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Environment Of Perhentian Island Malaysia Tourism Essay

For many small islands travel and leisure is economically significant as a source of income and employment. Islands, especially small islands, continue steadily to attract tourists, as well as for exotic such as Malaysia having many small islands off of the east coast, each of them have become increasingly popular among foreign and local holiday likewise. Islands like Perhentian is attracting increasing numbers of people to visit which popularity although good for the economics has brought about a mass tourism trend whereby huge amounts of people visit the island at one given time thus crowding the island. This drives the travel and leisure government bodies, hotels and travel operators to provide to the demand, centering more on the mass travel and leisure and the revenue it creates, thus neglecting environmentally friendly degradation that brings about many negative impacts to the island. Many conservation programs have been since embarked by the tourism government bodies after realising the necessity for coverage for the environment but the majority are just random and is not sustained.

The Perhentian islands off the east coast of peninsula Malaysia have been a travel and leisure destination since the late 1980s when backpackers heard bout these islands. The two main islands of perhentian have observed development since then, and this island has since attracted increasingly more people to its majestic islands. Which newspaper examines how mass tourism can affect a specific destination consequently of its popularity.

1. 2 Research question

What are the ramifications of mass travel and leisure to the environment of Pulau Perhentian ? which will be my research question.

My problem comes with mass and evolving tourism industry and its own impact to the natural setting that people have in Perhentian Island.

Urbanization is not indeed a problem to anyone, judging by the way everyone is living in comparison to 20 years back again. The convenience to handle a task is manufactured so simple by so many gadgets, storing, controlling and posting data and information has never been easier following the invention of the internet and so forth. It's a electronic world now that we you live in.

Tourism is the no 1 hospitality industry in the world, with the improvement of technology in vehicles and information copy. Booking, choosing, exploring and experiencing has never been simpler. But have we ever stop to believe what is required for us to experience these holidays? Hotel? Land? Natural source of information?, and also have we ever taken a step back to think what and exactly how our activities did to your environment? I am not arguing stating that tourism industry is the primary cause of all the pollution and devastation caused. But in this paper I am going to show what some irresponsible stakeholders have done to Perhentian and how our our mother earth suffers while you're watching us frolicking.

1. 3 Research objectives

Malaysia is a country which embraces its modernity while its custom and world old appeal, as well as this is its flourishing beauty of the natural environment, the tropical jungles and its own diverse ecosystem. Therefore this vacation spot is fuelled by a growing range of local and international vacationers, and with advancement of global communication, the figures are rocketing up. But with the increasing amount of tourist variety and suppliers in Malaysia need to cater to the demand thus triggering development and urbanization, and so causing Malaysia to lose much of its land, rainwater forest, sacrificing endangered types of animals across the way

This research has three specific targets in order to understand the impact of mass travel and leisure to the environment.

The first target is to look at perhentian island which have been affected, the consequence of these pollutions and to prove that these pollutions are induced by mass travel and leisure activities.

The second objective is to understand how authorities, NGO's and the public are doing to preserve the environment.

The third purpose is to provide solutions and ideas you can use for the future of travel and leisure and also protect the environment at the same time so that tourism and sustainability can coexist without destroying each other.

1. 4 Significant of studies

This research provides several benefits to the tourism industry, the local community and Perhentian island.

This research will help to show how mass tourism has been affecting the natural environment of perhentian island, and the risk it poses to the endangered types of pets or animals that share the islands tepid to warm water and jungles with us. Second, by discovering the cause and aftereffect of the harm to perhentian island, measures can be than taken by local specialists and other government bodies to preserve the remaining of the island and establish boundaries and rules which may inturn bring back the balance in the ecosystem and the natural setting of perhentian island. Third, by implementing ;"travel laws and regulations" in perhentian, this would help to reduce on the destruction that has strike perhentian. And help to preserve the surroundings and its own ecosystem for younger generation to see.

Lastly, this research also contributes knowledge to maintain the natural setting up not only in perhentian but also other vacation spots in Malaysia that could face the same problem as Perhentian.

1. 5 Restrictions of studies

This research is done to identify the human relationships between Mass travel and leisure activity and its direct impact to Perhentian island. Besides that, this research examines the results of such activity and the solutions that can be resorted to in order to maintain an equilibrium. This research is conducted in Perhentian Island, Malaysia. Interviews will be carried out to both local and international travelers who are visiting Perhentian. The questionaire's will be given out to holidaymakers who are of 18 yrs. old and above only.

The sample size is bound to 100 respondents. As perhentian is a small island

2. 0 Literature review

2. 1 Mass tourism

What is travel and leisure?

There is no definition of travel and leisure which everyone uses. Many definitions have been used over the years, some of that are general and can be employed to any situation, and more terms for a more specific purpose. Different tourism company, for example, often devises explanations that fulfill their own specific requirements. The greater universal definition creates on Goeldner and Ritchie (2006)

'Tourism may be thought as the sum of the operations, activities and outcomes arising from the partnership and the connections among tourist, travel and leisure suppliers, host governments, host communities and surrounding conditions that are involved in the attracting, transporting, web host and management of vacationer and other site visitors. '

Tourism in line with the Cambridge online dictionary says that it's the business of providing services such as transportation, places to stay or entertainment for folks who are on christmas. In the meantime the oxford online dictionary says that it's the commercial organization and operation of holiday seasons and sessions to tourist destinations.

What is mass tourism?

Mass tourism is the function of going to a leisure destination with large amounts of individuals at onetime. The introduction of mass tourism is parallel to the development and improvements of technology. Vehicles and internet has progressed so much with time, making communication without headaches, this allows traveler to research, find out and book and even purchase their holidays online, this thus contributing to the surge of mass tourism, besides that the improvement in technology in the vehicles industry also helps in the transport of good sized quantities of folks in a brief time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of individuals could begin to take pleasure from the great things about leisure time.

Mass tourism is definitely the subject of criticism because of its negative impacts throughout the world. Many catalogs point out mass tourism's probably destructive impacts on societies, culture and environment. Many writers condemned and still condemn this mass usage and those who enjoy it. Actually the argument over the advantages and the disadvantages of tourism has raged incessantly and can continue. Tourism development in many places, and especially mass travel and leisure, has led to deterioration in environment quality. In the 1960s, the effects of mass travel and leisure and the increasing awareness of the human influences on the environment led to an over-all state that mother nature is no inexhaustible resource.

Relation between environment and tourism

Today, people are being more sensibility for the environment, this is because the tourism industry is really the only inexpensive sector that uses a destinations environment as an essential part of its product. In other words, the natural environment is a key factor of the travel and leisure activity. Krippendorf (1982) "the landscape is the real raw materials of tourism; it is the reason for the life of travel and leisure as well as its economical traveling force". This highlights that tourism product quality is associated with environment quality, and it's really highly dependence between tourism and environment because its often used as basic debate to help make the tourism industry aware of the negative impacts of mass tourism on the surroundings.

Environment

The environment can be viewed as as a tourism resource and it is a part of the travel and leisure product because tourism is directly influenced by environmental quality. This close romance or interdependence between travel and leisure and environment, can be defines it as "environmentally friendly part of tourism"

Multiple surveys confirm the hypothesis that the grade of natural environment constitutes "the primary factors that enticed the present-day vacationer" (WTO, 1983: 28). So, if tourism wants to make it through, it seems imperative to reach this tranquility between people and nature. It's the only way to reduce the costs of travel and leisure on the environment and permit the tourist to enjoy undisturbed character. (Mieczkowski, J. 1995) This "symbiotic relation", term employed by Budowski (1976) has a name, it is sustainable tourism.

Mass travel and leisure creates intense environmental pressures due to the fact that such activity involves a large quantity of travellers in small areas. Furthermore, those stresses are accentuated by the temporal polarization of mass tourism (Shaw, G. and Williams, A. 2002). Hudman and Jackson (2003) acknowledge that coastal resorts are a good example of changing pre-existing varieties associated with both individuals and physical environment. In Spain, for example, several coastal villages have been altered rather dramatically in the past couple of years. Travel posters of the region usually highlight the region as it used to be before tourism. Yet, with the development of mass travel and leisure, the dispersed villages of Torremolinos, Benidorm or Lloret del Mar, and other small villages are no more recognizable. Lloret de Mar, was among the first in Europe to be developed for mass tourism (Telegraf. co. uk, 2001). Recently, the development of transfer facilities such as airlines have allowed to people places to draw in still more travelers. For example, since the arrival of Ryanair, the low cost flight company, at Gerona international airport, the town of Lloret de Mar is becoming a lot more accessible, especially to people who maintain a rigorous travel budget. Mass tourism has a range of impacts of all types on environment (e. g. coastal, mountains or inland) but also on built surroundings (e. g. historic sites or cities).

Mass tourism causes the direct degradation, air pollution, even destruction of elements (air, soils, geology, vegetation, water and animals) and ecosystems (coastal, mountains, inland and polar) (Mieczkowski, Z. 1995). The primary causes will be the construction of traveler facilities such as hotel complexes, theme parks and marinas and the focus of holidaymakers in the same place. The easiest way to view such environmental influences is to consider mass travel and leisure within specific surroundings. Coastal areas are especially susceptible to mass travel and leisure because they stand for the most appealing places to spend vacation. In some places including the Mediterranean, there has been widespread devastation of the ecosystems. It is the marine ecosystem which supports and is afflicted by mass beach tourism, especially concentrated through the high season (from June to August). The summer months have most direct sun light and they are the longest school holiday period when households take their main vacation. The marine ecosystems have problems with garbage removal by hotels and littering by tourists, engine oil spills from cruise lines and other mechanized boat traffic, etc. (Mieczkowski, Z. 1995). All the construction of tourism facilities necessary for mass tourism in coastal areas impacts the beach in any ways. Infrastructures are required to cope with the large volume of consumers in a brief time period (Shaw, G. and Williams, A. 2002)

Why have mass tourism happen?

Mass tourism looks after the World Conflict II, it was initiated in the trunk roads of the professional towns and places in the north of England. The development of mass tourism under western culture was linked to the economic development of modern culture and as a matter of fact to the incorporation of a more powerful middle and lower class inside the traveler market. This growth has been predicated on external factors such as generalisation of paid vacations, rising criteria of living and a rapid improvement in the means of transportation including the increase in air travel. The progress of such tourism represents a democratisation of travel which democratisation means that status distinctions will be attracted between the several classes of traveller, but less between those that can travel or not. There are a lot of factors that have or can cause an increase in tourism which then ends up with the mass tourism phenomenon, the development of the demographic in Malaysia takes on an important role in adding to the upsurge in tourism activity. First would be the increase in wealth, Malaysia's middle income has increased tremendously over time, which is as a result of modernization of Malaysia has induced a upsurge in equipment and demand, thus creating employment offers, which in turn attract visitors to migrate to the city to enhance the standard of living. Recover comes the increase in the throw-away income, this means more income for the family to invest, the new technology of families are getting smaller, most of the adults who get hitched are having only one or maximum two kids. All of this creates additional time and money to be invest leisure. Below are a few factors which contribute to the increase in travel, in and out of Malaysia;

trip entitlement

Employee eligible for vacation, creates more leisure time to be spent doing leisure activities.

shorter working week

More and much more companies are rehearsing a 5 day work week then a 6 day work week, to create a balance

much larger incomes

Increase of living criteria result in a more substantial income, to preserve the cost of living induced by the producing cities.

less children

Families are becoming smaller, younger technology of adults are looking to possess one or no more than two kids.

Two wage-earner families

With everything becoming more complex socially, and the expense of living increasing it offers come to the main point where, there are two earners in one family. This results more disposable income, due to the small family

Technology

Besides everything, the progress in technology also takes on an important role in the increase in tourism, computer reservation system has made reservation, viewing and making repayment easy. Consumers is now able to view, reserve and pay for any tourism service without departing the comfort of their office or their homes.

The offer tour

The package head to, also called bundle holiday, also plays an essential role in causing the mass travel and leisure phenomenon. Bundle travel or all-inclusive package deal tend to be standardised and with limited flexibility. The package identifies the purchase of a offer of travel services including travel and accommodation. All other types of journeys are non-package trips. When buying a bundle, the tourist seems sure to get the service guaranteed. Today, the industry tourism has adapted its offer to the customer needs and goals and proposes tailor-made packages where the customer can incorporate all the the different parts of his trip. The thought of the package travel is the same but more flexibility is granted

What are the effects?

The impact of the mass tourism is very popular, especially upon the surroundings. Besides, not a lot of share of investment property on holidays actually get to the local people, which local and native social attractions most of us enjoy. They are people who actually save the customs and habits of the local areas. Individuals, who allow us to capture a glimpse of the cultural heritage, they are simply who've preserving and caring for the un-spoiled aspect for all of us. Maybe lots of the people are being used to think that big tour operators and large travel consortiums have a responsibility to maintain that local ethnical history and environment. However they are only concerned about their revenue and nothing else. But if one do not look a little further in future to see that way, one day there would not be many remaining tourist resources and increases will start descending fast. Sadly, this will have an impact on no-one so greatly, but the locals. In the end, alternative tourism forms include small groups of people, who surely do not damage the environment that much. Besides, if not familiar, as I am sure most of them are, one of the goals of the alternative tourism varieties is to recognize how to maintain the surroundings and local practices and culture. Actually, some alternate forms are designed to enable man to understand the greatness of mother nature, a great such example is the eco-tourism. However, it is very different situation in a few big resorts with thousands of people playing around and a lot of hotels keeping the beautiful nature views from your sight. Of course, there are extensive ways of entertainment because of the tourist's computer animation, nightlife, and other. But is it not exactly that what we should are running from? Could great nightlife and various animations with the difference they are in different place, compare with the variety of all alternative forms; to equate to the naked characteristics and cultural heritage?

Advantage

1) Careers are made by travel and leisure in many areas - in the initial development of the resorts, in travel, in food provision and in other service related market sectors.

2) Local people benefit straight from employment

4) Move facilities are developed

5) The local tax base rises so the local administration/council can spend money on schools, health care and public services.

Disadvantage

1) TNCs (Trans National Corporations) from abundant countries tend to be involved - this may lead to a lot of profits leaving the country.

2 ) Careers can be seasonal - especially in beach and snow skiing based resorts. people can therefore find themselves out of work in the close season.

3) Tourists ingest large sums of resources including food and water - this type of tourism is particularly UNSUSTAINABLE in this manner.

4) Tourists present new principles and cultures - this triggers cultural pollution.

5) Land is lost from farming to tourist developments.

Example of a location afflicted by mass tourism

For years Bali, the pearl one of the Sunda Islands, has been touted as an earthly heaven, because of the its tropical scenery, its white sandy shorelines, the tormented beauty of its Hindu temples and its inhabitants' reputation for kindness and tolerance. But this idyllic area may soon be a thing of the past, with the risk of Bali learning to be a prey to the accumulated effects of mass travel and leisure, unbridled consumption of resources and environmental collapse. Through the 1970s onwards Bali really became a traveler destination. A huge selection of hotels uses up a large show of freshwater reserves, with each four-star room consuming 300 litres each day. By 2015 Bali could be facing a normal water crisis. More than a million visitors came up to Bali in 2001. The results for 2011 suggest that numbers have more than doubled since, finally unaffected by the 2002 terror harm, which still left 202 lifeless, including many Australians. Every year 700 hectares of land is lost to hotels, luxury casing for abundant foreigners or perhaps roads to boost associations on the island. Each day some 13, 000 cubic metres of throw away is dumped on general public tips and only half is recycled. With 13% more vehicles on the highways every year, the steadily increasing traffic triggers massive jams. In an attempt to mitigate the side effects of mass tourism on the neighborhood Hindu culture, an exception in mainly Muslim Indonesia, the regulators have released environmental legislation. One of its provisions makes it compulsory for resorts to be set back at least 150 metres from beach locations, with no hotels within 5km of Hindu temples.

In January 2011, the governor of Bali, Made Mangku Pastika, released analysis on new buildings in intensely developed areas, caution that Bali was at risk of becoming a sterile land bristling with concrete. The ban is far from popular with shareholders. Tourism is partly due to the attraction of our culture: if mass tourism develops in a manner that threatens the culture, and this will cause the locals burning off their specific appeal. Weighed against other holiday venues in south-east Asia, Bali has retained much of its magic, at least in the areas up to now spared by mass travel and leisure. But if there is nothing done to halt current trends, it may undergo the same destiny as other aspiration destinations.

2. 2 Perhentian Island

Asia-Pacific is one of the world's fastest growing travel and leisure areas in terms of international arrivals, especially in the South-East Asian sub-region with booming travel and leisure in established locations such Thailand (14. 1 million international arrivals in 2009 2009) and newer, appearing places such as Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos (UN WTO, 2010). The concentrate of this paper, Malaysia, also has a growing international travel and leisure sector with 24. 6 million international arrivals this year 2010 producing over US $18. 2 billion in receipts, and adding at least seven % of GDP (MOTOUR, 2011). 4International arrivals data to Malaysia is disaggregated according to country of origins rather than by market section so it is unknown just how many backpackers visit, but one estimate suggests at least 300, 000 per year (Ian and Musa, 2005). In the rising South-East Asia backpacker path, the Perhentian islands are one of the 'hotspot' sites in north peninsula Malaysia. Typically, backpackers get into Malaysia from southern Thailand (or travel north from Singapore) and then quest in a circuit between Penang via the Cameron Highlands and then to the east seacoast specifically to visit the Perhentians. Backpackers often stick to islands or at other beach resorts as little break from harder traveling within their bigger trips around the spot.

The Island of Perhentian

About an hour's vessel ride from the silent jetty of Kuala Besut, near by the location of Kota Bharu is the jewel of the Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia, close by metropolis of Kota Bharu, . Perhentian is very popular in Malaysia due to great areas for diving and snorkeling, this island is also very easy to reach, but during the mosoon season that is from October to early on march, the whole island will be closed to the public, due to tough waters. Within the marine park, guests must pay a conservation payment of Rm5.

The island of perhentian has two separate islands, one called the pulau kecil ( small island) and another called the Pulau Besar ( big island), and both of these islands are what make up to be Pulau Perhentian. Both islands offer and have an array of accomodaion facilities for site visitors, this ranging from simple chalets, with only the essential amenities, to luxury resort's that provide cabanas. But there are no international brands of hotels in both islands.

http://divezone. net/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/perhentian-islands-map. gif

http://go2travelmalaysia. com/travel_malaysia/images/perhentian_map. gif

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Pulau perhentian has an extremely relaxed and slow paced life to it, even the local people are friendly and and chilled out, Most area of the islands continues to be untouched in support of a the locals stay in a fishing village on perhentian kecil. The only path around the hawaiian islands are footpath which reductions through the jungle, and drinking water taxi's as there are no roads on the island. keep an eye on lizards, fruit bats, squirrels or even the elusive mouse deer, all this pets or animals can been seen while going for a hike in the footpath in the jungle

Activities In the island

Attractions in Perhentian island are nature based, which range from snorkeling to scuba and jungle treeking. All eager to teach traveler about the ecosystem that surrounds the island. These islands have been gazette as a marine park and as such littering, angling and collecting of any sea life (whether dead or alive) is purely prohibited. Since it is a marine park, this does mean that the abundant variety of aquatic life has been preserved which is beautiful to experience.

Snorkelling

Perhentian is famous for its great snorkeling alternatives. A lot of resorts on the island have their own house reef. Which means that you can snorkel immediately in the front or within walking distance of your resort. Around the Perhentians there are a large number of diving schools. There, you can rent diving goggles, an air pipe and flippers for a tiny cost (usually around RM15 each day). With this equipment you can snorkel in front of your bungalow. Unfortunately the fish before the resorts often are very spoiled. This means that, once you are in this inflatable water you'll be ornamented by small (and sometimes also large) fish that expect you to give food to them. Also, the coral reefs close to the resorts usually are less beautiful, because ships regularly go by to drop people off at the vacation resort. A number of the popular locations for snorkeling are Shark Point, Teluk Pauh and Tanjung Basi. If you're lucky, a blend of these stops may imply that you visit a turtle, some black tip reef sharks and a good amount of colourful coral all in a single. But the pure amounts of visitors and careless procedures have led to damage to the coral and consequently the marine life around the islands rip.

Scuba Diving

Many holidaymakers visit Perhentian Island to enjoy a couple of great dives. As you can find brutal competition between operators diving at the island is relatively cheap, usually ranging between RM60 and RM80 per dive. Diving at Perhentian is especially for starters as there are almost no currents and awareness is nearly always fine. You will discover better places to dive in Malaysia, but almost none of them are so affordable and easy to reach as on Perhentian. Sea life is in abundance here and in addition to the many species of hard and very soft coral that form the backbone of the ecosystems you can also expect to come across turtles, several kinds of sharks, mackerel, jacks, moray eels, nudibranchs and various other reef seafood. This gives a opportunity for ecotourist to find out about marine life in their natural habitat and also to learn how not to ruin their habitat.

Jungle Trekking

On both the islands there are a variety of hiking trails, there are no highways however. The paths are light and usually don't take more than 30 minutes to complete. Perhentian is too small to identify real wildlife, but there are monitor lizards, monkeys, fruits bats and some varieties of birds on the island. Because walking in heat is not so pleasant for many, you may take water taxis to return to your holiday resort following the hike. When heading to remote locations, come to an arrangement on the pickup for the go back trip. Tropical forest includes the greater part of the Perhentian Islands and a few paths that twist through the greenery enable you to explore the diversity of vegetation. Tread quietly and you'll just meet some of the islands' animals on the way. Screen lizards are in abundance, as are numerous species of insects and birds. If you are lucky, you may even spot several long-tailed macaques (a kind of monkey). The elusive mouse deer is also said to inhabit the island, but these tiny animals are rarely seen.

Perhentian a conservation island ?

In brand with the conservation effort Perhentian Island has Sea Parks as Sea Park are ideal places for looking at the wealthy aquatic life that abound in Malaysia's normal water. There are 5 marine parks and visitor desperate to visit these parks must observe regulations. A Sea park is an section of the sea zoned as a sanctuary for the coral reef community which is considered as possibly the most profitable ecosystem on the globe, with its variety of nature. Coral reefs are also important breeding and nursery grounds for most commercially important species of sea organisms and seafood.

Among the aims of the Sea Park and Sea reserves are:

- Preservation and safeguard of coral reef areas from the impact of development.

- Update and maintain the natural habitat of endangered kinds of aquatic life.

- Establishment of zones for preservation of the aquatic flora and fauna and also for the purpose of research and educational activities.

- Establishment of zones for recreational uses regular with the having capacity of the area.

With the establishment of the Sea Park, the benefits are as follows, the ecosystem and habitat of marine life will be secured and taken care of, besides that it will also help in rejuvenation of over exploited areas and their maintenance for the safety of endangered kinds of marine organisms, and establishment of areas for research and educational purposes.

Perhentian and mass tourism

The growth of tourism changes and modifies the surroundings. Environment is land, normal water, air, nature, but also people and culture and the influences of travel and leisure are reflected on components of the environment as well as on the man-made environment or built environment (development of environments for tourism as for example vacation resorts). The introduction of travel and leisure requires the living of an infrastructure, as well as hotel accommodation and another facilities specific to tourism. In some areas highways and airfields have been created to make stimulate travel and leisure but not always has the local human population benefited from these trends. Infrastructure and facilities require land and the effect is the fact land prices rise in the areas were travel and leisure is developing

What will be the effects up to now?

The Perhentian Islands are fast taking the center floor of the travel and leisure industry. Not big enough for runways and golf classes like its neighbour Redang Island, tourism comes in two main forms - backpackers on Pulau Kecil and weekenders on Pulau Besar. There are only several high-priced resorts, as the almost all the accommodations focus on the mid-range group. Only 2 decades back, Perhentian was considered a well-kept key; now the beach locations are chock-a-block packed with resorts, chalets, dive shops and cafes. Back in 1985 less than ten chalets occupied the coastline of both islands, but a building increase has since pressed the full total over thirty today. A tourism development case study of Perhentian in 2000 concluded that any more development must continue with extreme care due to the size of the islands. Mega-tourism jobs were regarded to be improper and the enticement to get affluent holidaymakers with international-type resorts must be averted. It added that budget tourists dominate the traffic to Perhentian and organizers should not be misled by the misunderstanding that they do not spend enough money. Many problems remain even with the current degree of development. The analysis remarked that the "smallness of level of physical resources triggers them to be more susceptible to negative impacts of mass tourism development", especially extreme water demand, poor sewage and stable waste removal and a lack of suited beachfront land. That is readily evident as tourism coders dredge coral stations for boat access and septic tanks release wastes to the ocean during monsoon floods

The physical occurrence of vacationers in the vacation spot area, particularly if these are in large categories. Residents usually resent the actual fact of posting facilities and services with guests and often discuss congestion as problem. It really is evident that the concentration of many tourists causes congestion of facilities and services. Dispersing holidaymakers can reduce vacationer densities so that the ratio of visitors to hosts is reduced without decreasing the amount of visitor arrivals. The demonstration impact. Residents frequently resent the obvious financial superiority of site visitors and try to copy their behavior. The advantages of overseas ideologies and ways of life into societies exposed to tourism signifies a international domination of the industry and an adaptation of work. Furthermore, the hosts perceive quickly the desire of travellers to spend money and their weaknesses are exploited. Hosts may develop an inferiority complex that begin an activity of imitation. Most circumstance studies that look at demonstration effect concur that tourism can enhance local behaviour and divide the populace of vacation spots areas. Foreign possession and occupation. The employment of non-locals in exec and professional occupations, taking better responsibility and superior earnings to those available to local residents, also provokes resentment. These features have been labelled in the literature and in this paper as outgrowths of neo-colonialism.

What will be the initiative considered by the federal government / NGO's to prevent this?

March (2004) the Coral Cay Conservation group,

a British isles conservation group, started the Malaysia Reefs and Island Conservation Project (MRICP) with volunteers from Britain and Malaysia over a three-month pilot stage project. Their goal is to perform marine and terrestrial surveys on Perhentian to provide baseline home elevators the flora and fauna of marine and forest habitats. Afterwards the MRICP will be split into two three-year assignments - the Malaysia Coral Reef Conservation Task (MCRCP) and the Malaysia Tropical Forests Conservation Job (MTFCP). Sponsored by the Division of Fisheries Marine Playground Branch, Coral Cay intends to gather primary data for use in providing habitat maps and types inventories to assist the long-term management of the isle's natural resources. And corresponding to Coral Cay scientists, a books search revealed, "hardly any baseline ecological review work has been completed on the Perhentians. " The MRICP is put into two phases - marine and terrestrial. The marine surveys kicked off of the job in March and can continue before two main islands of Besar and Kecil are completed later in the entire year. The terrestrial stage started in mid-May and is probably the first biodiversity study of its kind to be carried out on Perhentian.

This is not Coral Cay's first task in Malaysia, having conducted reef studies here in yesteryear in colaboration with WWF. The not-for-profit conservation organization has dispatched volunteers worldwide to utilize local areas and organizations since 1986 to survey endangered coral reefs and understudied tropical rainforests. Coral Cay presently has expeditions in Fiji, Honduras, Mexico and the Philippines

3. Methodology

"The impacts of mass tourism activity on the surroundings of Perhentian Island, Malaysia "3. 1 Research design

Increase of pollutions

Waste management

Problem statement

Degradation of natural setting

Impact of mass tourism to the surroundings.

Solutions and ideas to protect the natural setting of perhentian

Perhentian island

Objective

Local and international tourist

Limitation of Study

Cause of degradation of environment

Effect of mass tourism

Solution to environmental issue

Significant of Study

3 part questionnaire

Result will be studied and saved in SPSS

Methods

Secondary data - Publications, e book & webpage

Primary data - Questionnaires ( Close ended & range response)

3. 2 Sample size/population

Motivation and the analysis of Perhentian were gathered utilizing a questionnaire with closed ended questions and scaled response. That is to identify the reason behind visiting the destination and to look at what the vacationer felt about the deterioration of the natural setting.

The research is set to Perhentian Island. Respondents will be contacted and enlightened about the survey and asked if indeed they were to take part in the study. The sample size is 100 respondents as it is a convenient sampling.

The questionnaires were given from the 4th till the 7th of June 2012, it was presented with out to traveler, who were keeping on the Pulau Besar island, from the 4th till 5th, and the Pulau Kecil from the 5th to right up until the 7th of june. Holiday were passed out the questionnaire at the hotel lobby, at the beach, within the speedboat and also while in the bars. Holiday were explained of what my intension and reason for the questionnaires and the majority of the tourist were glad to be always a part than it. I had long interactions with almost all of the tourist which were visiting and they were a large help and I certainly experienced a concept of what folks really what things to see happen to perhentian.

3. 3 Data Collection

The data collection can be grouped into primary and secondary data. The primary data carries a group of questionnaires with close ended questions and scaled response to recognize the desire of tourist going to Perhentian Island, the three part questionnaire used integrated some closed questions as follows, the first section looked into the tourist's socio- demographic backgrounds. The next part looked into the tourist's travel goal and and the third section centered on the satisfaction with their experience in Perhentian what they think of the natural environment. These questions will end up being helpful in lots of ways, for example, if nearly all tourists are going to Perhentian to see the natural environment. Then isn't it sad to see the key sights which is the surroundings slowly and gradually deteriorating. The first part of the questionnaire, tourists were asked to complete their personal data, such as gender, nationality, generation, their length of stay, type of accommodation. On the second area of the questionnaire, holidaymakers were asked about their travel and trip characteristics, such as questions such as how do they learn about the island and other island vacations that they have made, the principal purpose of the trip, where they have got obtained information about the place, and also about their satisfaction with the local's hospitality and their overall visit. The third part, vacationers were that they experienced about the mass travel and leisure that is currently and issue in the island, Besides, the secondary data which consists of gathering information regarding the impacts of tourism on the environment in Perhentian. And any other relevant information useful to this research These details may include journals, books, website, etc.

3. 4 Statistical Examination ( SPSS )

Data instrument

For this research newspaper, I am by using a software to review the data received by giving out the questionnaire's. With this software, all the response of the 100 respondents were be came into and the results will be shown of furniture and table graphs. And with the effect it'll be clear to see if Mass tourism has a negative effect on the environment. The IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions) will be utilized in this paper to for the info entry. It will show and overall result of the mean, median, standard deviation and the regularity of the info tabulations. Besides that it will also provide a few bar charts to bottom part my debate on that mass travel and leisure and its effects on the environment of Perhentian Island. Besides that I have also provided a cross tabulation test, to see if a certain variable indeed comes with an impact on the results.

3. 5 The statistics

The above graph shows the basic calculations done with the SPSS software, above stated are the important questions in the questionnaire's which shows the amount of impact mass travel and leisure has on the environment and the visitor satisfaction, it declares valid of 100, indicating to state that from the 100 questionnaire's given out and answers came into in to the SPSS system, all 100 is valid and can be used for the test. Accordingly it shows the mean, median, method, standard deviation and the variance of the questions asked.

Here are the frequency desks that show the results of the questionnaire in a far more organised way.

The below shows the age of respondents and when we go through the data, its clear that 42% of the traveler that visit perhentian islands are between your age ranges of 25-30, the second highest being 26% are between your ages of 31-40, followed by 24% of people above 40 years old and 8% of teenagers being 18-24, this is because almost all of the traveler visit perhentian either to relax or to engage in excitement tourism. Another table shows the nationality of the respondent's, in line with the table the highest people to perhentian are Malaysian themselves credit scoring a 34% followed by Asians comprising of, Thai nationals, Chinese language, Japanese and other Asian countries. The Western market had a complete visitor of 29% and the center Eastern only got 6%. Midsection eastern tourist often choose more famous places like Penang or Langkawi, and perhentian is popular among Malaysian vacationer who are searching for a getaway.

Frequency Table

Age of Respondents

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

18-24

8

8. 0

8. 0

25-30

42

42. 0

42. 0

31-40

26

26. 0

26. 0

40 and above

24

24. 0

24. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Nationality of respondents

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

European

29

29. 0

29. 0

Asian

31

31. 0

31. 0

Middle Eastern

6

6. 0

6. 0

Malaysian

34

34. 0

34. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Next is the gender of the respondents, being crafted from 59% are fellas, and 41% women, being an excitement tourism spot, the majority of the visitor come to indulge in adventure travel and leisure such as diving, kayaking and jungle trekking and that's the main reason why 59% of the tourist are male. A lot of the guests that visit perhentian only remained for 1-2 days which were 38%, and the ones staying 3-4 days were 31%. Those holiday who remained for more than a week only made 11% of the total. Nd the 11% were the vacationer who remained to dive in Perhentian famous diving locations. As stated above, most of the tourist come to Perhentian for a particular reason ad the reason being adventure travel and leisure, if you look at the graph labelled 'the purpose of this trip?' you can evidently observe that 33% of traveler visit perhentian for the purpose of adventure tourism, activities such as diving, snorkelling being their principal attraction.

Gender of respondents

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Male

59

59. 0

59. 0

Female

41

41. 0

41. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Length of stay static in perhentian?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

1-2 Days

38

38. 0

38. 0

3-4 Days

31

31. 0

31. 0

5-6 Days

20

20. 0

20. 0

One week and above

11

11. 0

11. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

The Reason for this trip?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Leisure ( Snooze & Relax )

32

32. 0

32. 0

Family Vacation

32

32. 0

32. 0

Honeymoon

3

3. 0

3. 0

Adventure travel and leisure ( diving, snorkeling etc )

33

33. 0

33. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

The next desk shows the overall sanitation of the island, now this can be straight related to the mass travel and leisure that has bought out the island of perhentian. A lot more tourist go to the place equals more rubbish and waste material they produce thus, waste materials management comes in, 43% of the visitor think that the overall sanitation of the island are only at a satisfactory level, and 41% which really is a high number of respondents stating that the island is indeed not so clean, and remaining with 8% of visitor who think that the island is very soiled.

Overall sanitation of the island

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Very Clean

8

8. 0

8. 0

Satisfactory

43

43. 0

43. 0

Not very clean

41

41. 0

41. 0

Dirty

8

8. 0

8. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

This desk shows the result of the question ' is perhentian island overcrowded', this is an important question as I get to learn what the traveler themselves think is happening to the island. 75% of the respondents state that yes! The island is definitely overcrowded in support of 25% feels its not overcrowded. Next stand shows the consequence of the question ' is perhentian overdeveloped?', 55% of respondents think that perhentian island is over developed, in the meantime 42% of traveler believe that it is overdeveloped, but in a modest amount and it must be stopped to prevent too much development till it masks the natural beauty of the island.

Is Perhentian overcrowded?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Yes

75

75. 0

75. 0

No

25

25. 0

25. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Is Perhentian Overdeveloped?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Yes, I strongly agree

55

55. 0

55. 0

A average amount, and it has to stop

42

42. 0

42. 0

Not at all

3

3. 0

3. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

62% of respondents when asked the question, do you think Mass tourism impacts perhentian's environment in a poor way, clarified yes, mosltly say that because they come to experience perhentian's natural splendor, by diving to start to see the reefs, jungle trekking to see its wildlife's, but mass travel and leisure. Is indeen going for a toll on the island. 14% says that it may have a poor effect in the future while 22% says no, it does not pose a delicacy to the surroundings of Perhentian.

Does mass- travel and leisure impact Perhentian island?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Yes

62

62. 0

62. 0

No

22

22. 0

22. 0

Maybe, in the in close proximity to future

14

14. 0

14. 0

I haven't any idea

2

2. 0

2. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Next I asked a question if the over development of the island had any aftereffect of the respondent's stay static in the island, and 58%, of the respondent's answered yes, plus they stated that, they came to perhentian for the natural splendor and not for the present day development, yes, accommodation and facilities is crucial, however, not until it destroys the natural setting up of the island. 29% said it generally does not have an impact on their stay and 13% said that they don't really mind.

Does the overdevelopment effect your stay?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Yes, it does

58

58. 0

58. 0

No, it can not

29

29. 0

29. 0

I dont brain the crowd

13

13. 0

13. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

57% of the full total respondents said that they might indeed recommend Perhentian island to their friends and family, while 43% of these said, maybe they might recommend Perhentian with their friends & family. 40% of the holiday that were given the questionnaire to heard about the island through online, it maybe Facebook, or travel sites, while 24% of these found Perhentian island from their family and friends. 20% of them found it on travel magazines and marketing promotions of hotels in perhentian in the papers and 16% of the respondents heard about Perhentian through travel agents which sold them the program to the Perhentian Islands. Most of the tourist which come to Perhentian often stay static in Pulau Besar as shown by the stand below, 60% of most tourist stayed on Pulau besar, and only 40% of visitor stayed on pulau kecil, most of the vacationer that remained in pulau kecil consisting of backpackers.

Would you recommend Perhentian to friends and family & family?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Yes, of course

57

57. 0

57. 0

Maybe

43

43. 0

43. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

How do you learn about perhentian?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Online

40

40. 0

40. 0

Newspaper/Magazine

20

20. 0

20. 0

Travel Agent

16

16. 0

16. 0

Friendly & Family

24

24. 0

24. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Which part of island did u stay in?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Perhentian Kecil

40

40. 0

40. 0

Perhentian Besar

60

60. 0

60. 0

Total

100

100. 0

100. 0

Bar Chart

Cross Tabulation

This this is a test of cross tabulation I have conducted of the next variables and the results of the question to observe how they intervene each other and exactly how they affect each other. I've used the adjustable of 'is perhentian Overdeveloped? 'Against the results of the cleanliness question on perhentian. The second combination tabulation is using the variable of 'is perhentian overcrowded' against also the cleanliness of the island. The key reason why I choose these factors is because, the consequence of Mass tourism is actually the increase of the traveler arrivals in a certain area in a single given time. With the results of the combination tabulation we can see the immediate effects of the quick increase of holiday in Perhentian island.

Case Handling Summary

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Is Perhentian Overdeveloped? * Overall sanitation of the island

100

100. 0%

0

0. 0%

100

Is Perhentian overcrowded? * Overall sanitation of the island

100

100. 0%

0

0. 0%

100

Is Perhentian Overdeveloped? * Overall sanitation of the island Crosstabulation

Count

Overall sanitation of the island

Very Clean

Satisfactory

Not very clean

Dirty

Is Perhentian Overdeveloped?

Yes, I strongly agree

4

20

28

3

A modest amount, and it has to stop

3

23

11

5

Not at all

1

0

2

0

Total

8

43

41

8

The Bar chart above shows the mix tabulation that I did so, between the question ' is perhentian overdeveloped?' against the entire cleanliness of the island, now here we can see how these two data cross one another, the ratio of respondents declare that the island is overdeveloped also concur that the island is not very clean. This shows that the overdeveloped caused by the increase in demand does effect the surroundings of the island, thus leading to the upsurge in rubbish and waste products disposal.

Is Perhentian overcrowded? * Overall sanitation of the island Crosstabulation

Count

Overall cleanliness of the island

Very Clean

Satisfactory

Not very clean

Dirty

Is Perhentian overcrowded?

Yes

7

30

30

8

No

1

13

11

0

Total

8

43

41

8

This bar graph shows the mix tabulation between your question 'is perhentian overcrowded?' against the overall cleanliness of the island. Its explained here that the percentage of respondent's having said that the island is overcrowded also agrees that the island's cleanliness is satisfactory as equal to the ratio of respondents who said the island is soiled. Between both of these cross tabulation I still find the increase of travel and leisure activity in Perhentian is creating the enviromental degradation of the island.

4. 0 Findings

In the final results above, it is obvious to see the effects of Mass travel and leisure towards the environment and the entire tourist satisfaction. Based on the results of SPSS, it implies that 58% of the respondents said the development in Perhentian island does indeen result their stay. It's important for the travel and leisure providers to provide and offer to the increasing demand, which is the main problem encountered by perhentian, that too much development is not healthy for the environment of the island. Development is important however, not to the level where we damage the natural splendor to make way for increasingly more buildings. With all these development under constructions, 62% of the respondents agree that Mass tourism has a negative impact on the island of perhentian. The demand rises and so does indeed the supply, and it is a constant cycle, tourism operators are more centered on making money than protecting the core fascination of the island which is the environment and the natural setting up. Increasingly more jungle area are being cleared to make way for the building of hotels and chalets thus creating catering to more visitor, resulting in more rubbish and waste. Due to all of this and littering the rubbish in the oceans are increasing creating the sea creature to die of eating foreign materials which can be thrown into the sea by the increasing quantity of tourist. What's the idea of creating so many hotels when 1 day, because of mass tourism's effect there won't be crystal clear beach, with white fine sand and there will not be any coral reefs to dive and see. From the 100 respondents 75% feel that the island is definitely overcrowded, almost all of the respondents come to perhentian to move away from everyday life, and to enjoy the quiet and serenity that the island provides, but now that is disrupted by the noise and the masses that perhentian has seduced. Huge groups of people diving or snorkeling may cause an impact to the sea life, this may scare away the seafood, and have drastic measures on the coral reefs which is determined by fishes like the clown fish or known as Nemo to make it through, and this triggers other fishes who count on Nemo as a source of food to check out the Nemo leaving the reef clear and to perish. The cleanliness of the island is directly affected by the quantity of people going to the island, the more tourist go to the place equals more rubbish and waste materials they produce thus, waste material management will come in, 43% of the tourist think that the entire cleanliness of the island are just at a reasonable level, and kept with 8% of traveler who feel that the island is very dusty. This is brought on by the littering of the people that visit the island and the rubbish that they leave behind, hotel operators should have a better waste management and place rules and regulations for littering.

5. 0 Talk & recommendation

Discussion

Poorly planned tourism development, inadequate sewage treatment and sound waste disposal, and illegal angling are a few of the factors impacting on the fitness of Perhentian's reef. during peak season, in July and August, site visitors are likely to spot overflowing dark-colored plastic luggage on rickety pontoons spread around the islands. These are waste products left on the pontoons by resort operators. A rubbish barge, sub-contracted by Besut Area Council, is supposed to acquire the hand bags daily and dispose the misuse on the mainland. While speaking with a few of the hotel staffs that we made friends with I also discovered that some septic tanks overflow because of the increasing number of vacationers and it because of the limited capacity of the tanks. Some resorts evidently release their untreated sewage directly into the sea. This in this case shows up as information in the RCM's (Reef Check Malaysia) research displaying the reefs in Perhentian have poorest health as its live coral cover is only 34% in comparison to Tioman, Redang and Tenggol that have 50% or more. Also the islands have a higher variety of algae-coated reef, indicating nutrient pollution, probably from poor sewage treatment. Besides the environmental concern perhentian also encounters another major problem, the turtle harvesting of turtle eggs in addition has become an issue in perhentian island, Locals from Terengganu consider eating this delicacy, which really is a ping-pong to golf ball size eggs as a custom. As the prices these eggs can be sold for, collecting them has become frenzy, and most of the locals treat them like buried treasure. Each one nest consists of typically 80 to 140 eggs and striking on nest can certainly guarantee a little fortune for a collector. The strong demand for the eggs has led to the over-collection and over-consumption of all types of sea turtle eggs credited to unlawful harvesting and sale by non-licensed locals. Besides that it's also an acknowledged fact that the turtle people is declining because of eating the rubbish that people throw in to the se

Air air pollution also poses atreat to the perhentian islands due especially to the emissions released by boats that travel along from the Kuala Besut jetty to the hawaiian islands due to the travel and leisure traffic, besides that the boats also cause the sea drinking water to be polluted, they often times leak oil into the sea thus creating the sea water to be polluted and also endangering sea animals, the use of fossil energies for heating system by hotels and restaurants also pollutes the air in perhentian. Most of the hotels and restaurants have generators which tell you the night and items electricity to the establishment, and these generators consume fossil fuel to be able to create electricity to force the establishment, thus emitting dangerous fumes which in turn pollute air encircling perhentian island.

Recommendation

Conservation planning is another way that will help the Perhentian island keep its natural beauty, (RCM) reef check Malaysia was appointed by the team of Marine parks Malaysia to disregard and to help to conserve the rest of the beauty and natural setting up of all islands and reefs in Malaysia. Reef Check founded in 1996 is the world's greatest international coral reef monitoring programme including volunteer recreational divers and sea scientist. RCM alongside the department of sea parks Malaysia has launched lots of campaigns aiming to help islands like perhentian to keep up its quality and to help protect its natural beauty, RCM launched a trial programme in 2007, with sponsors from HSBC ( Hong Kong Shang-Hai Banking organization) and BP ( English petroleum), , directed at children in the penultimate yr of principal education (11 years of age). The initial format was established around a 2-day "Coral Reef Camp", during which children from the institutions on the hawaiian islands learned about the ecosystems around them and how important they are simply, they also trained them how to help save the coral reefs. To ensure the interest degree of the kids were high, the camp experienced a mixture of games, art trainings, competitions.

Sustainable travel and leisure is also a remedy for the spectacular island, Sustainable travel and leisure is travel and leisure that tries to make as low effect on the surroundings and local culture as is possible, while helping to generate future career for local people. The aim of sustainable travel and leisure is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves. This is perfect for perhentian island as it preserves the environment and never have to disrupt the tourism activity. Perhentian is an island which will depend on the tourism activity as its main source of income, we must think of a way to keep its travel and leisure income while still preserving the surroundings and sustainable tourism is the response, examples of tourism activity that comes under the Lasting travel and leisure is ecotourism, adventure travel and leisure and agro tourism, adventure travel and leisure can be used as a musical instrument in perhentian to both lure tourist, in and to instruct them about the value of conserving the natural environment. How this can be done? The most famous activity in perhentian island is Diving, there are 20 over dive sites in perhentian and some very famous onces. Now what can be done is, the section of sea parks Malaysia and the RCM must work with the neighborhood dive colleges and the diving center's to instruct about the importance of conserving the reefs to all or any their clients. They should also have regulations regarding the dive as well as how to help to keep up with the reefs. This can help educate all the experience tourist that come to perhentian to dive and snorkel about the importance of conservation program. Besides that ecotourism may also be used as a musical instrument to bring tourist in without degrading the environment, the key point of ecotourism isn't only to provide tourist an enjoyable time but also to foster gratitude also to be shown about the knowledge of animals and the ecosystem around us. Perhentian island an island with lush greens, exotic aquatic creatures, and different rainforest wildlife, at this island and becoming involved the actions such as scuba diving and snorkelling, traveler can learn about the marine life and ways to maintain them, and they can also see for themselves of how our incorrect doings impact their ecosystem, to see those creatures life, swimming before you can be an experience that can never be compared to observing Nat Geo or Animal Planet, this gives the traveler the emotional connection with the creature. And can change the point of view on the pet. Besides that, activities like jungle trekking can educate traveler about the jungle environment and the value of trees in a country, tourist will also reach see wildlife in their natural habitat.

6. 0 Conclusion

The travel and leisure product has definitely caused gain to the island, once a sportfishing village now a significant tourism place in Malaysia. The island of perhentian can be an island dependent on the visitor sector as its main source of income, but who would have thought that the main source of income could cause such a large treat and cause environmentally friendly degradation of the hawaiian islands natural setting. A lot of the locals rely on the travel and leisure sector as their main source of income besides sportfishing and other activities. The only way for the island to survive whilst having its travel and leisure bloom and also protecting its environment is to adopt the sustainable travel and leisure concept and offer more susta


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