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Highland Tower Collapse and Ramp Construction


The purpose of this article is to find out from a field, a building that experienced development catastrophe, review its brief comings and produce solutions and recommendations of what could be done to ensure the same problem doesn't happen in the future. The building upon that your research is based in this assignment is named the Highland tower, a building in Selangor Malaysia which collapsed and 48 people died and 12 others were evacuated from the other building. The Highland Towers collapse was an apartment building collapse that occurred on 11 December 1993 in Taman Hillview, Ulu Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. The collapse of Block Among the apartments caused the deaths of 48 people and resulted in the complete evacuation of the remaining two blocks scheduled to safety concern. It had been one of the most tragic building accidents in Malaysian record where home towers collapsed and wiped out people. Since that time, the government and its own subsidiaries sat down in a committee to see a way ahead for the structure industry especially construction in hilly areas to reduce casualties.

The event has been generally publicized, when an American tourist in particular since it is captured within the next ten days and taken to the Tower of photographs a dramatic sequence, and crazy recovery operations.

Building professionals with the situation of a number of important impact in Malaysia, which will be the focus of the newspaper, but also lead to tort laws in Malaysia interesting development and clarification.

Case study

Highland Towers contains three 12-storey properties in a steep hill, was later extensively on the terraces in the first 1980s in western base built-in periods between 1974 to 1982. Each stop is named:

Block1 (built in 1977, the most southern)

Block2 (built in 1979, north-west block 1, slightly raised than the other two, the nearer to the top of the hill)

Block3 (built in 1981, the Northwest stop 1, block Western 2).

Parking behind the pile rain collapsed building in the pool located on both edges and the rear between Northwest Northeast parking lot following the landslide brought on by the failing of the retaining wall membrane behind the building failed, for 10 days. The tower is home to the affluent middle-class households ; considerable proportion of residents are expatriates. Highland Tower was once notorious early 1980s and 1990s for prosperous people to conceal their mistress popular place. The tower is behind a small stream known as the " East Creek. " Eastern Creek moves into the tower site tower " before building. Later, build a pipeline system to divert circulation to bypass the tower in 1991, a new housing development project, called" Wu Antarabangsa Development Job ", located in the tower Maximum behind the start. Because of this, the pile has been cleared of trees and other vegetation and land cover, dirt erosion revealed land, which will lead to land slides from the development site of this inflatable water diverted in to the river to divert the stream of the same East piping systems. eventually, the pipeline system to become over- pressurized water, sand and silt from the Eastern Creek and the development site. pipe burst at different locations in the mountains, the ground had to soak up excess moisture content. December 1993 monsoon rains further worsening the problem.

(Block One of the Highland Towers collapsed)

Role and responsibilities

The Architect

(I) there is no defense of the contact is a limited one, at least you must be sure that other aspects of the work of others is competent to complete. Defensive architect, he only maintained the design and guidance of three apartment buildings, and refused that his range reaches the drainage, earthworks and keeping walls. It had been dismissed by that courtroom. The court held that the architect must look at the building on which is built in the vicinity of the land, and the land itself, the safety analysis of the building, it must be evaluated. [In addition, the judge held that as a matter of known fact, the architect concerned about the neighborhood and the building itself, when he posted the structure plan, the specialists because it includes high tower behind the slope terraces and drainage. Therefore, he must be sure that the task carried out although others in a reliable and workmanlike manner]

(Ii) there is no difference between your standard care and attention of unqualified doctors

Although the architect in reality simply a building draftsman, evaluate their patterns on the court docket has the capacity to architect a standard that if a person is unqualified, but demonstrated himself to have a skill, he'll be judged by the typical a reliable and qualified staff.

(C) there is absolutely no excuse to state that compulsory employer does not comply with regulations

Finally, the Courtroom seems to have flatly rejected the architect's excuse that he cannot do anything to avoid his employer (employers and engineers in obtaining certificates of fitness in three apartment complexes do not fulfill the conditions stipulated by the local government bodies in collusion record, instead of terraces and keeping surfaces to ensure proper design, provide and sufficient to stand up to, even though he understood it would have an impact on the building, he was in control) slope instability - the Judge has clarified that, when regulations is cracked, the architect must are accountable to the specialists - following the architect must be sure that regulations, even in the risk of being discharged.


Defense engineer, he only retained the design and guidance of three apartment structures, Highland Towers chemical substance structures within two retaining walls, and send programs, drainage, and two and denied his range reaches the drainage, earthworks. It had been dismissed by that court docket. The court found that engineers must take into account the building on which is built near the land, and the land itself, the time to assess the safe practices of complexes, must be assessed. He should ensure the stability of the slope behind Highland Towers.

His tasks not by a mere belief that they are built on terraced slopes and retaining wall surfaces were discharged by an engineer or other specialist. He should ask the professional is experienced, whether he was doing what impact the safety of cascading tower. [Neglect other areas of engineers - a significant violation of the regulators to look after his tasks to a notification granted by the customer, and only 10 percent is dependant on the approved drainage development]

In synopsis locations near building experts need to be considered, as well as the safety assessment of the site itself, especially taking into account the adjacent hillside. Building professionals to take part in a restricted range cannot hide behind, these are the things that they themselves and their employers, nevertheless they may be subject to the obligations owed to the scope of these service is not limited to this. Building specialists necessary to ensure that others do the work to activate them in the design may influence / supervisory framework is qualified, workmanlike manner to handle the work. If you believe the general building pros have knowledge in a specific region of №№eligibility when they are unqualified, their habit will be a measure of this expertise trained doctor. After building experts must ensure that law and, if essential to report to the authorities if their clients break the law, even in peril by their client to be discharged.

Case request on legislation of tort


The Highland Towers decision becomes another Malaysian High Court decision which diverges from the approach of the English Courts and adopts the approach considered by other Commonwealth jurisdictions in allowing the restoration of "pure economical loss", especially where sufficient proximity can be proven between the negligent function and losing. Pure economic loss is losing related to the merchandise itself which is defective by reason of carelessness, as opposed to the loss or damage caused to the house of the Plaintiff by this faulty product.


In this cause of action, a Defendant is liable if the Plaintiff can show the Defendant is accountable for a condition or activity which inhibits use or enjoyment of his land, and this condition or activity is not a reasonable customer by the Defendant. The Highland Towers decision, needing the plaintiff must create an additional requirement that is the kind of damage if the defendant could realistically foreseeable, the concepts adopted from English case rules on the expansion of the disturbance is limited in Malaysia, Cambridge Drinking water Company leather Co. Ltd. v. Eastern Europe.

Cause of structural failure

The drinking water tower is behind a little stream known as the " East Creek. " Eastern Creek flows in to the tower site tower " before engineering, therefore the establishment of the pipeline system is to divert the stream to bypass the tower.

In 1991, a fresh housing development task, called 'Bukit Antarabangsa Development Job', positioned in the tower under building behind the very best of the hill. The pile is cleared of trees and shrubs and other vegetation and land cover, land uncovered ground erosion is a major factor triggering landslides.

Construction site of the new drinking water diverted into the existing pipeline systems used to transfer the East river flows. This heavy-duty piping and water, sand and silt from the river and east in to the pipeline engineering site. Pipes burst, several places in the mountains, and the surrounding soil to absorb excess water. December 1993 monsoon rains further deterioration of the situation.

The normal water content in the earth becomes excellent saturated, so that the soil is becoming viscous, actually become the amount of clay. Oct 1992 by the hillside is saturated with normal water, this inflatable water is streaming down the slopes and considered retaining walls.

Shortly thereafter, landslides, destroying the engineering of a retaining wall. Landslide mud that contains nearly one hundred thousand square meters - a mass equal to 200 Boeing 747 plane. Rammed earth bottom to first, gradually pushing it forward. After per month of this regular pressure, foundations snapped and November 1993, the residents started out to see breaks forming and growing the highlands adjoining the tower, on the road caution of collapse. Regrettably, no further analysis before a collapse Dec 11, 1993.

Safety authorities and Investigation strategies.

These were the results of the investigation that came from the car accident. Also indicating who was simply to blame for the occurrence of the automobile accident. Inside the first a day, only two women and an infant were pulled from the rubble. Indonesian maid Umi Rashidah Khoruman, 22, and her 18-month old little girl Nur Hamidah Najib, survived the ordeal, but the second woman, Japanese nationwide Shizue Nakajima, 50, succumbed to her accidents. Final article from the investigations proved that It had been the fault of the house owners never to drain the land that induced the silt to create and therefore the large land slide that led to the collapse of the structure that said 48 lives.


The following will be the court 's studies of liability :

The first defendant was negligent in presuming responsibility never to engage a qualified architect, building terraces inadequate, inadequate, could sensibly be expected to obtain triggered the collapse of the keeping surfaces and drains eastward diversion from its natural course and failed to ensure that the slope is enough water pipe culverts, and hate not managed drains and keeping walls.

The second defendant ( the architect ) is assumed responsibility for negligence will not ensure sufficient drainage and keeping walls built-in the adjacent highlands tower site, which he foresaw or should have foreseen that the building would endanger the hillside, he is responsible for, not specified with the authorities on drainage, and the first defendant and the third defendant ( engineers ) collude to get fitness license does not match the conditions by the fourth accused ( local regulators ) are needed, in doing so does not adhere to his obligations, the architect and no investigation retaining wall space, even though he recognized they would impact the terraced hillsides and development of properties, he was responsible for, and hate, because he's an unreasonable land users.

The third defendant ( engineer ) is behind the neglectfulness of responsibility without considering the hillside or slope of the tower, there is no basis for the design and construction to support lateral insert or otherwise landslide has guaranteed that the adjacent slope steadiness, without execution of the approved drainage plan, and the first and second defendants colluded to get fitness certificate does not match the conditions stipulated by the fourth accused and a nuisance, because he's irrational use of land.

The fourth accused ( local specialists ) Even though negligence of its construction-related jobs. That is about the building plan authorization process to ensure the execution of the approved building of drainage systems, and in the Qualification of Fitness problem remains because S95 Block, Drainage and Building Action (2 ) immunity.

The fourth accused, but a maintenance function Eastern stream later in rewarding its construction can not be spared because of its negligence. It also captivated a nuisance liability.

The fifth accused ( Arab - Malaysian financial BHD) is liable for the carelessness of failure to keep up drains their land, and in the land after the collapse of the actions taken to rebuild stability.

Seventh accused (Metrolux property ) and its own project administrator, the eighth defendant, who is the duty of negligence and nuisance, to prevent water from flowing into the downhill ( to their website ), but to guide the blast of water into the East, when they knew or ought to have known, this will raise the amount of drinking water injected into the mud and, specifically, have their own extensive land clearing, go east into the stream, it will be deposited, that will subsequently ( to verify ) cause or contribute to drainage mistake system and a collapse.

The ninth and tenth defendant ( basically the state government ), found no liability credited to a complex problem on the prosecution of a specific political party.

The sixth accused ( who carried out the task site clean- Arab - abortion buyer of land in Malaysia ) found no proof responsibility.


About remedies the first this is find a qualified contractors and licensed Designer and structure engineer. In this case causes of building collapse the key reason is to find designer contractor brought on by the irrational. So we brief summary have five points:

(i) Nearby locations building specialists need to be considered, as well as the safety assessment of the website itself, especially considering the adjacent hillside.

(Ii) building pros to participate in a restricted range cannot hide behind, these are things that they themselves and their employers, nonetheless they may be at the mercy of the responsibilities owed to the scope of these service is not limited to this.

(Iii) building experts necessary to ensure that others do the work may be employed to supervise their effect in the design / development is qualified, will carry out their work, a workmanlike manner.

(Iv) if the building pros think they may have skills in specific areas when they are unqualified, their action will be a way of measuring this general requirements expertise qualified doctor.

(V) construction pros must ensure that regulations after a written report to the regulators if required, if their clients break the law, even in peril by their customer to be discharged.

The second move to make is to ensure that the knowledge and expertise to this project.

Next to it is to ensure that materials and components to be installed and used in order to test its functionality and satisfactory compliance with the required standards. For example; specific laboratory checks should be taken before using compressive durability, stability and strength.

Finally, before any area of the task is complete, accountable for the endorsement before its next regulatory bodies should be. The task is a model for all the items necessary lab tests, carried out prior to the actual execution. Engineers can also use the cause of the elements and other areas of the model.

The third thing is basically because this example has occurred for quite some time, although the court hasn't yet made a decision, but nonetheless want to remind companies, who mutually oversee project quality, and how to resolve most of the risk around. Don't let the tragedy happen again.

Percentage Occurrence of Factors behind Building Collapse(Malaysia 1960-2010)


Investigated factors behind building collapse


Percentage (%)


Structural failure




Faulty design




Poor workmanship




Substandard materials




Due to encompassing building development




illegal conversion




Inexperience contractor




Building usage







So in this desk we can see Factors behind Building Collapse most reason is Inexperience service provider. Now we need clean know find a skilled contractor is vital,

faulty design and scheduled to encircling building development also account for a large percentage.


From the aforementioned analysis and discussion shown, you can infer that the key reason behind the building's structural failures, design mistakes and poor workmanship, which may also be appropriate to other countries on earth.

Also from the results of this study, it is assumed that we now have three types of claims, can produce any properties collapsed, that contract claims, tort statements and incidents of both contract and tort cases ; Which means that a celebration can be produced in this both his or her request. Therefore, the following advice for who got suffered losses in the rectangular building collapse

Events so that their requirements:

(i) The Government shall try to help out with the analysis of any incidence of building collapse, to allow victims to learn the responsible party, and from whom to produce a claim.

(ii) The Government should assist owners or who've suffered the increased loss of a building collapse in the event an authorized to prosecute their conditions in court docket as they actually their other requirements, if they cannot, because

The expensive nature of the proceedings.

(iii) THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT should enact laws that will enhance the effectiveness and benchmarks for the construction of complexes.

(iv) Furthermore, the government should screen, manage and enforce regulations, its efficiency.

(v) Every building owner should ensure that competent professionals and experienced contractors are involved in carrying out their construction process.

(vi) Every professional body should keep an eye on their members and also prepare yourself to penalize any erring member who ISS found liable in building collapse event.


Ramp construction led to landslides - like we definitely hear a great deal of reports, and landslides said increasingly more of life incidents, why is almost everywhere and felling of trees for the development of the activities. Normally, this tragedy 21 years ago can be avoided! I hope the federal government will seriously look at this issue!


http://malaysiafactbook. com/Highland_Towers_collapse

http://www. nst. com. my/nation/general/i-saw-highland-towers-block-crash-to-

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