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Introduction To Curriculum And Pedagogy Education Essay

It is clear to see several interpretations devised on curriculum and curriculum development by many curriculum expertises. However, they all differ from each other as they interpret their own views based on some concern they have for the reason that field. After going right through their views, I possibly could understand that, the word "curriculum" identifies an array of strategy, specification of aims, content and teaching materials and methods used while putting into action instructional activities to accomplish educational goals. So, proper knowledge of curriculum development is very important to all curriculum planners and teachers.

Sukmadinata (2000), presents that curriculum development could mean the preparation of the completely new curriculum, or improvement of the prevailing curriculum. Since curriculum posses major effect on all educational activities, every educational establishment has a curriculum that is accord and appropriate to the positioning, function and rational of these establishments. Therefore, I've discussed my knowledge of four models: Tyler model, Taba model, Oliva model, and the Saylor and Alexander model of curriculum development with their respective diagrams in following pages.

1. The Tyler Model

One of the models which continues to be known to be appropriate in present hundred years is the one publicized by Ralph Tyler in 1949. He mentioned his curriculum logical in terms of four questions based on educational purpose, essentiality of educational purposes, firm of educational experiences, and effective attainment of those purposes; these is highly recommended while developing any curriculum. Sources of objectives

Students

Society

Subject matter

Tentative objectives

Screen

Philosophy

Psychology

Final Objectives

Learning Experiences

Evaluation

So, he used these questions to build up four-step process as levelled in shape 1.

Figure1: Tyler's deductive curriculum module

We could find, in the first level, the curriculum programmers need to select and identify educational objectives predicated on three sources: students, contemporary society, and subject matter. The needs of students and community or nationwide society are examined from various items of views such as: occupational, internal, recreational, health, family, religious beliefs and civic assignments. Subject matter, being another source, curriculum coders looks at the subjects that are involved to be taught.

These speculative objectives from the three resources are then filtered through two displays: the classes philosophy and knowledge of the psychology of learning, to be able to finalize a set of educational targets.

After the conclusion of proclaiming and refining objectives, the rational proceeds through the steps of selection and group of learning experiences as the method of achieving results.

The final part of Tyler's rational; evaluation is the process of examining vitality positioned by the curriculum to prospects finalised educational objectives. Because the declaration of aims not only provides as the foundation for selecting and managing the learning activities, but also acts as a standard against which the program of curriculum training is appraised.

2. The Taba Model

Hilda Taba's model starts off with the curriculum and the teacher's prospect of what should be trained how, and then tests it on the students before declaring it effective. Therefore, she thought that teachers who educate or execute the curriculum should participate more than the expert in creating and expanding curriculum.

She used "grass main methodology in her model. So she believed that the instructors should first create specific educating- learning systems, and a hospitable environment that let us everyone feels like a good team member to provide best method of child's education. Thus she advocated an inductive method of curriculum development.

I could find that Taba model is basic, yet inclusive. It offers five steps to developing curriculum as illustrated in physique number 2 2.

Since she used an inductive method, her first step includes creating learning products for work to be analyzed. This is done in eight sub stages by diagnosing student's needs to be able to formulate the targets. Then, select and organize the content, choosing proper learning experience to achieve the objectives, willpower of what to evaluate and checking for balance and series.

Secondly, tests of experimental devices are done to be able to establish their authenticity and to set their demand for every grade level. That is accompanied by third level where they revise and modify products as necessary in interacting with all students' needs.

In later stage, they develop a framework to check to ensure that material is protected in a specific and complete manner. Finally, professors put the unit of review into practice, while always creating new products to use in the class room.

Five Step Sequence

Testing experimental devices because of their validity

Revising and Consolidating

Producing Pilot Units

Installing and disseminating new units

Developing a framework

1 2 3 4 5

Diagnosis of needs

Formulation of objectives

a.

Content selection

b.

Content organization

c.

Selection of learning experiences

d. Sub steps for creating pilot device.

Organization of learning activities

e.

f.

g.

Checking for the balance and sequence

h

Figure 2: The Taba Model displaying inductive way in curriculum developing

3. The Oliva Model

The Oliva Curriculum Development model is thorough and systematic, made up of twelve components each referred to as follows:

Component I: Curriculum designers identify and formulate philosophical and mental principles, target, objective and perspective of the institution based on the needs of students and contemporary society generally.

Component II: Here they analyse and identify the needs of this community, school and subject material which will be educated in the given school.

Component III and IV: Specs of curriculum goals and objectives predicated on the principles, quest and vision formulated in previous part occurs.

Component V: Plan the curriculum design and starts off implementing.

Component VI, VII and VIII: In these phases, they describe the curriculum by means of the formulation of general aims and specific learning by defining and specifying instructional goals, aims and learning strategies.

Component IXA and X: Preliminary studies on possible strategies or analysis techniques to be used are carried in this stage and in the later stage starts utilizing those learning strategies.

Components IXB, XI and XII: Finally curriculum programmers do final collection of assessment techniques, evaluation and modification of instructions, instructional components and curricular components.

4. The Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model

Saylor, Alexander and Lewis labeled sets of extensive goals into four domains: personal development, sociable fitness, suffered learning skills, and specialization. Because they believed that each curriculum development must commence by setting educational goals, domains and specific objectives that they wish to achieve, and then move into the process of planning the curriculum.

Firstly, here, the curriculum programmers decide on the appropriate learning opportunities for every single domain so when these opportunities will be made available.

After the designs have been created, curriculum execution begins. Teachers choose the methods through which the curriculum will be related to the learners. Educators identify the specific instructional targets before selecting the ways of implement.

Finally Instructors and curriculum planners measure the curriculum. They measure the total educational program. This process allows educators to determine set up goals and learning goals have been achieved.

External forces

Legal requirement

Research data

Professional associations

State guidelines

Figure 4: The Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model

Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum design

Goals and objectives

Bases of curriculum

Society

Learners

Knowledge (Administrative procedure)

Curriculum implementation

Feed back

Comparisons among models

I could find that four models mentioned above share both similarities as well as variations. Tyler and Oliva used deductive approach to describe about curriculum development where as Taba's model is inductive; that is, Tyler and Oliva's model shows that they finally choose specific and specific instructional goals after examining basic needs of the society. However in Taba's model generalization of curriculum design calls for later, after analyzing the grass main development curriculum materials.

On the other side, The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis model choose an administrative method of curriculum development where this is a means-end model. "It assumes a desired end (goals and aims), as method of attaining this end (learning activities), and an activity (evaluation) for deciding if the means in truth resulted in the desired end. " (Livenburg, 2011)

Though, four models differ in some aspects, all models reveals their respective group of development through the range of stages. Thus, they are all linear. Never the less, the models are said to be prescriptive as they plainly suggest what is needed to be done during development of curriculum. Furthermore it is available that Tyler's and Taba's specific concepts are still relevant in quality curriculum development today because they both consider the learners and their goals, main ideas to precise teaching learning goals crossways complete curriculum.

Conclusion

Four models were shown in this article: The Tyler's deductive model, Taba's inductive model, Oliva's deductive procedure model, and The Saylor's, Alexander's and Lewis administrative model. I understand these models can help us educators, curriculum programmers and administrators to conceptualize the development process by pointing certain ideas and strategies.

I feel that none of them of the model is inherently superior. All models are important in their own ways. Every model is featuring its own goal and goals based from the needs of people, community and the culture all together. In the end, all the models assist in guiding instructors, administrators and educational organizers to verify if the institution is employing the needs of the clientele they are providing. The thing that we need to take consideration while growing or planning curriculum is certain conditions that are immediately or indirectly through the models described above.

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