Training is a process of enhancing employees behavior, attitudes and knowledge in a manner that increases the possibility of individual and organizational goal attainment. Training aims to boost current work skills and behavior, whereas development is a continuing improvement process towards objectives that aims to increase abilities with regards to some future position or job (Iftikhar. A and Siraj, 2009). International training refers to training for international assignments. You will find three broad types of international trainings in MNEs. These are:
Preparatory training for expatriates: once one has been appointed for an international assignment, pre-departure training is generally used to ensure the candidate has sufficient skills and knowledge that are necessary for working abroad effectively (Jie S. , 2005).
Post-arrival training for expatriates: after an expatriate has truly gone abroad, further on-site training is often used to familiarize the expatriate with the neighborhood working environment and procedures (Jie S. , 2005).
Training for host-country nationals (HCNs) and third-country nationals (TCNs): Training should be provided to HCNs and TCNs to facilitate understanding of corporate strategy, corporate culture and socialization (Jie S. , 2005).
Preparatory training for expatriates has received most attention in the international literature as expatriate failure is definitely regarded as due to too little sufficient training for expatriates and their spouses. The expatriate failure rate can be an important indicator for measuring the effectiveness of expatriation management. The costs of expatriate failure are high and involve both direct and indirect elements. Regarding expatriate recalls, the direct costs include salary, training costs and travel and relocation expenses. Indirect costs may be considerable and un-quantified, such as damaging relations with the host country government and other local organizations and customers, as well as lack of market share, damage to corporate reputation and lost business opportunities (Shen and Edwards, 2006)
The complex and ever-changing global environment requires flexibility. The organization's ability to devise strategic responses, however, may be constrained by too little suitably trained, internationally oriented personnel. Croft (2007) determined that the use of more rigorous training programmes could significantly increase the expatriate's performance within an overseas environment, thus minimizing the incidence of failure. Caligiuri et al (2006) has argued that cultural training permits individuals to adapt quicker to the new culture and be more effective in their new roles. "Highly relevant cross-cultural training created either accurate expectations or expectations of difficulty before the assignment" (Caligiuri et al. , 2006).
International management development handles identifying, fostering, promoting and using international managers. Its major issues include international management development schemes, methods to international management development, promotion requirements and factors affecting approaches to international management development. International management development can be expected to play a central role in MNEs because of its importance in creating a cross-national corporate culture and integrating international operations. According to Bartlett and Ghoshal (2005), global businesses can enhance their inter-unit linkages by generate a pool of global managers from anywhere in the world.
McDonald has provided ground breaking program to enhance the skills of the employee. For McDonald's, training starts the moment an employee is hired rather than stops, thus until today McDonald's continues to be one of only twelve Fortune 500 companies to receive college or university credit for the training it offers its employees.
As a worldwide food service retailer, it is important to give a global training program in order to aid the employees' skill and knowledge. McDonald has done successfully on the global learning program as they established Hamburger University (HU) which partnerships with advanced schooling institutions and tuition support to teach more talented manager and employees become more effectively and efficiency. That campus boasts teaching classrooms, kitchen labs, a state-of-the-art service training lab, plus more. According to McDonald 2011 Global Sustainability Scorecard shows the increasing of percentage of crew members satisfied that they have the training needed to do a good job. (Refer to appendix 1)
McDonald has owned network of 22 regional training centers and seven additional HU campuses round the world. McDonald's has supplemented HU campus with satellite campuses internationally. All the campuses which establish internationally are applying HU's "Global Learning Approach, " meaning they'll integrate the training materials into diverse cultures and offer the course for employees to learn in 28 different languages. Furthermore, HU facilitate design and deliver the program's core curriculum by using a combo of hands-on lab activities, computer e-learning modules, classroom instruction, and self-study to increase the employees' personal skills. Also, they support working out curriculum to advance specific career paths for the employee within the restaurant chain.
Besides, McDonald also included the business management course to teach their workers as enhance the management and leadership skill due to globalization of the business and the must manage the diverse cultural workforce. HR Design Center for McDonald's Corporation has initiated the introduction of a special leadership development program for a select range of high-potential managers for possible promotion into regional manager (RM). (Carter, Ulrich and Goldsmith, 2005) It is important in develop the spot manager skill which necessary to handle region market that comprised 300 to 400 stores that made $480-$640 million in revenue. Jez Langhorn, Chief People Officer, McDonald's UK mentioned that whether leaders, managers and trainers in any way levels in McDonald are exceptionally focused on the apprenticeship programme. The programme can be an integral part of career development within McDonald's. It really is valued highly and viewed as being an important qualification for staff such as improves confidence and productivity for employees in turn resulted the bettering on business performance.
KFC is a worldwide organization because from the point of global perspective, it is defined as having built productive cross-cultural teams that maximizes effectiveness of existing training, increases retention, and adapts to any culture, anywhere in the world. KFC culture believes in effective procedure centered on quality customer service despite distinctions of culture or language. (Khurana, 2011)
Besides this, employees should work together as a team. KFC is focused on making sure their employees cultivate with their highest potential. KFC does their finest to help make the job interesting and exciting for employees. The KFC targets training and education for almost all their employees and managers because of their 30, 000 restaurants in 110 countries. KFC has intensive training including workbooks, quizzes, and on-the-job competency based training. (Human Resource Management, 2007) The training according to be integrated into the company's broader management trainings that deal with issues as sexual harassment, hiring and firing practices, interpersonal relationships, and conflict resolution.
Besides this, KFC Company engaged the expatriate policy as one of the strategies to be able to establish restaurants that are suited to the culture of a given country because the expatriate understands with the culture is seen as an advantage to enter the country more effectively. Hence, KFC employees will undertake several trainings at different levels before they get promotion. Similarity, the overall managers that they employ on their branches must have acquired appropriate training and experience from the business. In this manner, both emigrants and immigrants will have the opportunity to incorporate the culture of KFC and their own culture to match to the taste with their consumers. (Khurana, 2011)
All shift supervisors or managers take part in KFC Global Training curriculum. The training was created and facilitated by accredited professionals included internal and external to ensure all shift supervisors or managers gain the abilities, knowledge and experience to use our successful restaurants. In addition, the company provides comprehensive training which consist leadership development, coaching skills, culture, interaction management, fire safety, first aid training, food safety, recruiting, workplace health & safety, information systems, and financial & procedures accounting. (Training and Development, 2012)
In addition, KFC had conducted e-learning with their employees to be recognized as an industry leader. So, every KFC restaurants have a fervent learning space with all the right technology to back it up. The e-learning system can be an online platform accessible to their employees in the business which whatever level of employee are at. The e-learning also designed to support the development of employees at KFC, combining their entire training program. (Training and Apprenticeships, 2012)
Furthermore, KFC had launched Graduate Program which gives an opportunity for the graduates to get some activities in the company in a variety of functional roles. This program is designed to give the employees broad experience over the business in real job. Therefore, the employees will rotate through various departments, including operations to ensure that they gain an unrivalled depth of business experience in a short period of your energy. By the end of the program, they'll be set up to defend myself against the challenge of a role in businesses as an area coach or another excellent above restaurant role. (Marketing Project on KFC, 2005)
Domino's Pizza, the pizza delivery expert which able to deliver in short time and drives more that 10 million miles weekly to bring the best pizza for the clients. On 30 Nov 2011, Domino has awarded by the award which viewed as the most prestigious in the training and development industry which is Top Training Journal Award. (McGill, 2011) Therefore, The Domino's Pizza has been named companies who provide effective and efficient training because of their employees. In fact, Domino pizza has provided different training and development for employees predicated on different job scope of the employees.
In conditions of Corporate Training, DPZ has established Domino Pizza Prep School which mainly for the employees who aren't working in stores daily. Thus, the business's World Resource Center team will be the primary focus group because of this training programme. Because they recognize the necessity because of this particular employees to learn how their role supports those who are and always notice the proceedings in the store and offer them store functions knowledge as well.
Besides, Domino's pizza has offered DPZ University for the employees in order to assist the employees' career paths to become successful. The objective for DPZ University is intent to develop the leadership skill or managerial roles for the employees and prepare individuals for future opportunities or promotion. This training and development programme has incorporates with technology which can permit employees to learn the leadership skill in homegrown learning portal and very quickly period. (Margolis, 2007) DPZ University has partnering with world - class organizations such as Harvard Business School, The Leadership Development Company; Ninth house, while others to ensure them able to deliver the best pizza on the worldwide.
Next, General Managers who have been in the position for three months plus will provided POWERFUL Management Training (HPGM) by the business. The HPGM training is a high energy two day training class and an issue which mean scenario will get for a sets of managers to solve it. Test will get in this training programme to allow the DPZ company to measure how much the data have been gained by the managers in the class. And Managers also necessary to done the assignment with changing the behavior according to different key role such as operator, customer support, sales builder, leader and trainer to ensure them in a position to play the whole key role and manage the various subsidiaries employees. The certificate will be awarded if the overall Managers can pass the test successfully. (Gage and Wade) (Appendix 2)
Not only that, DPZ also has offered the distribution training for the employees who are taking the responsibilities such as warehouse, store delivery to ensure they able to deliver the pizza safely and efficiently. As we realize DPZ is concentrating on the delivery, thus the business has provided many safety and defensive driving classes for the employees.
Consequently, People Pipeline Programme had provided by DPZ to develop the near future best leaders. It is important to ensure that future leaders able built-into new positions in a series of rotational assignments. The trainees in this programme are required to perform job rotation task such as International, Human resources, Pr, Communications, Legal, Marketing and etc.
Since Domino's Pizza is a international company, above training and development programme is the necessity to ensure the leaders, managers or employees able to fit with different external environment and culture and in a position to compromise with it.
The companies we've chosen for our assignment are McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Domino's Pizza. These 3 companies are American-based companies while they also are international companies that operate their business around the world. At the same time, these 3 companies are managing their business in the same industry which is junk food industry and requiring a good reputation on the market.
Based on our assignment, we found that they put much effort and emphasized in training to gain the customer satisfaction on their services. In the current competitive marketplace, the consumer's perceptions are more important for gaining sustainable competitive advantage. Nowadays, the perceptions of consumers on diet plan have been changed. For instances, consumer will tend to discover the restaurant that can make sure they are curious in trying in comparison to older dinners and seek environment that can make sure they are feel comfortable with the merchandise and facilities that suit their needs and want.
Besides that, the increasing of individuals consuming junk food become international trend has been influenced by changing lifestyle of consumer. McDonalds, KFC and Domino's Pizza are provided top notch training to their employees to teach them are more competitive and valuable with their corporate.
McDonalds, KFC and Domino's Pizza possess the similarities in their training functional. Regarding to our assignment for these 3 international junk food companies, we can conclude that the training function between McDonald's, KFC and Domino's Pizza have concentrate on the same area which is global learning program to allow those future leaders able to adapt the culture and environment while they face the changes of culture and environment.
For instances, has been mentioned in content part, KFC has been built productive cross-cultural teams that maximizes effectiveness of existing training and adapts to any culture because KFC believes that in effective procedure devoted to quality customer support despite distinctions of culture or language. The other reason of McDonalds, KFC and Domino's Pizza designed the span of materials in diverse culture and various language also is because of they are really global organizations, their employees are result from different background and country.
Furthermore, McDonald's, KFC and Domino's Pizza have been established their own university because of their employees, has been mentioned on content part, Hamburger University (McDonald's) and Domino Pizza Prep School (Domino's Pizza). Despite the fact that KFC do not have the university as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza but it also required training center that involve e-learning system, on-the-job and formal classroom it. The key reason why they spent a lot money to determine university is because of provide an chance of their employees to learn how to manage the business on the market and company can generate the trust and confident with their employees. . A business who intended to raise the education of their employees and offer the opportunities for employees to get promoted to higher position can make the employees to work hard to fight because of their opportunities. This can create a high motivation among employees in doing their job and present their finest to the company. That is to ensure that all the employees in their companies have the possibility to gain higher level position if they are capable regardless where they come from. Additionally, it may impose loyalty among employees to the company as the company offers them lifelong possibility to gain knowledge and improve themselves in their job.
Even though McDonald's, KFC and Domino's Pizza are run their business in the same industry, working out program that they designed should not the same as each others. For instances, KFC Company engaged the expatriate policy as one of the strategies. This strategic is not applying by McDonald's and Domino's Pizza in their training functional.
Moreover, as mentioned above, KFC had designed Graduate Program which gives a chance for the graduates to get some experience in the company in a variety of functional roles. This is actually the advantage of KFC over the other McDonald's and Domino's Pizza which they do not offer this type of program. The program was created to give the employees broad experience across the business in real job. KFC will rotate their workers position through different department.
This assignment gave us the opportunity to find out about the why international company emphasized on training function and how they educate their employees in term of knowledge, skills and services. There are a lot of great things about training employees.
Training and education can produce job satisfaction among employee. An employee who posses the abilities to do particular job in the business will feel more satisfied and happy with his job. The employee could be more confident in doing his job when he owns the information of what he must do and know perfectly in his job. On the other hand an employee who is not educated in the field related to his job may feel incompetent and useless in comparison to his colleagues who have more knowledge than him. This can be very de-motivating and causes low work force of this employee. Provide training for employees for the job they must perform not only empowers them to do work but also greatly improve the quality of these work. This may reduce the occurrence of mistakes by employees and therefore increase their confidence to take up more difficult jobs.
Next, employee training can increase productivity of employees. When an employee has been trained of the skill he needed in the job, they can done his job more efficiently and hence boost the productivity. Less time is required to finish a particular job because the employee had already knew and being told what he should do and has own the skill to do that one job. Safety level in the workplace can also be increased by training the employees with right skills in doing their job. Safety is especially important for the fast food companies, KFC, McDonald and Domino Pizza because the employees are doing their job in your kitchen. For example, they need to face hot stuffs such as hot cooking oils and hence the right skills and knowledge in handle ling your kitchen condition are essential to ensure employees' safety during work. An excellent company should appreciate their employees as employees are the weapons for them to keep compete with other company.