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Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuations

In this age group of globalization, every company is seeking to tap into the international market. Amidst the growing approval and adoption of global sourcing as a practical strategy to create an organization-wide impact, currency fluctuation has emerged as an extremely real problem.

History of Indian Outsourcing

The idea of outsourcing has its root base in the 'competitive benefits' theory propagated by Adam Smith in his book 'The Riches of Countries' which was published in the entire year 1776. Over the years, this is of the word 'outsourcing' has been subject to a sea-change. What started off as the shifting of developing goods to countries providing cheap labor through the Industrial Trend, has taken on a fresh connotation in the current scenario. In a global where information technology is just about the backbone of businesses worldwide, 'outsourcing' is the procedure through which one company hands over part of its work to some other company, so that it is responsible for the design and execution of certain business process under certain requirements and requirements of the outsourcing company.

This outsourcing process is effective to both the outsourcing company and the outsourcing service provider. Within an outsourcing marriage, the outsourcing provider allows the outsourcer to lessen operating costs, increase quality in non center areas of business, save well on effort and upsurge in productivity.

Since the starting point of globalization in India through the early 1990s, successive Indian governments have pursued programs of economical reform focused on liberalization and privatization. Until the 12 months 1994, the Indian telecom sector was under the control of the governmental. The state of hawaii owned products in India enjoyed a monopoly on the market. In the year 1994, the government announced an insurance plan under which the sector was liberalized and private participation was inspired. The 'New Telecom Policy' of 1999 earned further changes with the introduction of IP telephony and ended the state monopoly on international dialling facilities. This brought about a drastic reduction heralded the gold time for the ITES/BPO industry. Therefore ushered in a slew of inbound call middle/telemarketing services and data control centers.

Although the IT industry in India has been around since the early on 1980s, it was the early and middle 1990s that observed the emergence of outsourcing. One of the first outsourced services was medical transcription, but outsourcing of business processes like data control, medical billing, and customer support began towards the finish of the 1990s when MNCs proven wholly held subsidiaries which catered to the off-shoring requirements of their parent companies. Some of the earliest players in the Indian outsourcing market were American Exhibit, GE Capital and English Airways.

The ITES or BPO industry is a sector in India that is in existence for a little more than a decade. Despite its recent entrance on the Indian field, the industry has grown phenomenally and has now become a very important part of the export-oriented IT software and services environment. It at first began as a task confined to multinational companies, but today it is rolling out into a broad based business system guaranteed by leading Indian IT software and services organizations and other third party service providers.

The ITES/BPO market broadened its bottom with the accessibility of Indian IT companies. The ITES market of present is seen as a the existence of the IT giants who can leverage their wide-ranging skill-sets and global clientele to offer a wide spectrum of services. The spectrum of services provided by Indian companies has changed substantially from its humble beginnings. Today, Indian companies are providing a variety of outsourced services which range from customer care, medical transcription, medical billing services and database marketing, to Web sales/marketing, accounting, taxes processing, transaction record management, telesales/telemarketing, HR hiring and biotech research.

Looking at the success of India's IT industry, the central federal government discovered the ITES sector as a key contributor to the economical development that prioritized the fascination of FDI in this section by establishing 'Software Technology Parks' and 'Export Venture Zones'. Benefits like tax-holidays generally enjoyed by the software industry were also made available to the ITES/BPO sector. The Country wide Telecom Plan (NTP) was unveiled in the year 1999 and the deregulation of the telecom industry opened up nationwide, long distance, and international connection to competition. The governments of various states also provided assist with companies to beat the recruitment, retention, and training issues, to be able to attract opportunities with their region.

The National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) have created programs for the dissemination of knowledge and research in the industry through its studies and conferences. NASSCOM works as an 'advisor, consultant and coordinating body' for the ITES/BPO industry and liaisons between your central and state committees and the industry. The ardent advocacy of the ITES/BPO industry has resulted in the inclusion of call centers in the 'Business Auxiliary Services' section, thereby making sure exemption from service taxes under the Financing Bill.

These procedures have led to a steady inflow of investments by large overseas companies such as Reuters, for creating large captive ITES/BPO facilities across India. Additionally, the existing ITES/BPO businesses of major multi-nationals are also being ramped up to focus on the ever increasing demand for better and speedier services. Almost all of India's top ITES/BPO giants have announced some form of growth and are in the process of selecting manpower to fill in the additional car seats. India's competitive gain is based on its capacity to provide huge cost benefits thereby enabling production gains and this has given India an advantage in the global ITES/BPO market place. NASSCOM studies pinpoint the following factors as the major reasons for India's success in this industry.

Abundant, skilled, English-speaking manpower, which is being harnessed even by ITES hubs such as Singapore and Ireland

High-end telecom and infrastructure which is at par with global standards

Strong quality orientation among players and their concentrate on measuring and monitoring quality targets

Fast turnaround times and the ability to offer 24x7 services based on the country's unique geographic location that allows for leveraging time zone differences

Proactive and positive coverage environment which promotes ITES/BPO investment funds and simplifies rules and procedures

A friendly tax composition, which places the ITES/BPO industry on par with IT services companies.

Outsourcing to India offers significant improvements in quality and production for abroad companies on essential variables such as quantity of correct transactions, variety of total deals, total satisfaction factor, variety of transactions/hours and the common acceleration of answers. Research by NASSCOM also unveiled that Indian companies are better centered on maintaining quality and performance standards. Indian ITES/BPO companies are by using an ascending curve as far as the quality criteria are worried. Organizations which may have achieved ISO 9000 recognition are migrating to the ISO 9000:2000 standards and companies on the CMM platform are realigning themselves to the CMMI model. Apart from investing in improving their CRM and ERP initiatives, many Indian ITES companies are starting to recognize the COPC qualifications for quality and will work towards achieving COPC licenses.

The availability of officially trained and skilled manpower in India is making companies across the world look at the country as a profitable bottom to change their high-end support services.

Offshore Outsourcing

There are extensive concerns to consider when establishing an just offshore outsourcing deal-scope, location, tasks and tasks, service levels, governance ideas and price, just to name a few.

The effect of forex rates on the business deal tends to fall season pretty way down the main concern list at the negotiating stand, if the outsourcing customer considers the problem by any means.

But ignoring the currency exchange factors associated with offshore outsourcing ventures can be a multi-million dollar blunder, say experts. Unanticipated swings in currency valuation can increase a company's contact with financial risk and greatly minimize savings.

"Many clients do not spend sufficient time creating a financial hypothesis of what [problems] money fluctuations could cause in the short and permanent, " explains Sandeep Karoor, controlling director of just offshore outsourcing consultancy neoIT. "At best, loose conditions and conditions get agreed upon. "

Most U. S. companies think in terms of U. S. dollars. That's understandable; from budgets to their day-to-day business is doled out in greenbacks. And during the golden era of just offshore outsourcing, the personal savings reaped from labor arbitrage by itself were significant enough that any additional money left up for grabs from too little money arbitrage was pocket change in comparison.

But that circumstance is changing. "Today, with many companies entering into second- and third-generation offshore discounts, the low-hanging berries is already vanished, " explains David Rutchik, a partner with outsourcing consultancy Rate Harmon. "Companies need to look at currency implications as a way to drive down costs. "

Exchange Rate Fluctuations

Historical Indian Rupee Rate Vs US Dollar

Average annual forex rate for the Indian Rupee (Rupees per U. S. Money) is

shown in this table: 1973 to present.

Rupee Vs Other Currencies

Below are a few of the latest trends (within the last 120 times) of Rupee viz-a-viz a few of the major currencies of countries to which India can be an IT outsourcing service provider.

Based on the aforementioned, we can understand that -

A firm should consider the impact of fluctuations in the currencies to which it is exposed

Diversification of risks across currencies is beneficial as different currencies move differently

Integrated Examination of the Exchange Rate Risks

Steep and long-term shifts in exchange rates create discrepancies in cost and earnings models resulting in operational and strategic risks. To formulate effective risk management strategies, companies need to examine the chance exposures arising from sensitivities in costs and revenues energetic under various exchange rate cases.

Fluctuations in exchange rates have an effect on different stakeholders diversely. Generally, when rupee appreciates, importers profit and vice versa. However, the impact varies from sector to sector.

Furthermore, the power of different sectors to withstand adverse effects is different.

As the IT sector has higher margins than the handicrafts sector, an IT company has a greater capacity to hold up against the negative impact of the understanding of the rupee.

Currency fluctuations impact exporters significantly. It adversely impacts exporters while currency depreciation benefits exporters.

How Exchange Rates Impact Outsourcing

Trends in the exchange rate - a country's currency price according to a international one - have to be one of the major factors taken into account when selecting from different offshore vacation spot countries.

A steady lower currency value of the destination country generally ensures higher return on investment (ROI) to the country making the investment. A volatile money can definitely impact the planning and budget allocation for offshore initiatives.

The global overall economy is connected through two broad programs -- global trade and finance. The volume of global trade and money would depend upon the forex rate between different countries. Countries choose a proper exchange rate regime -- floating, handled or fixed preparations -- based on significant changes in the world economy over the years. Recent changes include the general upsurge in capital freedom to producing and changeover economies and the abrupt reversals in capital moves to the same.

The exchange rates being among the most powerful and sought after currencies (principally the US buck, the Euro, and Japanese yen) fluctuate in response to advertise pushes, with short-run volatility and occasional large medium-run swings. Of the many "popular" currencies, the united states dollar is usually the currency of choice to the exhibit the exchange rate. It is because the world economy depends on a straightforward fact -- the US spends.

No currency is completely set or floating. Exchange rates are affected by lots of factors including:

Domestic investment climate

Gross home product

Trade policy

Foreign immediate investments

Imports and exports


Companies following a location examination for offshoring should think about exchange rate styles of the money of the destination country.

A relatively predictable money trend is recommended. Alternatively, sharp understanding or depreciation of the money over an interval or, the exchange rates of the money being highly volatile, could lead to a major impact on cost and cost savings.

An exchange rate of the currency that is by using an upward trend with respect to the dollar or the Euro will have a primary effect on competitiveness of the product you're buying (such as software development services) as the value per US buck or Euro is reduced.

An analysis of the long term trends can permit you to plan for potential exchange rate risks of the money/economy. Considering long-term trends can help in deciding whether to visit set for the long-term investment in the destination country or only look at short-term benefits.

By gaining an understanding of the macro economical factors, you can better evaluate how key market sectors will feel the impact of changes in the exchange rate.

In location evaluation, countries where the exchange rate fads are highly correlated to the performance of an extremely few areas/industries should be carefully analyzed. Why? The decrease in that sector/industry could mean the drop of the complete economy.

Also, studying money trends can point out whether the electricity of the money is purely predicated on economics or on certain government guidelines. Understanding this difference is critical.

How Offshore Outsourcing Providers Benefit From Falling Exchange Rates

Typically, an outsourcing buyer gives in its own currency to the just offshore vendor-in the situation of any American customer, the almighty dollar. Meanwhile, the provider pays for its just offshore resources in its local money. As the worthiness of this local (offshore) currency drops, the providers' costs go down and the client eventually ends up paying more in us dollars for the services provided than the assistance actually cost in the forex.

For example, during 2008, the Indian rupee dropped 23. 3 percent up against the U. S. buck. A business with a $10 million IT services contract that could normally cost the offshore professional $8 million to provide (pocketing a 20 percent profit percentage) would have actually cost owner less than $6 million, getting the professional a windfall of an extra $2 million.

"We've seen these margins translate into literally millions of dollars annually, " Rutchik clarifies.

That's no mere pocket change in the current economic local climate.

Offshore outsourcing providers-and multinational suppliers with just offshore subsidiaries-understand the impact that the complexness and unpredictability of currency markets can have on the business. Smart suppliers have hedging strategies in place to deal with money fluctuations that may prove unfavorable to them.

Why you should be the driver, however, not the owner of business circumstance ROI.

"In most contracts that have language around money fluctuations, the terms tend to be provider friendly, not client-friendly, " explains neoIT's Karoor.

But a savvy offshore outsourcing consumer can negotiate conditions offering some protection for his or her half of the offer.

Methods for Mitigating the Risk of Currency Fluctuations

From all the above discussions, we understand that it is vital for Indian IT outsourcing providers to manage their forex risks effectively and effectively.

In order to take action, an Indian IT outsourcing company should:

Determine Risk Exposure

Determine Risk Mitigation Strategies

Determine Risk Mitigation Tools

Determine Risk Exposure

These factors help determine the forex risk an outsourcing service agency is exposed to:

What percentages of your sales or buys (especially receivables and payables) are in foreign currency?

Are you in a price competitive market where you cannot pass on currency loss to customers by increasing prices?

Can you enter into price variance clauses with your customers predicated on exchange fluctuations?

Is your cash flow position small, such that a detrimental currency fluctuation can cause problems?

At what point will an alteration in exchange rates impact your success significantly?

To which currencies are you exposed to?

Determine Risk Mitigation Strategies

Based on the quanta of forex risk an outsourcing service agency is subjected to, it can choose one of the strategies:

No Hedging: No hedging means that the outsourcing service provider can allow the foreign exchange risk and it do not need to arrange for it. This can be possible when the outsourcing service provider either transacts only an insignificant part of its total business in a fluctuating forex or when it can completely spread the benefit or loss arising from foreign currency trades to the clients.

Selective Hedging: It implies that the outsourcing service agency will hedge only an integral part of its total foreign exchange exposure. They can choose this plan when they have significant but short-term contact with foreign currency and when they are expecting a favorable movements in the exchange rate. In that scenario, they could hedge only 50% to 60% of their exposure and can take benefit or damage from the un-hedged position.

Systematic Hedging: Systematic Hedging means that the outsourcing companies hedge their forex risk as soon as they enter any forex commitment.

As a general rule, a lot more an outsourcing provider relies on its foreign exchange cashflow in its business, the more it will hedge against foreign exchange risks.

Determine Risk Mitigation Tools

An outsourcing provider can choose from any of these options to hedge themselves against money risk:

Currency Diversification

Forward Contracts


Call and Put Options

Impact of Rupee Appreciation on Distributor Fees: A Birlasoft India Ltd. Case

Impact of currency exchange risk by using an outsourcing deal can be significant. To comprehend how the currency risk takes on out, let us consider an outsourcing contract between a U. S. -based buyer (useful money is USD) Basic Electric and a provider with India-based service delivery (practical currency is INR), Birlasoft India Ltd.

A Quick About The Supplier

Birlasoft is a leading provider of it services in both onshore and offshore models to Lot of money 1000 as well as mid-sized organizations in bank, financial services and insurance, retail, healthcare, manufacturing and unbiased software vendor sectors.

Birlasoft's services include application development, support & maintenance, venture application execution, integration, infrastructure management and quality assurance & assessment.

Headquartered in Noida (National Capital Region), India, Birlasoft has about 4000 employees across US, UK, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Australia, Singapore and India.

Birlasoft is at a permanent romance with GE, wherein GE made Birlasoft as you of its Global Development Centers.

Impact of Rupee Understanding on Birlasoft's Fees

Let us consider here a deal between GE and Birlasoft with the next contract details:

Start date: 2003

Term of agreement: 5 years

Total Deal Value (TCV): US$50 million with identical annual payouts

Being a GDC for GE, the supplier, i. e. Birlasoft bears all the forex risks all deals.

Under such a circumstance, Birlasoft in 2003 is facing five many years of paying out wages and other costs in INR; therefore, it is "short" the rupee. At exactly the same time, Birlasoft is retaining accounts receivable of five years of profits denominated in USD; therefore, it is "long" the money. Being long the dollar and short the rupee, Birlasoft is harm when the rupee increases in accordance with the buck.

Given the rupee appreciation that we found during the five many years of contract length, under such an contract, Birlasoft experienced INR 110 million currency exchange damage if we compare the real realized cost versus the expected supplier fees. This results in a world wide web negative money impact of 4. 71% at the top brand (see below graph).

Embedded this is actually the workbook showing numerical computation that above graphical representation has been produced.

This was a lose-lose situation for both the buyer (GE) and dealer (Birlasoft) because as the buyer compensates out according to the contract, the dealer margins are injure, which may result in a drop in quality of service and insufficient investment in constant improvement.

What could have Birlasoft done?

A great deal of India-based suppliers have used the currency futures market to manage the currency exchange risk. This involves purchasing derivative musical instruments such as foreign exchange forward deals and options contracts to cover some of fantastic accounts receivable. These deals typically mature within one to 12 months, must be resolved on your day of maturity, and may be cancelled subject to the repayment of any gains or loss in the difference between your contract exchange rate and the market exchange rate on the time of cancellation.

Given that suppliers cannot hedge beyond twelve months in the money futures market, and most outsourcing agreements have a term of three to a decade, a far more creative hedge outside of standard futures deals is required.

There is a in close proximity to infinite variety of possible hedges that the parties can construct. For example, a simple method for a dealer with delivery from India to make a long-term hedge is to borrow dollars and commit the borrowed dollars in India. The dealer can borrow the dollars through lots of means which range from bank loans to advertising dollar-denominated bonds. They are able to invest these proceeds in India by buying rupee denominated authorities or corporate and business bonds in India.

In a predicament where in fact the buyer of outsourced services assumes money risk, that is, if the customer agrees to a contractual provision to consider some or every one of the currency exchange risk, the customer can also hedge its forex risk by borrowing rupees and committing the money in the United States.

Let us expect that the Birlasoft in these scenario had used the easy creative hedge detailed above. Birlasoft could have completely eradicated the currency exchange risk by hedging around 11 percent for each and every U. S. buck in receivables when the deal started.

Our analysis shows that even if we assumed the change craze (i. e. , rupee got actually depreciated), Birlasoft wouldn't normally have lost upon this creative hedge because of the interest differentials between your two countries. So Birlasoft could have completely secured itself from exchange risks by adopting such a hedge, given the prevailing economic conditions.

Some suppliers are also considering outsourcing deals with billing in INR. While such a technique protects the company completely from any exchange risk, it could not be completely in the interest of the buyer as it exposes it to new risk. In process, the chance should vest with the party that is most beneficial positioned to control it; typically that get together is the distributor.

Moreover, by billing in INR there is absolutely no added incentive for the provider to thrust its delivery beyond Indian shores, that could impact the marketplace adversely in terms of locating the next frontier for global sourcing. INR billing can also impact the competitiveness of India-based suppliers as purchasers might begin looking at U. S. or Europe-based suppliers to mitigate their currency risk.

It is not our intent to recommend cross-country borrowing and financing for each deal (as detailed in the illustrative example above) as the perfect currency hedge for all those companies in every economic climates. You can find other alternatives to consider. For example, the company could create a long-term natural hedge at the corporate level by aligning its existing capital composition with the income structure. The provider could do that by raising a part of its debt funding through corporate and business bonds denominated in USD and Euros in a percentage that resembles its consumer portfolio.

There are a great many other creative ways to hedge currency risk; therefore, the selection of the correct hedge should not be limited to standard currency futures deals.

More importantly, it should be observed that hedging is a short to medium term strategy at best. In the long term, suppliers need to:

Diversify delivery location collection. India has emerged as the offshore hub of the globe. For example, nearly 70 percent of the just offshore employee basic in the Financing & Accounting Outsourcing (FAO) market is situated in India. A higher amount of delivery in a particular location increases the risks related to forex fluctuations. As a result, we visit a most suppliers, including India-based suppliers, diversifying their location portfolio to include multiple offshore parts.

Diversify client collection. U. S. dollar-denominated profits symbolize more than 60 percent of the total revenues for some large India-based suppliers. Such a high client focus in a specific geography increases the currency exchange impact.

Optimize internal businesses. Suppliers may need to re-evaluate the ideal usage rates, bench durability, wage increases, use of production tools, standardization, and other cost factors that impact margins.


From the above mentioned discussion and case, we can conclude below key implications for Suppliers and Clients.

Key implications for suppliers

Currency exchange risk is real and can be significant and highly visible.

Suppliers need to develop a short-term and a long-term technique to protect themselves from the forex hazards. Long-term strategies include diversifying the delivery and consumer portfolio along with operational optimization.

Sitting long on us dollars is no more a wonderful option. Using hedging can be an attractive option for the short-to-medium term. Suppliers should be creative in their examination of hedging alternatives rather than be limited to traditional currency futures deals.

Key implications for buyers

Exchange rate fads for the just offshore delivery location should be included in the outsourcing and location selection decisions.

The supplier's strategy and demonstrated capability around moving the envelope of global sourcing in terms of a varied delivery portfolio and operational search engine optimization should get credited importance during dealer selection.

Using a money hedge of some type is an attractive option not just for the suppliers, but also for buyers when there is a distributed risk.

Conclusively, gratitude and depreciation of rupee cannot certainly be studied as beneficial to the Indian market in general. Similarly the rupee appreciation will influence exporters, outsourcing providers, BPOs, etc. , on the other, rupee depreciation will influence importers. So now it will depend on what the near future has to reveal for, how effectively the central bank or investment company can balance the FX rates with little impact to the comparative areas of FX consumption.

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