whether ILO can make a difference in the problem of Safe practices and Health at the job nowadays by looking meticulously at ILO, their work, views and recommendations on this issue through the knowledge and information that we got out of this subject Industrial Relations. This discussion paper will also help us to boost our capability to talk and make ideas and present more comprehensive knowledge about Industrial Relations and its concepts and identify what ILO needs to do to be able to improve and make world more aware on Safeness and Health at the job as this is a very important issue nowadays for its personnel and employers. Betterment of Security and Health at the job will establish much better relationships with their employees, have more satisfied and healthy individuals, so working place and people will be more happy and problem free which will help companies to achieve their goals easily and gain income. Hence, the IR system across the world could be more useful and effective making the working environment and world a far greater and safer place. (Safeness and Health at the job, n. d. )

2. 0 What exactly are IR and IIR?

Traditionally Industrial Relationships (IR) targets formal and casual institutions of job regulation which include collective bargaining, unions, workplace organizations and labour tribunals. A country's professional relations are developed by a series of influences like this country's background, culture, law, technology, economic guidelines and respond to globalization. Industrial relationships are described by Dunlop (1958) as the study of employment guidelines and their variations over time. According to Dunlop, government businesses and management unions proven a network of guidelines to govern the place of work and the task community. It's the analysis about who produces the guidelines prevailing worker-management relationships in the workplace, the temperament of these rules, and how they are supervised and standardized. (Kelly, 1999)

International Industrial Relationships handles the body and phenomena that have cross national restrictions as their professional relations top features of multi-national companies or the international labour activity.

2. 1 IMPORTANT ELEMENTS of Industrial Relations

(Refer Appendix 1)

2. 2 Systems View of IR

2. 3 Methods to Industrial Relations

2. 4 Success associated with an IR System

Success of IR system will depend on a company efficiently participating to certain issues by allowing and ensuring tranquility within the economy and subsequently gaining cultural development. (Refer Appendix 2)

3. 0 International Labour Corporation (ILO) - Overview

ILO was founded on 11th Apr 1919 at the "calmness discussion by the Treaty of Versialls" that concluded the World Warfare I. It was created mainly in response to humanitarian matter above the conditions of workders, politics and economic considerations. Since its early days the ILO has made signal contributions to the world of work as in the first International Labour Convention performed in Washington in Oct 1919 ILO implemented six International Labour Conventions dealing with working time in industry, maternity protection, night help women, unemployment, minimum age and night work for teenagers on the market.

The International Labour Office is the long term secretariat and operational headquarters of ILO. You will discover more than 40 branch office buildings under the leadership of a Director-General with supervision and management being decentralized in each local area. Director-General is elected every five years by the regulating body and it is put through the instructions of the governing body and in charge of efficient conduct of the International Labour Office and other which might be assigned. ILO Supervision Tribunal examines employment-related problems by representatives of International Labour Office that has accepted jurisdiction and presently offering 46, 000 international civil servants who are providing of former officers of around 60 organisations. Universally ILO is undoubtedly an authoritative source of knowledge on the world of work and they established institutes and centres that provide specialised research, training and support for the ILO's offices and constituents. (About the ILO, n. d. )

3. 1 Framework of ILO - Tripartite Constituency

ILO is the sole tripartite U. N. firm with government, workplace, and worker reps making them unique discussion board where government authorities and social companions of its 185 member claims economy widely and openly issue and intricate on labour criteria and regulations.

3. 2 How ILO Works - Tripartism and Public Dialogue

Most important theory ILO is the cooperation between government authorities and employers' and individuals' organizations in developing social and economic progress. By bringing together government authorities, employers and employees ILO aims to provide the needs of working men and women and establishing labour standards, developing plans and devise programs. This very composition shows ILO's social dialogue doing his thing as staff and employers mutually have the same voice with government authorities in its deliberations and these views are shown in ILO labour requirements, policies and programs.

Tripartism is inspired within ILO's constituents and member states through campaign of interpersonal dialogue between trade unions and employers by formulation and implementation of national plan on social, economical and many other issues. ILO's main work is achieved through three main body (The International labour Discussion, the Governing body and the Office) which is comprise of governments', employers' and personnel' representatives where the work of Governing Body and any office is assisted by tripartite committees covering major sectors. Also, they are backed by committees of experts on issues such as management development, professional relations, vocational training, individuals' education, occupational security and health, and special problems of women and young staff. To examine matters of special interest to concerned regions, regional meetings of the ILO member areas are periodically performed. (The way the ILO works, n. d. )

3. 3 Quest and Goal of ILO

"The primary goal of the ILO today is to market opportunities for men and women to obtain decent and successful work, in conditions of liberty, collateral, security and human being dignity. " (Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General)

3. 4 The ILO Constitution

The Preamble to the Constitutions says "Whereas General and Lasting Peace can be proven only when it is situated upon Sociable Justice" (Please see ILO website for full text message)

3. 5 Opportunity of the ILO

3. 6 Works of the ILO

ILO seeks to ensure that labour criteria are respected used as well as in principle while dealing with its member Says because they are the global body responsible for drawing up and overseeing application of international specifications.

3. 7 Key Issues Tackled by the ILO

Some of the main element issues tackled by the ILO are:

Global job crisis

Social protection floor initiative

Realizing the Millennium Development Goals

Social Justice and a Fair Globalization

3. 8 How ILO Intervenes

3. 8. 1 International Labour Standards and its own Effects

3. 8. 2 Recent Position of International Labour Standards

As at November 2012 the International Labour Requirements can be said to have:

189 Conventions (C 189, Household Individuals Convention, 2010)

202 Suggestions (R 202, Public Protection Floors Advice 2012)

185 Member Says (Maldives, South Sudan, Republic of Palau)

International Labour Expectations are categorized as;

Basic Human Rights, Employment, Social coverage, Labour Administration, Industrial Relations, Conditions of work, Friendly Security, Employment of Women, Occupation of Children and Young Folks, Safety for Special Categories

3. 8. 3 Method of Action employed by ILO

3. 9 Areas Completed by ILO under Conventions and Recommendations

3. 9. 1 Conventions and Recommendations

Conventions and Suggestions are two tools utilized by the ILO to set international labour criteria to set out basics and rights at the job. Conventions are legitimately binding international treaties that could be ratified by member state governments and recommendations provide as non-binding recommendations. As convention lays down the basic ideas to be implemented by ratifying countries while related suggestions matches the convention giving more thorough rules on how it could be applied. Recommendations may also be self-ruling and not linked to any convention. You will find 8 fundamental conventions and four concern governance conventions. (Refer Appendix 3)

Total Number of Conventions: 189

Convention Fundamental: 8

Convention Governance (Goal): 4

Up as of yet Conventions: 82

Shelved Conventions: 25

Withdrawn Conventions: 5

Conventions in effect: 153

Number of Protocols: 5

Number of Advice: 202

Withdrawn Advice: 36

3. 9. 2 Why these Areas are Important

Some important Conventions and Advice are:

No. 29 - Obligated Labour Convention (1930)

No. 87 - Flexibility of Relationship and Cover of the Right to arrange Convention (1948)

No. 98 - Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949)

No. 100 - Equal Remuneration Convention (1951)

No. 105 - Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (1957)

No. 111 - Discrimination (Career and Profession) Convention (1958)

No. 138 - Least Era Convention (1973) and Advice NO. 190

No. 182 - Most detrimental Types of Child Labour Convention (1999) and Recommendation No. 146 (ILO Conventions and Referrals, n. d. )

Details receive in the Appendix (Refer Appendix 4)



3. 10 Supervision and Monitoring of Application of Standards

ILO has a big standard-setting and guidance agenda and is actually predicated on two types of techniques - a regular procedure and ad hoc procedure which is triggered on adversarial basis and is defined in its Constitution. Present structure is the outcome of some adjustments made by the Meeting and the Regulating Body throughout the years in order to adapt the task to the growing amounts of conventions and expresses that are parties to them. As ILO is a tripartite firm its constituents and decision designers are not only the governments but also employees and employers and they all play an active role in the supervision of ratified conventions. (Romano, 1996)

Below are a few of supervisory documents, information and bodies

Annual Reports

Under Article 22 ( ILO Constitution)- - Ratified Conventions

Under Article 19 ( ILO Constitution)- - Non-ratified Conventions

Committee of Experts on Request of Conventions and Recommendation (CEACR)

Conference Committee on Program of Standards

Global Report

Reports under Declaration of Public Justice for Fair Globalization of 2008

3. 11 ILO's Complaint Procedure

ILO's complaint method is controlled by Articles 26 to 34 of the ILO Constitution where a complaint can be judged against a member state not observing a convention to which it is a party and can be filed by:

Another member condition also having ratified the same convention

Any delegate to the ILO Convention (each member state is also displayed by a delegate representing the employers and a delegate representing the personnel)

The ILO Regulating Body (made up of 28 state representatives, 14 reps from employers and 14 consultant of individuals)

This demonstrates a compliant cannot be filed by an individual and is mostly done by trade unions of the united states which are displayed in the ILO (Complaints, n. d. )

Below are committees for issues:

Committee on Liberty of Association

Commission of Inquiry

3. 11. 1 Declaration of Ideas and Rights at the job and its own Follow-up

These declarations makes certain that these rights are universal and they apply to all people in all expresses, no matter their economical development and the dedication is reinforced by a follow-up procedure. The Declaration and its own Follow-up provides 3 ways to help countries, employers and personnel to achieve the full probable of the Declaration's purpose. They are simply:

Annual Review composed of accounts from countries which may have not yet ratified

Global Report

Technical cooperation tasks (About the Declaration, n. d. )

3. 11. 2 Central Labour Standards

4. 0 Safe practices and Health at Work

"Every 15 moments, a worker dies from a work-related automobile accident or disease.

Every 15 moments, 160 personnel have a work-related car accident. "

There are definitely more than 2. 3 million deaths per calendar year - each day, 6, 300 people expire as a result of occupational accidents or work-related diseases. From these 317 million incidents occur face to face annually which results in prolonged absences of employees from work. Hence, the human cost of the hazard is huge and the monetary burden caused due to poor occupational safety and health procedures is anticipated at 4 percent of global Gross Household Product each year.

4. 1 What is Security and Health at the job?

Safety and Health issues at work change from country to country, economic areas and even social groups. Their idea of work culture is a representation of the fundamental value systems followed by that party and such cultures is seen used in the managerial systems, employees policy, rules for participation, training insurance policies and quality management of the duty. Safe practices and Health at work or Occupational safeness and health (OSH) aim is the promotion and upholding of maximum degree of physical, mental and cultural well-being of personnel in all occupations; in conclusion the version of work to man and of every man to his job. Definitive goal is to promote a safe and healthy work environment for every employee. The main concentration is on three different objectives;

The maintenance and advertising of individuals' health insurance and working capacity

The improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to basic safety and health, and

Development of work organizations and working cultures in a course which supports health insurance and safety at the job while doing this promoting a good social weather and smooth procedure and enhancing output of the task.

4. 2 Reasons for selecting this Topic

Main reason I decided to go with this topic is because today this is one of the primary concerns on the planet and the task environment. As industrial relations is a very important concept in every single country today as creating and creating a safe work environment is essential to the success of any business and is also one of the better ways to keep staff and get their maximum efficiency. Consequently this is very important and essential even though it might cost a bit to execute such safe routines and set up safe equipment however, not taking any action might trigger severe problems. WHEN I used to work before and after finishing my studies I intend to go and start work Personally i think that safety in any workplace is vital and this businesses need to ensure this in order to keep their staff happy and make them work with their full potential. I also feel that knowing and understanding the OHS regulations and new work health and safety laws will help me to avoid needless costs and damage to myself and my fellow workers and provide me satisfaction and a business the foundation they have to achieve long-term success. AS I get back to work I wish to go to a place where there is most beneficial safeness and health at work which will make my life safer in the work environment.

This also an extremely crucial issue that people need to provide their commitment to make it better, specially international organization like ILO, to take notice and do something and make a difference on the globe so that more folks are aware of this problems, alternatives and actions that will used if there is bad basic safety and health at work as fatalities and injuries have a primarily a heavy toll in expanding countries, where most of the population is occupied in dangerous activities, such as agriculture, fishing and mining. Also the most affected will be the poorest and least shielded, often women, children and migrants across the world.

4. 3 ILO's Methodology on Security and Health at Work

ILO has a Programme on Basic safety and Health at the job and the Environment, SafeWork, which is designed to create worldwide awareness of the scope and results of work-related accidents, accidents and diseases. SafeWork's target is to place medical and safety of all staff on the international plan; and to encourage and support sensible action whatsoever levels. As ILO says "Decent work is safe work. " (Safe practices and health at work, n. d. )

The ILO printed ILO-OSH in 2001 titled as Rules an on occupational basic safety and health management systems to help organizations with adding OSH management systems. These guidelines encourage constant development in employee health and safety, accomplished by having a constant procedure for policy, business, planning & implementation, analysis and action for improvement, all recognized by constant auditing to resolve the success of OSH actions.

In order to assist employers to maintain with the speedily changing and competitive commercial conditions the ILO management system was made. ILO accepted that national legislation is essential but inadequate alone to take on the challenges faced by industry as such they selected to ensure free and open up syndication of administrative tools in the forum of occupational health and basic safety management system supervision for everybody to provide everyone with tools for industry to generate safer and healthy working environment and set up a positive safety cultures within the organizations.

4. 4 Security and Health at the job Standards

The ILO Constitution help with the theory that staff should be secured from sickness, disease and harm taking place of their employment. ILO requirements on occupational safeness and health offered fundamental tools for governments, employers, and employees to set up such practices and provide for maximum safety at the job. ILO have also followed more than 40 standards in particular coping with occupational safety and health, as well as over 40 Rules of Practice and almost half ILO instruments offer immediately with occupational safety and health issues. (Refer Appendix 4)

4. 5 Good Practices of Security and Health at Work in various Countries

The Healthy Workplaces Campaigns (previously known as "European Weeks for Security and Health at the job") working since 2000 are one of EU-OSHA's main tools for boosting knowing of issues related to occupational safeness and health, and promoting the idea that good health and safety is good for business. Also these promotions are now major with their kind on the globe. (Healthy Workplaces Campaigns, n. d. )

Some other good routines are:

Assistance in planning and company of all top features of work, at all stages, to ensure working conditions which will not in the brief or longer term damage medical and security of the employees;

Collaboration with the Internal Safety service, Protection Committee and engagement of workers, to be sure that all aspects of health and safe practices at work are incorporated in the workplace review and the solution of problems;

Primary elements of the diagnosis - rules of reduction are executed in advising how the work is usually to be prepared and performed. All company paperwork needed for the chance assessment is accumulated; workplace and individual employee data are kept. Work area assessment is conducted in an effective and sensible way also in regard to the environment. Appropriate guidelines to the personnel and their education are included; and

Necessary training and expert assistance when needed are made certain.

4. 6 Safety and Health at the job Situation in real life and its Reasons

4. 6. 1 Situation in General throughout the World

Work plays an important role in people's lives as most staff spend at least eight time a day in the workplace, whether it is an office, stock, over a plantation, etc. Hence, it is essential that work place to be safe and healthy but this is not the case for most workers surrounding the world. Every day workers surrounding the world are faced with different health hazards, like dusts, gases, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures and so many more. It is very regrettable that some employers take little responsibility for the protection of the staff and their health and safe practices. Actually some employers have no idea they have the ethical and responsibility to safeguard their personnel and because of this insufficient knowledge and attention directed at health and safety and risks, work-related incidents and diseases are common throughout the world. (Your wellbeing and safety at the job, n. d. )

Map 1: Maplecroft - Global Map of Health and Security Risk 2011

http://human-rights. unglobalcompact. org/advertising/v_hr_solutions-20110825_121354/hr_solutions/images/global/health_and_safety. jpg

4. 6. 2 Safety and Health at the job in Relation to Sri Lanka

Activities relating to occupational security and health (OSH) in Sri Lanka are handled through priority results 2, Enhanced labour supervision and promotion of equitable occupation methods of the Decent Work Country Programme for Sri Lank 2008-2012. As occupational Protection and Health deals with the safeguard of the very most valuable and indispensable human property of any country, its' labor force which includes not only the income employment but all the working inhabitants who engages in some kind of self financial activity contributing to countrywide development.

According to ILO's estimations, in Sri Lanka about 4, 000 incidents are being reported each year and around 600, 000 working days every year are lost credited to mishaps. Since calendar year 1896 till 1950 in Sri Lanka factors on Occupational Safeness and Health was limited to Mines and the relevant machinery and only prolonged to Factories under Stock Ordinance to date. These shortcomings with regards to Occupational Safe practices and Coverage of health in the formal sector is an integral matter because only 30 percent of the labour drive is covered by the statutory provision on OSH. As the government realized the necessity for wider coverage their state took responsibility to ensure safe and non-exploitative work place for any Sri Lankans and the Ministry of Labour Relations and Manpower embarked on formulating new legislation with specialized assistance from ILO. Because of this the new Protection Health insurance and Welfare at the job Act has been approved by Pantry now and is likely to be offered to Parliament for his or her approval. (Protection and Health at work, Sri Lanka, 2012)

4. 7 What is ILO doing about Protection and Health at Work at the moment?

Since its' very beginning 90 years back the cover of staff' lives and health has been a key target of the ILO. As today's quickly changing world with its technical change and fast-paced and globalised economy causes new difficulties and pressure on every area of the world of work, specifically for occupational basic safety and health which ILO has made as an intrinsic element in their Reasonable Work Agenda.

The Program on Basic safety and Health at the job and the surroundings (SafeWork) is ILO's lead device on OSH which plays an important role in showing guidelines in the field and boosting awareness of OSH issues. The four major goals of SafeWork are:

"Develop preventative insurance policies and programmes to safeguard workers in dangerous occupations and industries;

Extend the effective safety to vulnerable groups of workers falling beyond your scope of traditional protective measures;

Better equip governments, employers' and employees' organizations to handle problems of staff' well-being, occupational health care and the grade of working life; and

Document the communal and financial impact of enhancing workers' protection such that it can be identified by policy and decision designers. " (World Day for Safe practices and Health at the job 2009, 2009)

The party of Expression Day for Safeness and Health is an essential part of Global Strategy on ILO's Occupational Basic safety and Health as they promotes the establishment of a global preventative safety and health culture by affecting all stakeholders centering international attention on growing trends in neuro-scientific occupational safeness and health and on the magnitude of work-related accidents, diseases and fatalities worldwide. It is also the day that world's trade union movements supports its International Commemoration Day to honour the dead and injured staff who have been the patients of occupational mishaps and diseases they plan worldwide mobilization and campaigns on this day.

The world day for Protection and Health at the job organised on 28 April every year is becoming one of the most important international events for promoting OSH. Every year there is a theme which is made on promoting a preventative safety and health culture at work with different sub-themes. Theme of 2012 centers on the advertising of occupational safeness and health (OSH) in a renewable economy as there's a change in the entire world to a greener plus more sustainable economy. In this particular as the renewable economy increases it is critical that basic safety and health at work are included into green jobs policies. This means that integrating risk analysis and management measures in the life cycle study of most green careers. (World Day for Safeness and Health at Work in 2012: Promoting basic safety and health in a green market, n. d. )

ILO in addition has been actively aiding initiatives in some countries for growing national guidelines and programmes where else far away closely dealing with their governments to determine countrywide tripartite advisory body for OSH.

4. 8 Monitoring and Control Procedures Adopted by ILO

The ILO is rolling out some comprehensive instruments to market its work in the field of OSH and the majority of these international tools are concerned with specific risks or specific areas. The ILO Promotional Framework for Occupational Safeness and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187) and its accompanying Recommendation (No. 197) describes requirements for countries to promote OSH through national OSH systems and programmes, building a precautionary safety and health culture and applying a systems approach to the management of OSH and also to attempt employers, workers and governments all play key functions.

Below stand shows ILO's Strategic Strategy on Occupational Safeness and Health

C:\Users\user\Desktop\ilo. png

There are three main components of the Promotional Platform Convention according to the table. (Refer Appendix 5)

ILO in addition has established an understanding management hub in the International Occupational Safe practices and Health Information Centre (ILO-CIS) to provide personnel and employers with relevant current information regarding health and safety issues. The centre supports the ILO's action plan on knowledge and management and international association by being accountable for:

Compiling OSH related information and making sure worldwide access to it

Creating and disseminating ILO OSH magazines (like the ILO Encyclopedia and related products)

Maintaining a global network of countrywide and international OSH establishments.

ILO's concept that Reasonable Work must be Safe Work, SafeWork aims to create worldwide knowing of the proportions and outcomes of work-related incidents and diseases; place OSH on the international and countrywide plans and offer helper to the countrywide efforts for the introduction of countrywide OSH systems and programs in line with suitable international labour requirements.

4. 9 How it operates in China and Indonesia

ILO works with governments, staff and employers in China and Mongolia and are strengthening their efforts to avoid accidents and diseases at work by promoting a preventative safe practices culture via the biennial China International Community forum on Work Safeness and the observation of World Day on Safeness and Health at the job every year on Apr 28. Also countrywide occupational safety and health systems including legal frameworks, inspections, and occupational incidents and injuries confirming, training and information, and sociable dialogue are being strengthened in China. ILO in addition has been promoting a useful training programme on WISE (Work Improvement in Small Corporations) in SMEs to meet up with the obstacles in China as many young and migrant staff are employed in small and medium-sized corporations.

ILO's basic safety and health mandate likewise incorporate helping workers, employers and governments' reaction to the challenges created by HIV/Assists and other health insurance and psychosocial risk. Risk management focuses on protection and anti-discrimination at work as a key for successful response. In China Security and health at the job is a workers' human right and an important part of people-oriented, safe development plan submit by their government as a wholesome labor force and safe and beneficial businesses are part with their lasting development strategy. (Safe practices and health at work, Co-Beijing, n. d. )

In Indonesia ILO has strongly caused tripartite lovers to strengthen countrywide OSH system and ensure that OSH issues are totally incorporated and protected in every ILO's programs as female area of the ILO Decent Work plan in Asia. Under ILO-Jakarta all the projects and programmes have a component to make certain that improvement of OSH execution through research and training programs.

In Indonesia also ILO's health and basic safety mandate includes supporting staff, employers and governments a reaction to the challenges faced by HIV/Products and by influenza pandemic through its HIV and Supports programme and Avian Influenza and the Place of work project. To be able to realize the goals of Asian Decent Workk Ten years ILO is also assisting Indonesia develop and apply preventative safe practices and health culture in workplaces.

The Manpower Take action No. 13 of 2003 mandated that every venture have to use OSH management system to guard the safety of the personnel and to comprehend the best productivity. Within the organization the co-operation of workers is vital for the prevention of occupational crashes and diseases. The venture policy also needs to reflect that workers' responsibilities in threat control have as their counterpart the acknowledgement of certain basic protection under the law; particularly workers have the to remove themselves from danger and won't perform or continue work if they have rational justification and think that it presents impending and serious hazard with their life or health.

ILO Jakarta also collaborated with Japan International Basis (JILAF) to help the employees in Indonesia in making use of their rights to get security on OSH and three other major confederations (KSPSI, KSPI and KSBSI) in Indonesia in implementing joint OSH training programs predicated on the prevailing JILA-KSPI POSITIVE Program in Indonesia. This program has been developed to promote action-oriented training in OSH by trade union initiative in industrially producing countries in order to disseminate knowledge on OSH among unions and how they contribute to progress the work surroundings especially at the seed level. (Protection and health at the job - Co-Jakarta, n. d. )

4. 10 Successes of ILO

Throughout the planet the entire world Day for Safeness and Heath at Work is celebrated through different by nationwide authorities, trade unions, employers' organizations and safety and doctors.

ILO in addition has set up as the 'knowledge management' hub of the ILO Programmed on Safety and Health at Work and the surroundings (Safework), The International Occupational Security and Health Information Centre (ILO-CIS) which provides employers and personnel with up-to-date home elevators occupational protection and health (OSH) and contact to the reality regarding the incidence of occupational injury and diseases.

Due to ILO's successful action plan and specific activities and services of information management they may be one of the key international players in the field OSH knowledge writing. They disseminate information source of information mainly thru the SafeWork website via the internet. This management of information on OSH by ILO can be an essential basis for the establishment and implementation of OSH regulations and programs at the nationwide and enterprise levels on earth.

Today, the Network of ILO-CIS Centres contains 152 collaborating centres in 109 countries and a territory. This Centre's activities are supported by a worldwide network of things, the ILO-CIS Collaborating Centres. This network contributes to swap of information between health and safety professionals and the ILO constituents in charge of the establishment and execution of nationwide policies and programmes. (International Occupational Security and Heatlh Information Centre (CIS) - SafeWork, n. d. )

There are many successfully implemented projects of ILO regarding Health and Safety at work concern. (Refer Appendix 6)

4. 11 Can ILO do this and make a Difference?

ILO can do this and make a difference to the earth through their successful implementation, development, improvement and standardization of Security and Health at the job. Also the Global Strategy used by ILO in 2003 has already had a deep impact on OSH procedures and programmes both at international and national levels and also ILO's present Programme and Budget derive from this plan. Even within ILO there is much greater collaboration between the SafeWork programme while others such as on HIV/Assists, migrant personnel and on the elimination of child labour and pressured labour to be able to ensure coordinated strategies over the ILO.

ILO's systems strategy and national coding for OSH are also attaining momentum at the nationwide level, and countrywide profiles which include progressively developed set of indicators of improvement. Measurable targest that happen to be governed by tripartite dialogue will achieve better OSH final results due to the constant and stepwise improvement of both countrywide OSH systems and national OSH programs.

Hence, credited to these factors and ILO's main aim is making insurance policies in collaboration with actors within the IR system (government authorities, employers and personnel), also their successful completion of different works, happenings and conferences shows that ILO can do this and improve Safe practices and Health at the job as they have already got standards founded through Conventions and Referrals, Code of Practice set out practical rules for public regulators, employers, workers, business and customized occupational safeness and health cover bodies. Their established occupational protection and health management systems, moral guidelines for workers' health surveillance, recording and notification of occupational injuries and disease; cover of personnel' personal data; safety, health insurance and working conditions in the transfer of technology to growing countries also show that ILO can do that.

Although there is a flipside to ILO since it can only just make plans and suggest them and countries can pick to simply accept or not admit them. Despite the fact that ILO cannot enforce its plans as it can suggest and recommend these to respective government authorities and ensure that something is performed to increase the working conditions of the personnel. All these demonstrates ILO is an influential organization throughout the world and they can make a difference in safety and health at the job as they can enforce this through different activities and making sure that countries maintain safe work environment to minimize the crashes and diseases.

4. 12 Can Safety and Health at the job rest assured?

Safety and Health at the job can rest assured, even though occupational mishaps and diseases cannot be totally stopped it can be reduced and taken to a least minimum amount amount possible. But ILO by themselves cannot do this work, as they want the help and cooperation of all the parties involved with a countries workforce and the relative parties. As we all know that workers, employers, governments and us the overall customers plays an important role in the assurance of safety and health at work and with all our help and effort with ILO we can make sure that workers are faced with minimal occupational accidents and diseases and ensure staff safety and health by attaining knowledge upon this and applying these measures to safeguard ourselves.

Safety and Health at Work can even be assured:

As a Consumer

As a firm or Organization

As a Politician

As a Worker (Refer Appendix 7)

5. 0 Bottom line and Recommendations

ILO is the international group accountable for overseeing and pulling up international labour criteria. The one 'tripartite' organization of the US who brings together representatives of government authorities, employers and personnel who together shape policies and programs promoting Decent Work with all. This original understanding provides ILO and advantage in integrating 'real world' understanding of occupation and work. The ILO's Recommendations on Occupational safeness and health management systems, implemented in 2001, have become the benchmark for developing OSH management systems criteria and broadly use model at both countrywide and business levels. ILO also provided technological assistance to countries who are enthusiastic about utilizing their own OSH management systems and offers training courses on this subject. Furthermore, the systems procedure for OSH management is one of the priority areas for conversation at ILO's forthcoming event at the XIX World Congress on Security and Health at Work which is co-organized by the ILO in Istanbul in September.

It can be seen from different cases regarding Safety and health at the job that many countries across the world have formally accepted the ILO recommendations as a model for national promotion and development of their OSH and adapted it with their needs, countries like Argentina, Brazil, Israel and Ireland. Some other countries like France and Japan are also promoting ILO's OSH recommendations and using it as a model to build up their own guidelines. All these implies that ILO's effort to make a notable difference in this matter of Safety and Health at Work is working well which is recognized and applied in many areas of the world.

From all my research and information I gained from ILO website it is visible that advertising of Occupational Safety and Health is a distributed responsibility which ILO cannot do by itself but governments, employers and workers and their organizations all have a role that can be played in the promotion of a preventative safety and healthy culture and advancement and development of steps for social safety and healthy and safe working conditions according to ILO's relevant declarations.

SafeWork strategy of ILO is one of the better strategies established in regards to to Safeness and Health at Work as its main aim is to make worldwide awareness of this dimensions and effects of work-related mishaps, accidental injuries and diseases. To be able to place medical and safety of all workers on the international plan and to encourage and support functional actions in any way levels. Therefore, Safework helps bring about as a policy and functional tool that the principal of avoidance as a competent and cost-effective way of providing protection and health security to all employees.

Some of the Tips that ILO may take into consideration are:

to encourage MNEs to be role models in this field by maintaining the best OSH standards

Encourage companies to lead research into factors behind OSH hazards and to support the execution of workplace strategies through corporate social responsibility advice and training for SMEs;

Developing functional and viable indications to display improvement in this area

Expanding OSH safeguard to the casual economy

Promoting cultural dialogue more as this can be an essential component for this area

Improving the collection and quality of occupational accident and disease figures;

Promoting research and methodologies about the economic impact of your sound execution of OSH requirements; and

Promoting international cooperation concerning OSH

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