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Impact of Cross Culture on Organizations

Keywords: cross culture communication research, cross culture impact

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Part 2: Culture in Communication: Books Review

Part 3: Research Overview

Part 4: Data Analysis:

  1. Communication Styles
  2. Distance Factors in Communication
  3. Leadership Styles in Organizations
  4. Gender Factors in Organizations

This paper assesses empirically the impact of cross culture issues on Digital house PVT LTDs managers and employees performance. In undertaking the analysis, stratified arbitrary sampling was used to choose 50 employees who've been working in the company in various positions. Relevant data were collected using a set up questionnaire. For even more analysis of the questionnaire Microsoft Excel and SPSS (Statistical offer of social science) have been used.

The findings showed that cross cultural issues results in communication, time and gender among the list of Digital House PVT LTD. 's employees, which resulting increasing conflict among the employees, arising unclear messages, and discrimination with both genders, hence leading company to lessen in their performance. Predicated on these results and conclusions, ultimately it was recommended that Digital House to reduce unclear message, discrimination by giving priority to both the gender and keeping good inner communication system within the company.

Chapter 01

1. 1 History of the study

Culture can be defined as the norms, values, informal values and the style of action of an individual (Alvesson, 2002, p. 5). Furthermore Alvesson (2002) justifies that, "Culture is the creation of interpretation through which humans interpret their experiences and guide their actions. " Cultural issue can eminently impact on the organizations success. More often researchers demonstrates that it is the glue of the organization, Which serves as a compass which directs an organization to its vacation spot (Tharp, no time). Ethnical issues are very common problems all over the world. The social issues may appear in many various ways depending on size, location and the custom culture of this organization. These social issues sometimes occur even because of the attitudes of the employees.

According to the analysts' corporation (Digital House), there will vary people from different backgrounds working therefore cross culture is a vital issue in the organization thus developing a cross-cultural competence increases the people's mentality or the point of view (Walker, Walker and Schmitz, 2003). In addition the existing situation of Digital house (DH) in line with the top management is having ethnic issues within the organization. This gradually has an impact of the performance of the organization. In addition, monitoring this issue suggest that the major social issues included are communication, time and gender.

Hence this research is completed to explore the impact of the problem of communication, era and gender on organizational performance. Besides, the researcher will explore and examine the cause for cultural issues within the business and how it effects on the organizations performance and the way to overcome the hurdles to keep up balanced culture within the organization.

1. 2 Problem Justification

The 3 main areas of cultural effects which have been selected to this research are communication, era and gender. Whilst examining the three main issues it could be understood they have significance effect on the organization. For example Communication can bring problem in 2 ways which may be known as a language problem or distance problem. Language problem means the employees might have problems in speaking different languages. Distance problem refers to the actual distance of communication in one country to some other. For example: if the business wants to learn in regards to a particular order or product in Japan then it's not that easy to communicate equally as we think, definitely the process will take a while. Quite simply we can say it's less comfortable to talk to another country while in comparison to our own country. The reasons will be the following:

  • Language should be familiar.
  • Planning must be done before communicating
  • Professionalism should be shown by our communication
  • The appropriate communication medium should be utilized to converse.

So these are some important issues to be looked at prior to the communication begins.

Then next we can discuss about the gender problems. This is also a very universal problem which mainly occurs in religious beliefs smart. For EG: if we take digital house into consideration some Muslim females are not comfortable to communicate with male employees. So this problem can cause insufficient communication which can result in poor planning and lots of misunderstandings within the business itself.

Then another problem in gender would be gender discrimination. This might be an internal impact which is brought on by the business itself. For EG: in line with the digital house they have significantly more males while compared to the females. This can be gender discrimination. The question develops why the management can't recruit females as the most notable managers. Whilst taking Digital house under consideration they recruit less females to the managerial tasks, because the top managers point of view is that feminine employees are less successful. Thereby this may have an impact on the organizational performance as it continues on.

Then finally getting into this factor, this is also another major cause to the drop of sales. The Digital House consists of many employees at different ages which cause interior problems. For EG: when it comes to a conclusion making the elderly managers think the young people are less brilliant and they'll be overlooked when decision making is performed. So this is a very bad sign applied by the business. Actually the young blood vessels will have better progressive ideas given that they know perfectly about the technical side. But whereas the older people in the business won't possess the extent to believe very deeply about systems.

So getting the strategies and recommendations from the young blood vessels people is very important to improve the performance of the business. In other words all age ranges should be cared for as the same to conquer the problems in the business. This will help them to make effective decisions and there will be a much better understanding among each other.

1. 3 Research topic

"A study into how the cross culture issues of communication, era and gender problem can have an effect on the business performance?"

1. 4 Objective

This research is transported out

  • To explore the impact of mix cultural issue of communication, get older and gender on organizational performance.
  • Analyze the theoretical ideas of cross ethnic differences in individual behavior, managerial reactions and behaviour.
  • To examine how cross ethnical issues may result in misunderstanding of people regarding conflict collaboration

1. 5 Research questions

  • How will communication have an effect on organizational performance?
  • How does age influence organizational performance?
  • How does gender affect organizational performance?
  • Does the social issue continually be positive or negative to the organization?

1. 6 Need for the study

Cultural issues in an group are silent killers on the organization sales. Actually it will depend on the cultural concern certain issues make a difference the organizational performance in a great manner. It's the organizations top managers' responsibility to look deep to these issues and bring a remedy for it. It is critical to them to understand the causes of cultural effects within an organization and why they happen. However through this research it can help the managers to identify the problems and enhance the employee's condition to an improved standard where the employees are clear of cultural effects. And also it'll make the management to think deeply to turn out with positive suggestions to solve the ethnical effects in a good manner which can make the organization to be frequent with no failures.

Chapter 02

2. 1 Culture

Culture in the analysis of international relations may be defined as the writing and transmitting of awareness within and across national restrictions, and the cultural approach as a perspective that pays off particular focus on this sensation. (Hofstede, 1980). Culture is the manifestation of human values. It may be very extreme and conscious, such as art items and shows or religious practice. It may be pervasive and relatively unconscious, in the rituals of food, the utilization of their time or family festivities. It embraces the extremes of this variety and everything between. Culture is everything we don't have to do to survive - but are compelled to do to feel human being. (Schutz, 1970). Culture or civilization, used its large ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, fine art, morals, rules, custom, and another capabilities and behaviors purchased by man as a member of contemporary society.

Schien (1985) justifies Culture identifies the design of human being activity and the icons that give significance to these activities. Culture manifests itself in conditions of the artwork, literature, costumes, customs, language, religion and spiritual rituals. The folks and their design of life make up the culture of an area. Cultures vary in the various parts of the globe. They are different over the land boundaries and the variety in cultures brings about the diversity in people around the world. Culture also includes the system of beliefs presented by the folks of the region, their key points of life and their moral ideals. The habits of action of the people of a specific region also form an integral part of the region's culture. The word 'culture' that comes from the Latin term, 'cultura' produced from 'colere', means, 'to cultivate'. Hence how the thoughts of the masses inhabiting a specific region are cultivated, in some way decides the culture of a region.

Montserrat-Howlett (1992) says that Culture is shared, by which we mean that every culture is shared by a group of people. Depending on the region they live in, the climatic conditions they prosper in and their historical heritage, they form a couple of values and values. This set of their key points of life forms their culture. No culture belongs to an individual. It is rather distributed among many people of a certain area of the world. It belongs to an individual community and not to any solo individual. Culture is learned. The members of the culture show certain ideals, which condition their lives. Generations learn to follow these ideals and ideas. Culture propagates through years, which choose their old traditions and traditions as part of their culture. The ideals they base their lives on is a part of their culture. Ethnical ideals are imparted from one generation to some other, thus producing a continual of traditions that are a part of culture. The language, the books and the art forms pass across years. Culture is discovered, understood and followed by the younger generations of society.

Robbins (2003) observed that we now have seven key attribute which are the basic of an organizational culture, this gives a clear picture on organizational culture and the understandings of employees and how they are likely to react. The characteristics are:

  • Innovation and risk taking. The amount to which employees should be ground breaking and take risks.
  • Attention to aspect. The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit perfection, analysis, and attention to detail.
  • Outcome orientation. The amount to which the management focuses on results or effects somewhat than on the techniques and operations used to accomplish those results.
  • People orientation. The degree to which management decisions consider the effects of effects on people within the business.
  • Team orientation. The amount to which work activities are sorted out around teams somewhat than individuals.
  • Aggressiveness. The amount to which people are extreme and competitive alternatively than easy going.
  • Stability. The amount to which organizational activities highlight maintaining the position quo as opposed to growth.

(Robbins, 2003, p. 525)

2. 2 Elements and characteristics of culture

Oak (1951) justifies that when it comes to the elements of the culture it might be the following. The language, other varieties of expression as also the thoughts and thoughts of the individuals, their communal and ethnical norms, their key points and beliefs will be the basic components of culture. For a highly effective copy of culture from one generation to another, it has to be translated in terms of symbols, which represent the cultural prices of a community. Language, art work and religion form the machine of icons that render a profound meaning to culture. Despite the work of the more aged generations to copy their cultural values to the forthcoming generations, many have a tendency to remain unaware of their culture. Folks are often found with an incomplete knowledge of their culture. People seldom know their culture completely.

A progressive change is characteristic to almost every culture. Ethnicities are subject to change. Culture manages to lose some of its features and profits new ones. The aspects of culture that change vary across societies. Along with the duration of time, new solutions emerge, new settings of work appear, social thinking undergoes transitions therefore will culture. Every culture changes with time although rate of change of every culture varies. Studies have brought out a fact that no culture can remain in isolation. There is certainly hardly any social community that is completely isolated from the rest of the world. Every culture hence is mostly influenced by civilizations of the encompassing regions. Cultural principles are prone to be damaged by the prices of areas in close vicinity. The cultures, which emerged through the same intervals often, show certain similarities. Contemporary times have observed an mixture of cultures. Cultures are blended together giving climb to shared civilizations.

The author thinks that it is our moral responsibility to understand our culture. There is a need to study our cultural principles and ideals, which were shaping our modern culture. It is necessary to have value and pleasure for our culture. There is a need to peep into the past that has molded our present.

2. 3 About cross culture and communication

The term cross-cultural indicates interaction with individuals of different ethnical, cultural, racial, gender, intimate orientation, religious, get older and class backgrounds. Cross-cultural communication is an activity of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one's cultural differences through words, non-verbal gestures, and space human relationships. Additionally it is the process by which people share their openness for an intercultural experience. (Zurcher. 1965).

Cross culture can be experienced by a worker who is used in a location in another country. The employee must learn the terms and culture of those around him, and vice-versa. This can be more difficult if this person is acting in a managerial capacity; someone in this position who cannot effectively communicate with or understand their employees' actions can lose their reliability. Within an ever-expanding global overall economy, mix culture and adaptability will continue to be important factors in the business world. (Meadows, 1965) says the meaning of cross-cultural lies in the impact that culture has on a person and his community, and the consequences of this impact when different cultures are combined. The culture in which a person is raised plays a substantial role in shaping his prices, morals, behaviors and attitudes. These characteristics impact what sort of person thinks, and what his overall mind-set is toward the entire world around him. When a person is fulfilled with the rules and ideals of a different culture a combination- cultural connections takes place.

The key to effective cross-cultural communication is knowledge. First, it is vital that people understand the potential problems of cross-cultural communication, and makes a mindful effort to conquer these problems. Second, it's important to presume that one's attempts will not always be successful, and adjust one's behavior appropriately.

For example, you need to always assume that there is a significant possibility that cultural dissimilarities are leading to communication problems, and become willing to show patience and forgiving, somewhat than hostile and competitive, if problems develop. One should respond little by little and carefully in cross-cultural exchanges, not jumping to the final outcome that you know what is being thought and said.

Schutz, (1970), justifies that lively listening can sometimes be used to check this out-by duplicating what one thinks she or he heard, you can concur that one understands the communication effectively. If words are used differently between dialects or cultural teams, however, even effective listening can forget about misunderstandings.

Often intermediaries who are familiar with both cultures can be helpful in cross-cultural communication situations. They can translate both the substance and the manner of what's said. For instance, they can sculpt down strong claims that might be considered appropriate in one culture however, not in another, before they are given to folks from a culture that does not talk together in that strong way. They can also modify the timing of what's said and done. Some cultures move quickly to the point; others speak about other things long enough to determine rapport or a relationship with the other person. If discourse on the primary topic begins too early, the group that requires a "warm up" first will feel unpleasant. A mediator or intermediary who knows this can explain the situation, and make appropriate procedural adjustments.

However Bell (1976) feels that sometimes intermediaries can make communication even more difficult. When a mediator is the same culture or nationality as one of the disputants, but not the other, thus giving the appearance of bias, even though none exists. Even though bias is not expected, it is common for mediators to become more supportive or even more understanding of the individual who's of his or her own culture, simply because they understand them better. Yet when the mediator is of one third social group, the potential for cross-cultural misunderstandings increases further. In cases like this participating in extra discussions about the procedure and the way in which of undertaking the discussions is suitable, as is extra time for confirming and re-confirming understandings at every step in the dialogue or negotiating process.

2. 4 The levels of culture

When it involves culture it could be classified into different layers the following.

2. 4. 1 The external coating: explicit products

(Geertz, 1973), the explicit culture is the observable simple fact of the language, food, buildings, houses, monuments, agriculture, shrines, market segments, fashions and fine art. They are symbols of an deeper level of culture. Discriminations largely start this symbolic and observable level. For EG: if we see a band of Japanese professionals bowing, we could obviously observing explicit culture as the sheer act of bending. However, if we ask the Japanese "why do you bow" a question they might not welcome since it's their traditional culture.

2. 4. 2 The center covering: norms and values

The above culture reflects deeper levels of ethnicities, the norms and principles of an individual group. Norms will be the mutual sense a group has of what is "right and wrong". Norms can form on the formal level as written regulations, and on a casual level as public control. Prices on the other hands, determine this is of bad and the good and are therefore carefully related to the ideals shared by an organization.

A culture is relatively steady when the norms reflect the ideals of the group. When this isn't the situation, there will most likely be a weakened tension. As the norms, consciously or subconsciously, give us a feeling of this is the way i normally should respond. Values give us a feeling of this is the way i aspire or aspire to respond. (Kluchhohn, and Strodtbeck, 1961) says a value will serve as a criterion to find out a choice from existing alternatives. It is the concept an individual or group has about the desirable. For example, in a single culture people might agree with the value. "Effort is vital to a prosperous society. Yet the behavioral norm sanctioned by the group may be, do not work harder than the other customers of the group because then we would all be likely to do more and would finish up worse off. Here typical differs from the worthiness.

For EG: some Japanese might say that they bow because they like to greet people, that is a value. Other might say they don't know why except that they actually it because others do it too. Then we are talking about a norm.

2. 5 Need for culture

The cultural worth of your community give it an identification of its. A community benefits a identity and a personality of its own, due to culture of its people. Culture is shared by the associates of a community. It really is learned and passed from the old technology to the newer ones. For a highly effective copy of culture in one generation to another, it needs to be translated into symbols. Language, fine art and religion serve as the symbolic means of transfer of cultural values between decades.

Culture is relationship that ties the people of region or community along. It is that a person common bond, which brings the folks of a community along. The customs and custom that the people of a community follow, the festival they celebrate, the type of clothing they wear, the meals they eat and, most importantly, the cultural principles they stick to, bind them mutually.

Culture is seen as system of cultural control, wherein people condition their standard and behavior. The ethnical values form the founding key points of your respective life. They inspired one's concepts and philosophies of life. They impact one's way of living and thus impact cultural life. The importance of culture is based on the fact that is clearly a link between people and their value system.

2. 6 The impact of culture on business

In this world we have millions of businesses and out of the millions Digital house is also one of the business enterprise which is positioned in Srilanka. Different business make a difference them with different civilizations. As we've stumbled upon a good way we clearly understand this is of culture and how bad it can be at times to businesses.

Lawrence, & Lorsch, (1967) is convinced that despite having experienced international companies, many well expected common applications of management theory have turned out terribly. For EG: pay for performance has in many instances been failing on photography equipment because there are specific though unspoken, rules about the series and timing of pay back and promotions. At the same time international managers own it difficult because they need to operate on a number of different premises at anybody time. These premises occur using their company culture of source, the culture where they will work and the culture of the organization which uses them.

In every culture on the globe such occurrence as expert, bureaucracy, creativeness, good fellowship, confirmation and accountability are experienced in several ways. That we use the same words to describe them tends to make us un-ware our cultural biases and our accustomed conduct may well not be appropriate or distributed. (Bartlett, and Ghosal. 1990) in the common world there's a theory that internationalization will generate or at least business lead to the culture worldwide. This would make the life span of the international professionals much simpler. People indicate McDonald's or KFC as examples of tastes. Markets and hence civilizations becoming similar all over. You will find, indeed, many products and services becoming common to world marketplaces. What is important to consider, however, is not what they are and where they are located actually, but what they suggest to the people in each culture.

The essence of culture is not what's visible on the top. It's the shared ways teams of folks understand and interpret the planet. Dining at McDonald's is a show of position in Moscow whereas it is a fast meal for an easy buck in New York. If business people want to get understanding of and allegiance to their corporate goals, regulations, products wherever they may be doing business, they need to understand what those and more aspects of management mean in several cultures.

So finally the internationalization of business life requires more understanding of cultural habits. In more communitarian ethnicities like France, Germany and large parts of Asia it may well not be so successful, Employees may well not accept that individual people of the group should stand out in a manner that reveals the shortcomings of the members. Their explanation of an "outstanding individual" is person who benefits those closest to her or him. Customers in more communitarian civilizations also take offence at the "quick buck" mentality of the best sales representatives they prefer to build up relationships carefully, and maintain them.

2. 7 The impact of cultural results in organizations in different ways

There are of course many factors that have an effect on the creation and evolution of organizational cultures. The presence or absence of competitors, local, regional, countrywide and global monetary conditions, the type of business, the type of the available labor source and so forth. Several factors are highly distinctive and are likely to have unique effects on specific varieties of organizations. However some factors are likely to have similar effects on a variety of organizations. The effects for organization can be in several ways. Will need a short look in all the 3 ways:

  1. Effects in which the character of the sociable culture comes with an impact on the nature of the organization.
  2. Effects where the aspect of the global industry comes with an impact on the nature of the organization.
  3. And finally the result in which the aspect of the industry as it is cleared in a given society has an impact on the type of the business.

2. 7. 1 Industry effects

The fact that different establishments impose different needs on organizations is apparent and well backed in the organizational strategy. According to Goold (1990) and Chhokar (2000) argue that the type of the industry influences organizational culture through the constraints it places on the behavior of all people in the organization. Further, specific organizational routines may be essential if a business hopes to survive on the market. In addition (Melts away and Stalker, 1961) says that industry powered assumptions lead to value systems that are steady with these assumptions and these value development of the industry within the society and nationwide economical system are just several other factors that can affect the ways that a given industry is enacted in confirmed society.

For EG: A model of organizational design for performance that incorporates a concern of the effects of the marketplace, the current technology, the industrial environment, and the social culture. More importantly, they discuss the interactions of the marketplace, the technology, and the industry with the interpersonal culture as having a direct effect on the design of a highly effective organization.

2. 7. 2 World effects

According to Smith, (1996) these are describing the potential negative outcomes that can accrue to an organization that strays from the expectation to complement population and industry norms. Still it seems clear that social characteristics can and do influence the characteristics of the organizations within the modern culture. In looking for such results, therefore you need to be prepared to see, similarities among all or certainly most organizations within the modern culture and a definite origin at the sociable level for the organization level similarities. At the same time Hayes and Prakasam (1982) found that social variations in vitality distance predicted the type of consultant client marriage preferred in those societies. Companies in countries characterized by high vitality distance preferred human relationships which were more directives and less collaborative.

2. 8 Summary

After coming to the finish of the literature review we have found many definitions on culture by different creators. Based on the above meanings it was discovered that different writers explain their own viewpoint on culture. Some authors have also described using their own cultural cases. As it remains cultural track record has been protected mainly focusing the factors of culture like communication, cross culture, gender, and exactly how culture impacts different situations like organizational performance, how communication impacts culture and many more information related to culture.

Cultures differ in their methods to the given environment, between notion that it could be controlled by the individual and notion that the individual must react to external circumstances. We have to not however, make the error of let's assume that inner path and outer route are exclusive options. All ethnicities automatically take some notice of what's inside or outside. To fail to achieve this task would lead inner directed ethnicities into a headlong dash to a tragedy. While outside directed cultures would try to please everyone and dissolve their energies by over observance.

Leaders in these stress how much they have learnt off their errors and from other's objections or criticisms. One reason staff ideas enrich several Asian organizations and involvement is so high is because listening alternatively than disclaiming sometimes appears as a lot more admirable trait. Such ethnicities do not clash openly. To go against what another person says is to drive roughshod over nature. Major change can come from both outside and inside. Once more we see that culture is about where a group starts or in which a supervisor conceives of change originating. To conceive of the organization as an open up system operating within a more substantial system allows both inner-directed and outer-directed orientations to develop.

A complex market is no objective description a lot as a social conception. For EG to an Ethiopian or to an American, reviews classes where people explore their errors can be handy feedback corresponding to American management culture and enforced admissions of inability in a German management culture. One culture may be inspired by the thing that depresses another. Instead of there being one easiest way of company there are several ways, some very much more culturally appropriate and affective than others, but all of them presenting international managers additional strings to their bow if they are willing and in a position to clarify the reactions of overseas cultures.

We noticed that culture presents itself to us in levels. The outer levels will be the products and artifacts that symbolize the deeper, more basic ideals and assumptions about life. The different layers aren't independent in one another, but are complementary. The shared meanings that are the core of cultures is man- made are designed into people within the culture, yet transcend the people in the culture. In other words, the shared meanings of an organization are within them and lead them to interpret things in particular ways, but are also available to be transformed if far better answers to problems of success are desired by the categories.

Chapter 3

3. 0 Introduction

This research is a study on the ethnical issues of the business. This research will help to identify the cultural problems faced by the employees and exactly how this affects the organizational performance. So in order to identify the social issues, questionnaires receive to the employees to see their cultural affects the business is facing right now. After wards the data will examined through statistical information and the deviation and relationship could be found.

3. 1 Conceptualization

Figure Conceptual model

Age Gender


Cross culture

Organizational performance

Independent variables

Dependant variables

3. 2 Research explanations of variables

3. 2. 1 Organizational performance

The starting place of assessing the performance of an organization is its success. The definition of efficiency used here's fundamentally embedded in our understanding of the term organization. Organizations are commonly defined as equipment of purpose. While using the classical definition of business, every organization is established for a specific function that is clarified through its goals. And finally performance is the business growth or profitability. When the organizations performance is high then the growth of the organization will be high. And the business can keep on growing.

3. 2. 2 Age

This can be defined as the person's maturity level in a work place. If we choose Digital House (Pvt) the business should make sure the age ranges of the employees are at least more than 24 years. This would benefit the company to be matured and also the decision making electric power will be very high and professional if the age range of employees are matured. So while recruiting the employee's years is a crucial factor the business should concentrate on. Otherwise the thinking style of the employees will be very childish.

3. 2. 3 Gender

This defines stating the worker is a female or male. Gender is also another critical factor to be looked at before the company recruits. For different works combos different people will be needed. For EG: if the company is in need of a marketing manager then the the most suitable gender is a male. This is because of the travelling and hard work which needs to be done while marketing the merchandise. Which means this post will not suit the females. So gender is another factor to be looked at while recruiting the worker.

3. 2. 4 Communication

Finally comes the communication. This is defined as the language that a person ought to know to speak properly in order to raise the organizational performance. If person does not communicate then the effectiveness of the business will drop speedily and also the decision making power will be lost. So communication is a very essential tool in order to achieve the goals effectively and efficiently. The company should always look whether the selected staff has good communication skills to keep the company moving in the winning edge.

3. 4 Research design

In the study design both quantitative and qualitative methods are been used for the study topic of cross ethnic study. When it comes to quantitative methods questionnaires are employed and in the qualitative method interview classes are occurred. Digital House Company consists of 4 branches in total, so all these 4 branches will be picked for the research questionnaires and interview. When it comes to the business, questionnaires are distributed among different departments covering all 4 branches. The marketing, finance, and HR departments are used for questionnaire syndication and each branch will be given questionnaires within the same department in all 4 branches. As well as the interview will need place in the main branch which is placed in Colombo.

3. 5 Test design

The company comprises around 80 employees for the reason that populations there are almost 75 men and just 2 to 3 3 females. So because of this particular research my test size is 50 employees. The questionnaires will get in arbitrary basis for the employees in all 4 branches. For EG: if there 6 finance employees in the Colombo branch then 2 will be given to the Colombo branch and the others would divided similarly on the list of other branches. So in this way the 50 questionnaires will be sent out. So in this test populace of 50 more than 90% of the employees are in the category of 20 to 30 years and the others between 30 to 50 years and 2 senior officers above the age of 50 years. And finally in this test society more than 75% of the employees are wedded.

Sample size: 50 employees

Age category: around 35 employees at the age of 20 to 30 years and the rest above 30

Marital status: 42 employees are wedded and 8 are unmarried.

3. 6 Data sources and collection

Finally in the info collection both key and supplementary data is employed to collect the data. With regards to the primary method the primary source can be used as questionnaires to gather the info. This questionnaire involves 4 parts, section A involves the non-public information of the employees. Section B talks about on how culture affects the employees in the business. Section C gathers information about the employees asking them how culture impacts the turnover and finally section D to gather information regarding how culture influences the whole organizational performance. In the mean time extra data will be accumulated from articles, publications, newspapers plus some statistical information predicated on the company. Finally the statistical calculations predicated on mean, median, method and standard deviation will be determined using all the collected data.

3. 7 Restriction of the study

There are several limits that needed to be acknowledged and addressed regarding to this prevailing review. The first & most important limitation is availability of time and resources. Hence small test size for review may limit the real end result and validity of the study, because test size has a larger possibility of making survey strong or weaker. Beside, to obtain relevant data for the analysis would be a restriction factor, since these analysis is based on cross culture and organizational performance, hence this information are related to the inner affairs of the company and are private.

Chapter 4

4. 0 Data analysis and presentation

According to this chapter brief explanation will get on the collected data from the employees. This research has 4 parts starting from communication, gender and era, and the final part is the non-public information of the employees. So now let's evaluate each of these questions in deep using percentages and statistical data.

4. 1 Employee's age range

The full total number of individuals because of this research was 50 employees. Out of this 50 employees 4 were in this category of 20-25, then 12 employees belonged under the 25-30 range, 30 employees were under the group of 30-35, which known as the best volume of employees for the reason that age category in the Digital house company. And finally there were 4 employees who had been more the age of 35 years.

4. 2 Gender of the employees

Based on the Digital house 92% of the employees are males. The rest 8% is merely females. The major reason for the employees to be guys is because the company is coping with technical products. When it comes to this field males are more desirable while compared to females. That's the reason for the great difference between males and females that can be seen in the aforementioned column graph.

4. 3 Educational qualification of the employees

As shown in these column chart it clearly signifies the majority of the employees is one of the high school department with a share of 48%. The rest of the employees are undergraduates and a few graduates and very few post graduates and lastly just 1 worker doesn't belong to these. The reason for the employees to be higher in high school is because these are paid less. The strategy of the business is to recruit basic employees and present them working out to work hard. This would be a very cost effective way to the business.

4. 4 Staff experience

The major reason for the success of Digital House Company is the experience of the employees. Inside the above chart it's clearly visible that 26 of the employees are experiencing more than 6 years of experience that is 52% which means the highest majority comes under the 6 years or more categories. But the rest of the employees are partially experienced but still not up to this standard. 28% of the employees are experienced between 2 to 4 years and few employees fall under the group of 1-2 and four to six 6. Since the bulk is well experienced the company has more chances to accomplish goals promptly.

4. 5 Salary of the employees

Based on the company almost all of the employees are experiencing a good experience so because of this factor 42% of the employees are getting a salary range of 20000 to 25000. Post graduates are getting a very high salary for their experience and knowledge, which shows 8% in the aforementioned chart. And finally 6% and 28% of the employees are receiving a lesser salary anticipated their lack of experience and knowledge. Overall the company is having a large expenses on the salary program on a monthly basis.

4. 6 Communication related factors

As we have come quite a distance across we all really know what communication is. Now let's take a look about how communication influences the culture of the organization and how this effects the organizational performance. Communication has been split into 3 major parts, communication style, distance, management. Now let's take a peek on each section separately starting from the communication style.

4. 6. 1 Communication style

Do cultural dissimilarities (gestures, accent etc) cause problems in the internal communication at the work place?

66% of the employees will be more into the agree part and 14% of the employees simply do not know whether culture triggers problems in the work place. And 20% of the employees are towards disagree part. But finally the majority of the employees agree that culture triggers problems at the task place that may affect the performance of the business.

Does employees conception on traditional views in culture effect every trip to work?

Once more in line with the employees it's well demonstrated that 28 employees say that employee belief on traditional views will impact communication at work. In other terms 56% are agreeing with the statement and 11 employees do not know about it, and finally 11 employees are disagreeing with the declaration. But the overall comparison shows that employee perception influence everyday communication at work.

Are you content with the communication style of the company?

According to the above chart it expresses that 80% of the employees are satisfied with the communication style of the company. And simply 3 employees are puzzled with communication style. Only 7 employees are dissatisfied with the communication design of the company. Some of the employees are unable to talk proper British and they might be folks who don't understand the design of communicating. However in overall the employees are satisfied which is a positive sign for the company to attain goals in a powerful manner.

Language difficulties confronted by the company

The above mentioned pie chart represents the language complications experienced by the employees. These shows 24 employees are having difficulty with British which is the highest majority while compared to the Tamil and English. 44% of the employees are having trouble with conversing Tamil and finally just 4 employees have found it difficult to speak Sinhala. The major reason behind the language complications is basically because the employees in Digital house have a merged culture of most 3 religions.

The most preferred medium used in the company

The aforementioned pie chart symbolizes that the most common medium used is mobile phone then comes E-mail, fax and finally other. 48% of the employees has voted for Telephone where as 34% of the employees had voted for E-mail. This evidently clarifies us that the most common and vastly used medium by the Digital house Company is Cell phone and E-mail. And at very rare occasions they get excited about using Fax and other terms of method.

4. 6. 2 Distance related factors

This part targets communicating abroad. Here some questions are prepared in relating the issues that can occur while conversing with another culture of the country. Let's take a look on many of these questions.

Is it difficult so that you can communicate abroad?

According to what we think it isn't that simple to communicate overseas. This is because we should choose the least expensive mode and it ought to be well designed before communicating. So scheduled to these reasons 60% of the employees agree that communicating overseas is difficult, however 14% of the employees say it's neither difficult nor easy. And lastly 26% of the employees are saying that communicating abroad is easy. They are the top people in the organization who've been provided all the facilities to converse to other countries. But still almost all says communicating is difficult which includes 30 employees.

Difficulty to understand the communication highlight of other countries

The above mentioned chart's result isn't shocking because normally Asians find it difficult to understand the accent of other countries because of their fluency and professionalism. So, simply 37 employees have decided that they find it difficult to understand the accent of other countries. Mean while 5 of the employees are neutral. They sometimes understand and sometimes not. And lastly 8 employees disagree with the declaration. They are the knowledgeable people with a lot of experience, so because of this they think it is better to understand the highlight of other countries.

Do their non verbal signs match using what we follow?

The aforementioned chart represents the data on non verbal hints. This means perhaps the body gestures of other countries tally with ours. Let's see the particular employees have said according to their opinion. 20% of the employees agree that the other countries body language is equivalent to our country, 13 employees simply don't know very well what to say. And the rest 27 employees (that is 54% of the employees) says that the non verbal clue will not match using what we follow. Even according to me your body language of your country and another is different.

Do you misunderstand the message always?

Finally this graph explains about how many employees realized the message properly. Based on the company 40% of the employees agree that they misunderstand the note while communicating abroad because of their accent and various culture. But still the company is in the safer aspect, because 54% of the employees are able to understand just how of communication which is positive signal for the business to increase its performance to raised standards.

4. 6. 3 Leadership related factors

This is the ultimate part of communication. With this part questions are mainly predicated on leadership associated with communication. Let's see how the questions are located in terms of culture which influences organizational performance.

What kind of command style is your employer following?

The above pie chart shows the amount of votes directed at the 2 2 different kinds of leadership. Within the above there are autocratic and democratic command. Autocratic means decisions created by the boss itself. Democratic means the employer provides decision making capacity to others. So based on the employees we can obviously observe that 86% of the employees say that the employer makes decisions to the business. Whereas 14% says that the decisions are created by others. Of course this is fair enough, because 14% includes 7 employees. These 7 employees could possibly be the managers of different divisions, if this is actually the circumstance then surely the employer will give then the decision making power.

Does your manager use two way communication and available discussion to communicate with subordinates?

The above chart talks about us if the boss uses proper two way communication and open conversation to the employees to make effective decisions. According to the employees 68% of these have agreed that the boss is very flexible as it pertains to connecting. 6 employees are puzzled in the way the supervisor communicates to them and finally 20% of the employees aren't content with the communication of the supervisor. Normally two way communication and wide open discussion includes Telephone, E-mail, face to face discussions, meetings etc. In overall the employees are satisfied with the communication of the employer.

Does your supervisor let subordinates to decide process and activity at work?

According to the above bar chart it says 42% of the employees have the opportunity to decide process and activity at the job. Whereas the majority 54% says that they don't really get the energy to choose and task at work. And, only 2 employees aren't that sure whether the boss provides them responsibilities. But still while evaluating, the variation doesn't show a huge different both recognize and disagree part looks virtually identical. The major reason why the company doesn't allow the employees to choose might be because of the less efficiency of certain employees.

Does your leader placed goals by him self?

This chart looks quite clear when you compare with the question. Normally 95% of the organizations involve establishing goals by the CEO. So it's the same scenario which has happened in the aforementioned. 94% of the employees have agreed that the first choice is involved in preparing goals. Only 6% disagree with the aforementioned statement. The reason behind the huge difference in the above mentioned is quite typical at any circumstances. Normally it's the manager's responsibility to provide the ideas and to do whatever said by the employer but finally the boss is the one who is heading to decide whether to move ahead with the program or not.

To what extent your director dedicates specialist to you

The aforementioned pie graph shows the amount of authority given to a particular worker. Simply power is the independence directed at employees to make decisions independently on their jobs and responsibilities. Based on the statistical data in these it doesn't seem that bad. 52% of the employees are getting authority to some extent plus they might be the professionals of different showrooms. Then 24% of the employees are getting specialist to a great degree these might be the manager top professionals of different departments. And another 24% says they don't get authority at all these must be the lower lever staff. The more the expert is directed at somebody who brings peacefulness to the employer since his work insert will reduce, at the same time the manager might be taking a risk.

Do you think your supervisor is mostly using one of the ways communication?

The above pie chart shows if the supervisor is using a method or two way marketing communications. A lot of the employees disagree with this affirmation and agrees that the director uses two way marketing communications. 84% of the employees that is 42 individuals disagree with the above mentioned statement. And only 16% of the employees say that the director is involved with using a method communication. Because the majority is not any, the majority of the employees has justified there answer declaring that meeting discussions, conferences are kept to make effective decisions and to put into practice those decisions. So this is why the employees say that the director is using two way marketing communications.

How gender impacts organizational performance.

In the above we took a look on how communication influences organizational performance. Now let's take a peek on some questions how gender affects organizational performance. Let's observe how the employees have acted to this part.

Do you think that you have been discriminated from your job?

This pie chart provides very interesting information to the employees. Discrimination means asking the employees if they have been isolated or cured in an undesirable way while at work. Based on the survey it demonstrates 88% of the employees havent been discriminated in the work place. 12% of the employees feel that they can be discriminated from work. Almost all says they aren't and the reason they have got justified is due to good relationships transported with the professionals and subordinates of the company.

Do you feel or know of men getting lower positions in your occupation instead of women, give your remarks?

Since this is descriptive question it isn't practical to show the statistical data to it. But will consider what the majority of the employees has said relating to this question.

According to the study analysis 90% of the employees have informed that they don't feel any situation like men getting lower positions while set alongside the women. A lot of people say they are treated equally in the business which doesn't make sure they are think in an incorrect way. There is also said the business is obviously motivating them to work hard to attain the company goals effectively. So 80% of the employees don't feel anything uneasy by doing so.

But 10% of the employees say that the men are getting lower positions in the business because of the beauty of women. What they want to say is the fact that beautiful ladies are given higher positions while compared to men. But nonetheless this reason is not really a fact to be looked at.

Do you feel or know of women sense they are more more advanced than men, give your reviews?

This is also another interesting question to be looked at. In this particular question most employees have to one important point declaring that women have a lot of attitude issues while compared to men. Practically 85% of the employees are saying many women think they are really more advanced than men because of the behaviour, beauty, personality etc. These are some of the reason why the particular employees have stated in the questionnaire.

The break 15% of the employees say women aren't heroes who think these are superior. These employees have said that girls are very delicate, emotional so scheduled to these factors they never think in this manner. As well as have said the woman who thinks they can be superior will be retained isolat

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