Posted at 11.21.2018
The research project aimed to execute a critical research of the ethical issues of dark travel and leisure. Six research objectives were set out to help achieve this aim. In the process of gathering relevant information upon this topic, an research of dark tourism throughout the years will be achieved, accompanied by the dedication of different writers.
Furthermore, by examine in depth both consumers' and providers' point of views to help expand understand the ethical dilemma of dark tourism, the study project will highlight the main issues that occur in this particular sector of travel and leisure.
Secondary research has been chosen as a primary research method. A wide variety of literature was accumulated on the idea of culture and travel and leisure by by using a snowball sampling of secondary literature. This type of sampling was carried out utilizing the authors' set of references to emphasize other articles that could be of relevance.
The findings suggested that, it could be possible to state that honest issues will usually continue to exist around dark tourism, for as long dark travel and leisure itself is available too.
Recommendation has been given on the importance of the factor of the ethicalities of dark travel and leisure. As conclusion indicated, ethical issues can't be understated, and both consumers and providers may choose to work together, if in the foreseeable future, we still wish to find out about our history through the form of travel and leisure instead through books and education.
Hall (1998) claims that tourism is the world's major industry, and it is expected to continue to grow, develop and maintain. The vacationer industry is a significant economic, environmental and socio-cultural force, and it becomes a lifestyle for a huge number of folks on our planet. Its beneficial effect on the introduction of political, social, cultural relationships and international relationships on a worldwide scale has become an obvious reality to all countries round the world. (Meethan, 2001)
Over the last half century it is since tourists have always been attracted to places or events associated in a single way or another with death, disaster and suffering. (Stone, 2009a) All these sites and so many more that happen to be similar, are what exactly are called sites for "dark" travel and leisure according to main theorists John Lennon and Malcolm Foley, also called Thanatourism (Seaton, 1996 - cited in Ryan et al, 2005) and 'Black color Areas' (Rojek, 1997). This form of tourism is exactly what Seaton (1999) defines is approximately going to sites associated with loss of life, enduring and other tragic occurrences which have become significant holiday destinations. Actually, the work of touristic travel to places of death, conflict, genocide, assassination and disasters is becoming the most developing branch of travel and leisure during the past years and cultural activity within modern society.
At the same time, there is evidence of a greater determination or desire on the part of tourists to visit dark destinations and the websites of dark events. (Rock, 2009a) For example, thousands of visitors come to Pont de l'Alma Road Tunnel in Paris, to lay plants and light candles in unofficial memorial of Princess Diana of Wales, where she passed on in car accident.
With the growing acceptance of this kind of tourism within the 'dark tourism' market (Tunbridge and Ashworth, 1996), the moral issues surrounding it will need to be enquired. Ethics is important in nearly every business related decision. (Hartman, 1998) While using consumers and providers participating in this development of phenomenon of dark tourism, as they possibly contrasting honest perspectives towards dark tourism may be different.
Whereas a providers' means of preserving record is to bill people to maintain steadily its upkeep, the consumers could see it as income generating scheme in the trouble of the deceased lives of the site. Whereas the providers' method of making people know its background is through interpretation of vulgar images, may seem unethically annoying for consumers. The dissertation will concentrate on the question of ethics in dark tourism, thereby advancing knowledge and knowledge of dark tourism itself.
The aim of the task is a critical research of the moral problem of dark tourism. If the fatality could be sold and used throw dark visitors attractions and countrywide tragedies.
To define Deep Tourism
To define the idea of ethics
To examine in depth both the consumers' and providers' point of views to further understand the ethical issue of dark travel and leisure.
To use Natural stone (2006)'s 'colours' of darkness range as an instrument for measuring different levels of dark travel and leisure sites
To set up a conceptual ethical platform for the analysis of retailing provocative narratives of national tragedy in traditions situations
To suggest tips on the moral issues
Despite the long record of dark travel and leisure and proof travel to sites associated with loss of life, the educational attention upon this phenomenon has appeared. As a result, lots of fundamental questions with respect to dark tourism continue to be unanswered. (Natural stone, 2009a)
This topic has been chosen scheduled to a lack of research completed on honest and moral issues of dark tourism. The project can be useful to gain more knowledge in to the subject of dark travel and leisure.
The research of dark tourism is important for lots of reasons. It could be used for educational purposes of wider cultural interest or for method of enjoyment. With regards to this Natural stone. R (2009, p. 7) says:
" Dark travel and leisure provides the ability for tourists to see 'playful' homes of horror, discover places of pilgrimage including the graves or fatality sites of celebrities or visit sites of major disasters or atrocities. . . "
Nevertheless, each one of these attractions require a deep understanding within ethnical, interpersonal, historical and politics framework, effective interpretation and development. Often the nature of dark travel and leisure, in particular, the debates and issues it symbolize, will point to lots of conditions that demand examination and understanding, such as ethics and morality.
Whether people visit these websites for remembrance, education or entertainment purposes, there will be one dilemma relating to many dark visitors attractions: if it is ethical and moral to sell, promote or offer loss of life for touristic ingestion. For example, an incredible number of visitors stop alongside with those, who mourning the increased loss of family members, to see where the World Trade Middle once stood in New York.
In order to analyze the dilemma of the ethics and morality of dark tourism, it is necessary to appreciate that dark tourism is fascinating, emotive and provocative which is important to explore many features of dark tourism, which may be perceived unethical by some people.
Stone (2009a) state governments:
"Consequently, the ethics of dark travel and leisure are perhaps area of the broader research agenda. Ultimately, out of this research a fuller knowledge of dark travel and leisure shall be made, and so understanding of the occurrence advanced. In a natural way, anyone researching dark travel and leisure should think about the ethics of their research, in particular how data is both accumulated and offered. . . "
Furthermore a case study will be conducted to be able to have a closer look at the situation and the major problems developing regarding honest issues of dark tourism.
In addition, the researcher is at first thinking about dark tourism phenomenon. For days gone by 2 years the researcher has been to the numerous places of death and catastrophe such as Chernobyl, and has noticed that it is becoming increasingly popular. The researcher also discovered that, for 24 months there are numerous level of debates on particular issue, which will be analysed in the dissertation.
It is hoped that study will have an impact on understanding dark tourism. In addition, it is also hoped that this project will draw more focus on ethical issues and provide a new viewpoint for those, who does not acknowledge 'real truth' and 'certainty' of dark sites or destinations.
Roberts (2004, p. 73) defines a books review as, "locating, analysing, synthesising and interpreting prior research" This section will be used to establish theoretical construction, identify models and studies and specify key terminology in relation to dark travel and leisure and ethics. All research that is conducted will be provided in this section. An in-depth overview of the literature has been done in order to gather relevant home elevators dark travel and leisure itself and honest issues throughout the years. The literature matrix illustrates the primary areas that happen to be perceived to be the main with regards to this issue of dark tourism honest issues. By creating a books review matrix, it could help the researcher contrast and compare the author's work easily. Because of this by following a detailed review of the literature it could possibly identify important questions, key issues and notable gaps within the existing knowledge on this issue.
Only lately that it has been together known as dark tourism, travel to places associated with fatality, disaster and destruction has occurred as long as people have had the opportunity to travel. Oftentimes there is no clear definition of the tourism area of interest.
Although, the term 'dark travel and leisure' was firstly created by Foley and Lennon (1996a, b). For Foley and Lennon, the word 'dark tourism' relates mostly to 'the demonstration and use (by site visitors) of real and commodied death and disaster sites' (1996a:198); a broad denition later rened by their assertion that dark tourism is 'an intimation of post-modernity' (Lennon and
At the same time, another terminology has been applied to the occurrence. Seaton (1996) refers to death-related vacationer activity as 'thanatourism', while other product labels include 'morbid travel and leisure' (Blom, 2000), Rojek (1993) offered a 'Black Spot tourism' classification, 'grief tourism' and 'milking the macabre' (Dann, 1994:61).
Nevertheless, there's a factor, which is common to all these terms of tourism. It is all about connection, in one form or another, between a tourism site, interest or experience and death, disaster of anguish. As a result, explanations of dark travel and leisure focus on interconnection between tourism and loss of life. Tarlow (2005:48), for example, offers recognition for dark travel and leisure as "visitations to places where tragedies or historically noteworthy death has occurred which continue to impact our lives", a definition that aligns dark tourism somewhat barely to certain sites and ideas at particular motives. Mls (2002) claims that, however it excludes many dark sited and visitors attractions related to, without necessarily the website of, loss of life and devastation.
Therefore, for the purposes of the research project, the author will explain dark tourism, matching to Stone (2006, a) simply and generally as 'the action of happen to be sites associated with fatality, troubled and the apparently macabre'.
Stone (2006, a) areas that ethics and the morality of offering provocative and 'very sensitive' narrative through heritage to the touring and going to community is competent and documented issue of dark travel and leisure.
Ethics have been conceptualised as a couple of rules and concepts, concerning 'rightful' conduct based on our most deeply kept values, the things we most cherish and the items we most despise. (Lieberman, 2000). The term can also make reference to the systematic study of way of thinking about 'how we ought to react' and locating a logical way of 'how we must live'.
Ethics and morality suggest a couple of duties that want subordination of natural dreams to be able to follow the 'moral laws' (Vocalist, 1994). The 20th century saw philosophers approaching the condition of the origin of ethics as something unreachable. Among the most publicised conceptual thinkers in neuro-scientific ethics have been (Vocalist, 1994:18):
Thrasymachus ( 4th century) and the thesis that ethics are enforced on the vulnerable by the strong;
Socrates (4th century) and the thesis that the ruler is not concerned with his own passions, but with that of the subject;
Hobbes (17th century) and his affirmation that ethics give the ruler a right to to order and to be complied;
Nietzsche (19th century) who proposed morality is the creation of 'the herd'(led more dread than hope)
There are numerous universities of viewpoint, and literature on the plank subject of ethics is prevalent. What is more significant in the situation of the dark travel and leisure is suggesting a conceptual ethical platform for the evaluation of providing and selling provocative narratives of countrywide tragedy in history settings. This review is concerned with two main and clear elements of ethics and morality the following:
"Business ethics and the degree to which businesses within the history industry which connect a 'dark' narrative to the visiting public consider their techniques to be ethical"( Natural stone, 2006, a)
"Personal morality and the magnitude to which these often provocative narratives are received and are passable in line with the moral principles of visitors from widely differing ethnic backgrounds. " ( Stone, 2006, a)
According to Rock (2006, a) the term 'business ethics' has been described at the extreme as an oxymoron in the corporate world since some argue that morality, as Butcher ( 2003) states, is "intrinsically absent in capitalist entrepreneurial ventures". At this time the issue of business ethics is a conspicuous subject appealing to attention from lots of communities appealing, such as consumers, pressure organizations and the multimedia (Bizarre and Kempa, 2003).
According to Crane & Matten (2007), commercial communal responsibility is a prominent strand of the converse of business ethics and has been contrived to refer to the implicit process of "communicating a legal and institutional commercial framework within which a obligation of health care (to the people, the surroundings and employees among others) is implied".
For dark tourism, it is not fully elaborated after in this context since there present different problems in connecting the communal responsibility of these kind of history sites, such as:
The esotericism in the opportunity of what's morally satisfactory to various communities appealing: will there be a hierarchical order of treatment or responsibility that must be demonstrated? Natural stone (2006, a) provides example of Auschwitz as the utmost 'liable' way to confess visitors in conformity with the moral and honest rules of the family members of prisoners and victims, but also with the moral guidelines of other visitor types such as Polish guests, young visitors. Conflicts of interest, according to Ryan et al (2005), are "common in history but more morally costed where the narrative is provocative and contested"
Is it honest to look at another countrywide tragedy and inculcate it with new countrywide discourse? Cole (1999a) provides this in a context of the United States Holocaust memorial Museum which he disputes 'Americanises' European Jewish tragedy, repacking 'Holocaust' for American mass ingestion in theatre, travel and leisure and heritage.
In standard, these discourses of commercial sociable responsibility are "present in language of many operations so far defined as being at night tourism business"
Stone (2006a) claims, that traditionally, tourism ethics "are talked about in the context of travel and leisure as a major economic engine unit that can wreak havoc on the environment and can negatively temper the influence host areas in destinations imagined as culturally sensitive" Cheong and Miller (2000) discuss travel and leisure ethics in conditions of normalising what is suitable or not appropriate, and "an 'inspecting gaze' affected by the manipulation of imagery in tourism marketing".
Tourism activity offers a unusual, observable form of honest behaviour. Tourists 'vote using their legs' and demonstrate in visiting dark history sites these are morally acceptable spaces to occupy. "Ethical discourses from the production and ingestion of contested heritage sites are designed and looked after by many voices" Rock (2006a). The problem of keeping in mind tragedy and oppression in heritage sites and to whom memory space is entrusted, is at the centre of academic debate encompassing 'fact' and 'appropriate' narratives broadcast by dark travel and leisure sites.
Issues in literature review has been addressed which stress the importance of different definitions to social tourism suggested by different writers. The results of the literature review have empowered the writer to complete the first purpose of the analysis by demonstrating an understanding of the moral issues of dark travel and leisure, what dark travel and leisure itself is and what moral platform is. Using a variety of modern academic perspectives has helped to demonstrate interpretation of dark travel and leisure ethics academic point of view, that can be used in the next chapters in reviewing the main conclusions of the analysis performed. The matrix shape provides a brief summary of the key points made by each academic paper and compares and contrasts the various authors' views.
The matrix number illustrates the context of cultural tourism referred to in academic documents and books utilized in the books review. It shows that the viewpoints of the different creators are both different and similar.
This portion of dissertation will study different research methods used in this project. In order to make this research study successful, it is important that appropriate research methods or techniques need to be chosen. The goal of a strategy is to show, clarify and justify the research methods used in this dissertation. Regarding to Krippendorff (2004) the purpose of a technique is to help the researcher effectively plan and look at the 'reasoning, structure and protocols' of the research methods which have been used in research study. The researcher will present a summary of the resources of information accumulated; a explanation of the procedure used to obtain information and the various research methods will be discussed. Furthermore, by doing the methodology it'll demonstrate how a systematic research was applied in to the subject of dark travel and leisure.
Sharp et al. (2002, p139) define two types of data which can be: main data that the researcher collects through observations, interviews, questionnaires and etc. ; and supplementary data that have been collected by other past researchers.
As the writer of the dissertation has already mentioned before, in order to execute this research study in successful way, two categories of data and different research methods should be investigated. This research project will be primarily based on supplementary research because the principal research is not needed as everything is already available through supplementary research options, such as books, journals and newspaper publishers. What is more, in order to attain the aim that needs to be investigated, the best method of research would be secondary research.
To improve the existing but very little evidence of the posed matter, extra research was collected. Ghosh and Chopra (2003, p. 33) define the term extra research as:
". . . data which are already around and accumulated by others, not by the investigator and are available in publicized and unpublished forms"
Secondary research was chosen as the quickest and the simplest way to access and is the most affordable approach to this research project as well. Veal (2006) confirms this by saying that supplementary data often provides experts with speedy answers for some questions at less cost than it could to undergo key research. Furthermore, when there is enough secondary research to basic the analysis on then it might be a waste materials of resources to acquire new information for the same purposes (Veal, 2006). What is more, secondary research looked like more relevant than major research. This was because there was wide variety of literature on the subject of dark travel and leisure and ethical issues, sourced from School College Birmingham catalogue, with many literature containing relevant information, which will be reviewed later.
The Oxford English Dictionary (2002) defines primary research ". . . which is collected for a particular and immediate research need. . . " There are many different ways that to handle primary research. To be able of this research topic, the writer found that many of the ideas couldn't be backed up with major data and with the right sample.
For the purpose of this research study, key research could be utilized to gather relevant data and access a large populace of students at University University Birmingham and other colleges located in Birmingham.
One of the key methods of carrying out major research is through questionnaires. Mainly, there are two kinds of questionnaires: open finished and closed concluded. Open finished questionnaires will probably have infinite answers to a couple of alternatives and likely to acquire long answers. However, the issue is that they are difficult to analyse as they seem to hand the baton of control over to your partner. Closed ended questions impose a direct risk to the validity of findings and can be responded to with either a single expression or a short phrase.
Another form of main research, which was considered were interviews. The Oxford British Dictionary (2002) identifies interview as ". . . formal conversation between two celebrations in which information is exchanged. " It is possible to say, that it's all about requesting questions and getting the answers.
Therefore in this research study, due to problems in collecting the required data and gain access to a large people for testing along the facilities required to carry out, an initial research wouldn't normally be useful in gathering relevant data and the researcher will gain further from analysing extra data from literature.
The majority of secondary research for this dissertation was gathered from books, academically reviewed publications, on-line factual accounts, papers and the internet. All of this sources can justify the idea of view of any author and provide relevant information about the research project.
The most easily accessible secondary research method that the writer of dissertation found was the utilization text books. Word books were generally used to get background knowledge and acquire a wider knowledge of specific issues. The benefit of using books is basically because it gives a clear understanding and academics information. Since it was already discussed earlier, this technique was easy and simple, because the researcher could easily get them not only from the University or college College Birmingham catalogue, but also to the web library given by the School and other on-line organisations such as Amazon, EBay and Yahoo. Key words had to be inserted to find appropriate literature from the on-line organisations and the collection catalogue, the following key phrases were inserted, "dark tourism", "dark travel and leisure ethics", "dark tourism and morality". There have been some catalogs which contained numerous theories from the past to the present day. The researched determined that the most relevant author's because of this research project were John Lennon and Malcolm Foley (2000) and Richard Sharpley and Phillip R. Natural stone (2009, a). Catalogs for the methodology were found by entering the main element words; "research methods" and "strategy".
The journals are preferred because they're accurate and provide current data, they are also more relevant to the topic as the dissertation is targeted on the topic of consumers' and providers' point of views of dark travel and leisure. The publications were utilized through academic se's like Athens for example and journal directories such as ScienceDirect, Emerald Management Xtra. But however, these databases were not useful as they didn't give any information on particular question, except ScienceDirect. Publications relating to the research topic were reached with comfort as the researcher can enter key words and the data source will present pages of publications that are from the key words. The key words the researcher keyed in to each journal repository were "Dark tourism", "ethical issues of dark tourism", "ethics and morality", "Dark tourism forum". To get more information, the researcher travelled to universities to view their publications however access to relevant information, were not as successful as it was to see them via the internet.
On-line factual information were used to obtain natural facts and statistics; a few of these studies include Mintel. Similarly to accessing the journals, key phrases were entered in order to retrieve the data, the main element words that were moved into were "Dark travel and leisure ethics", "Dark tourism". Moreover, on-line articles were read to be able to gain a wider perspective of the posed subject area.
The use of paper and internet will also be contained in order to give a variety of information and because they are easy of access. Newspapers are of help because they're up to date, however the information can be too subjective, and for this particular theme of dark travel and leisure, the researcher found papers not really useful, due to lack of information on dark travel and leisure. Internet was useful source of information; nevertheless the reader need to check if the source is reliable and information is modified. Websites are accessible and easy to analyze information on and are also modified regularly. This variety of resources gives an improved understanding of the topic.
Out of all the research that is taken, text books and academic publications were the most reliable and valid to utilize to back again up any point. That is due to the fact that dark tourism is comparatively new sensation in travel and leisure industry, literature and academic journals are often publicized frequently throughout the year so the information that is provided is up to date. Furthermore, academic journals and text books are intensely examined by academic specialists before publication to ensure its validity.
The writer of dissertation aimed to gather resources which were only published following the season 1999 as this is relatively recent; however certain catalogs have been used from a much preceding date due to their relevance to the study question. However, publications or literature dated in the 80s or 90s will not consider as outdated.
The collection of secondary data compiled has been publicized in a number of places; it was thought that as this issue in question is ethical issue of dark travel and leisure, then perhaps research publicized in a number of countries would be useful to get a wide range of views from throughout the world.
Although extra research was the ideal research method to use because of this research project, it does hold some disadvantages. There is always the risk that the writer could include their own viewpoints, to allow them to highly sway towards one point and books can be not modified frequently. Also, with educational journals, there are many accurate subject areas and results, however a charge is charged for most of them, some of which are just available to a certain group of people making them hard or even impossible to gain access to, this could put a pressure on the researcher's findings. As for Mintel, some of studies were helpful, but not shared yet for audience. Furthermore, Ghosh and Chopra (2003) mention that though it is more cost effective and less frustrating, the secondary research may well not be as exact as the researcher possessed hoped.
Besides this, secondary research still continued to be suitable for the dissertation as the grade of data obtained can be much better than the quality of key research, as information gained through extra sources might have been obtained using better and more advanced resources. Moreover, because of the insufficient time and financial situation, extra research was generally used to be affordable and less time consuming, it is also easy to access as it generally does not require any extra resources.
Primary research was considered due to the fact that it's useful to accumulate relevant data and access a large society of students customized to the experts needs. However, it was declined due to the lack of experience, money and resources which could provide a limit to the quality of the data compiled and as a result, being unsuccessful (Kumar, 2005). The researcher doesn't have any experience in undertaking key research so in order to make the research project successful, it might be inappropriate for primary research to be been subject to for this dissertation, and it would make more sense for the researcher to analyse conclusions from prior and more capable researchers and academics professionals.
As there's a variety of extra information gathered, it is necessary for the researcher to analyse them carefully. This variety of resources gives a better understanding of the topic.
Once it has all been accumulated, it'll be thoroughly analysed to determine its validity and consistency, and those that aren't essential will be rejected from being used for the dissertation. It is important that validity is measured carefully as Kirk and Miller (1986, p. 71) mentions that "perfect validity requires perfect reliability".
In order to evaluate the collected research, the researcher will study it and make their own judgments based on lots of factors encompassing it for example, the sources in which the information was accumulated from and the method where the sources were accumulated. When applying the framework work, the researcher will utilize it to assess different facets of the dark travel and leisure ethics to summarize by providing benefits to desire to.
This methodology has examined and justified the decision of research design because of this dissertation. As secondary research is being used, the researcher has analysed this type of research by explaining the advantages and disadvantages of it. After the collected research has been examined, the studies will be analysed and mentioned in the next section.
This section is vital as the researcher will be analysing and evaluating the findings of the study project. The primary aspects of the results that have been found in the info mentioned in the literature review will be approached carefully to be able to think about the arguments effectively.
Among the competent dilemmas of dark travel and leisure is ethics and morality. Dark travel and leisure has often increased moral debates and conversations about the ways in which leisure time and pleasure are blended with tragedy (Kempa and Weird, 2003), as many folks think some sites of dark tourism are too very sensitive to present it for the world to see. Furthermore, management of dark travel and leisure appeal is a very sensitive issue which is difficult to undertake, and Tunbridge and Ashworth (1996) observed the misuse and misuse of sacred principles for market profit and entertainment purposes are more likely to happen at atrocity site than at other history sites. In addition, as Rock (2009, a) says, the rights of these whose loss of life is commoditised or commercialised through dark tourism stand for an important honest and moral sizing, which deserves depth consideration. However, although this can be the truth, it actually ranges depending on the 'tone' the website is supplying. The author of this research study has used Stone (2006)'s 'colours' of darkness spectrum as an instrument for calculating different degrees of dark tourism sites that your researcher has illustrated in figure I.
Fig. I - Dark travel and leisure Spectrum
This has been supported by Rock (2006) in which he feels that not all dark tourism sites and its resources have the same amount of darkness and ethics. Stone (2006) believes that each site and what it supplies has its own amount of darkness, and depending on its requirements; it can be put on what he pertains as a 'darkest-lightest' range. In this spectrum, comparisons between, for example, objectives (educational or entertainment), location, perceptions of authenticity and so forth to provide a basis for finding dark sites over a darkest-lightest scale (Natural stone, 2009. a).
One of these ethical issues, which generally concern dark travel and leisure, is the thought of whether consumers should be priced to enter a niche site of loss of life and with so much background. In novices' and consumers' sight, maybe it's seen as unethical as they may see it as a way for providers to make gains in the expense of the deceased lives and history. Moreover, many people can perceive this notion as negative, because for some those 'dark travel and leisure attractions' are places where suffered or even passed away their family members and precious ones, and earning money onto it will be unethical.
Although this can be the case on sites within the lighter shade of the variety as it can be purely trading, it is not always the truth within the darker sites. Sites from the darker cover from the sun such as Auschwitz, the Gallipoli Anzac (Slade, 2003) and Robben Island prison (Shackley, 2001) are usually sites that happen to be old and need continuous up keeping and personnel. With this ongoing maintenance, sites will require financial support, in other words money, to have the ability to continue steadily to run its site and its own historical contents. However, this also brings about the issue of how much it should cost. If a niche site charges just enough to afford the maintenance of buildings, then it could seem reasonable and ethical to do so. Matching to Newyorkology (2006), The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D. C. doesn't bill entrance, but New York's Museum of Jewish Traditions: A FULL TIME INCOME Memorial to the Holocaust charges $10 for men and women. The Oklahoma City Country wide Memorial charges $8 for people while New York's Earth No Museum Workshop has a recommended admission of $15 that is "directed at one of the six charities. " Another example is the jail in Robben Island which Dann (1998) elaborates as a 'Dungeon of Fatality'. Relating to Shackley (2001), employs residents as tour guides, and their average each week wage is 10, which is the same amount as the access fees. However, if the entrance fees were to increase, it will then be seen as profit making, thus, unethical as it is income generating in expense of the past.
Sometimes charging consumers for the access fee may be a means of handling condition of exhibitions, for example in The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D. C. Despite warnings that visitors are not permitted to touch displays in museums (for example, images), most of them tend to ignore these alert, which leads to expenditure for restoration.
From another perspective, by charging consumers of dark sites of tourism, it may also be considered a means of handling how many consumers enter the website, as mass ingestion of the website can lead to deliberate sanctification and lack of unique individuality of the site. Odd and Kempa (2003) agrees with this and additional state governments that the commodification of background for mass usage frequently contributes to the insignificance of the website, and subsequently causes deliberate sanctification of its background, as well as the loss of original purpose of why the site was built.
An exemplory case of this event is shown in the site of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian 15th-century Inca site, which s situated on a hill ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. Johnston (2006) points out how since Machu Picchu was known as a World Heritage Site in 1983, over 500, 000 tourists started visiting the website every year, and in order to prevent deliberate sanctification, providers decided to set up an entrance cost of $20. Following this decision the condition appeared. Therefore not only did not limit the number of foreign consumers from going to, but also pushed the neighborhood people out of its own traditions site as they cannot afford the entry fees. Johnston (2006) is constantly on the explain that this has contributed to the mass replacement of indigenous people who have tourists around the website, creating sanctification and trivialisation of the site, as the original culture of Machu Picchu was absent.
Despite all the motives that the providers have for charging its consumers, it is evidently shown that it needs to be monitored efficiently in order for it to work.
Consumers who are engrossing the merchandise as experience and integration (Ryan et al, 2005) may buy into the idea of charging as it may feel like these are giving something back to the deceased lives and the history of the site. Lippard (1999) clarifies this as 'guilt - tripping' where consumers of the typologies may feel guilty of what took place in the past and could want to add towards the history in order to nourish their conscience. Consumers consuming as experience and integration (Ryan et al, 2005) may be more sentimental than consumers that are consuming as play (Ryan et al, 2005), as the typology of play consumers will come from a Psychocentric (Novelli et al, 2005) history in which they could visit often to lighter shades of dark tourism sites but seldom to sites of a darker tone. Elaborating out of this, maybe it's possible that consumers consuming as play might not be used to the dark record of the sites and may "be surprised of its details and backgrounds bordering the darker sites", thus, may welcome the sanctification of the websites " but not the notion of charging". (Novelli et al, 2005). Regular happenings of this emotion likely to happen in what Ryan et al (2005) called Grey tourism supply, where Ryan et al (2005) explains this theory as consumers with low, or no interest and knowledge in loss of life and tragedy appointments an supposed dark tourism site. In this example, a consumer may not know of the dark historical details of the site as they would not have previous knowledge due to its lack of interest, but after arriving to the expected site and knowing its gore details, they could instantly be repulsed and stunned.
However, as it was mentioned previously, this is exceptional as Seaton (1999) thinks that dark travel and leisure is "consumer demand rather than fascination demand, describing that if it had not been from the high hobbies and demand from the audience, there will not be the dark sector of tourism".
To some extent, Seaton (1999) may be appropriate and that the primary reason behind the lifestyle of dark travel and leisure could be from the high needs for dark travel and leisure. However, because of this to occur, the presentation of the websites can also be accountable for the high acceptance of dark tourism. It is because Walter et al (1995) talks about that even when consumers are considering loss of life and tragedies, "for tragedies to be given a real so this means, it needs to truly have a context by reason, and sometimes through the non-public stories of those people who may have been caught up in it". Lennon (2005) also pointed out that the actual fact that dark tourism sites can be great learning from the darkest elements of our past. It has been previously mentioned using a good example from one of the darker sites of Robben Island. Shackley (2001) state governments that the jail site in Robben Island situated in South Africa, uses ex prisoners which used to be placed there. These ex prisoners are actually acting as tour guides because of its consumers, repeatedly informing each band of consumers their own personal experience of when these were placed in the skin cells. Shackley (2001) is constantly on the clarify that the emotional welfare of the guides was not considered and lots of the guides felt appreciated to continue with its employment anticipated to lack of employment anywhere else. Although Walter et al (1995) does explain that consumers are "interested in personal story sharing with, but ethically, should experiences as hypersensitive as this be told repeatedly and in person from the own mouths of the ex lover prisoners"? This may well not only be ethically incorrect, but also morally incorrect. Blom (2000) will abide by this and areas that interpretation as personal as this will be interpreted though technology such as information items within the websites. However, not surprisingly, providers within the darker sites might not exactly see it in the same way. Providers could claim that employees such as ex girlfriend or boyfriend prisoners are receiving paid and that they decide to be employed in this job role voluntarily. Providers could also argue those tales revealing to from the mouths of men and women who have been swept up within the annals of the sites are more reliable and feasible than technology. This can be because stories that'll be told from someone who has actually experienced and been there may in simple fact decrease the exaggeration of the contents of the history and tales, as well to be less biased than if technology was to notify it. By interpreting using technology, there may be a high chance that the info recorded into the technology is from someone without relations to the website, thus, provides consumers incorrect information. Also, this method of tour guides for interpretation may actually further benefit both the providers and consumers, as though the consumers was required to ask a question about the site and its record, it could be replied immediately by the tour guides, delaying enough time where the consumers may form its answers and judgments about the website.
The views of the darker site providers in using tour guides can also be the same for the views for providers of the lighter cover from the sun of dark travel and leisure, as it might be required and expected by consumers to possess you to definitely guide through the lighter sites, e. g. the fun factories (Stone, 2006). However, an implication that can occur from this is the fact that within the lighter cover from the sun of dark travel and leisure, the guides may exaggerate the genuine history and reports behind the website in order to manipulate the consumers' attention and encourage do it again business.
Manipulation of consumers' attention can be done by the motion of original items. For lighter shades of tourism sites to do this may be accepted, as previously mentioned before; Stone (2009. a) talks about that sites of your lighter shade have a tendency to promote any materials to be able to attract business, thus, attracting profits. However, if a niche site of the darker shade decides to get this done, the circumstances changes and it'll become unethically wrong. For instance, Wight (2005) states that in Auschwitz, and its own famous signal reading Arbeit Macht Frei (work will set you free), was changed from its original position to a location close to the end of the travel to create a high point for consumers to attain a controversial bottom line to the knowledge. This can be a form of manipulation as Carnegie (2006) says that some sites do intentionally move items to be able to interpret the displays to contain central, recognisable, psychological and general truths to the neighborhood audiences. This boosts an ethical problem, as although providers could see nothing incorrect with this as questionable conclusion may leave its consumers being the pain and tragedies of days gone by, however the ethics of this makes it unfair and unauthentic for its consumers. Wright (2005) stated five motivational reasons as why visitors trips such sites of death, atrocity, and devastation, and these five points were originally identified by Seaton. A. V (1999) they may be as follows:
Travel to witness general public enactments of death
Travel to see sites of mass or specific deaths after they have occurred
Travel to internment sites of and memorials to the dead
Travel to view material information or symbolic representations of particular death
Travel for re-enactment or simulation of fatality.
Although, the key purpose in why consumers visit places of dark tourism to begin with is because they may want to see the real real truth behind the sites first hand, and so travelled to the site to understand this experience. However, when providers moves objects around to help induce consumers' minds, it is manufactured unreal as it isn't how the background says it was, but the way the providers want to buy to be. By moving items, bits of history gets migrated as well, and since time moves on and nobody steps it back to its original place, the foundation and items of background of it are forgotten, hence the deliberate sanctification of some sites and the movement of sites within the hue spectrum.
To conclude, the trend of dark tourism is a difficult and delicate field to comprehend, but taking care of of computer that is most recognized is that it is more and more growing in reputation, with a large number of consumers flocking worldwide to see these sites of tragedy. However, the ethics of visiting sensitive sites such as they are also growing, as questions such as whether to show or never to show, and whether to fee or not to charge are often questioned in both the providers and consumers point of views.
To show these websites of tragedies could cause exploitation of residents as well as deliberate sanctification of the websites and its background, but to not to show, our background may be rejected to us.
By understanding the ethicalities of dark tourism, it will help in preserving its record and sites, so that it can then be better handled and better maintained and presented for the future. This in turn reduces the chance of exploitation of the sites and the way different typologies of consumers think. However, moral issues do not stop at the lands of the consumers and its own providers, the sensitivity of the tour guides are also would have to be explored. As mentioned previously, guides such as ex girlfriend or boyfriend prisoners are occasionally obliged to relive their experience repeatedly for consumers to know the annals. Although this can be one of the effective ways of telling history, it is important to consider the welfare of these guides, as the repeated telling of their own experience may in turn contribute to further unethical dilemmas.
Therefore, maybe to finally conclude on the ethics of dark tourism, it could be possible to state that moral issues will usually persist around dark tourism, for as long dark tourism itself is out there too. However, the importance of the account of the ethicalities of dark travel and leisure cannot be understated, and both consumers and providers may want to interact, if in the future, we still would like to know about our history through the form of travel and leisure instead through books and education.