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Comparative Analysis of Management Theories

Keywords: fayol management theory, mintzberg management theory, katz theory of management

Fayol's management functions, Mintzberg's assignments and Katz's skills remain important for the modern day administrator. Discuss.

The pivotal mother nature of management theory has seen various trajectories throughout the ages which has caused for discrepancies between administrative theorists who claim to have the 'maximum' beneficial theorem behind the functions of business activity. As Abedi justifiably proffers; "the traditional explanation of management is getting work done through people, but real management is producing people through work". The paradigm of efficient management is expanding the employees and people of the organization through work, as it is this 'unification' of the folks; to impel somewhat than compel; that will in the end cause for the enhancement of the business entity as a whole. Management is the development of a bureaucracy that demands strategic planning, co-ordination, directing and handling of complicated decision-making procedures (Olum). Interestingly, the foundations and traditions of modern-day management can be followed back to so far as 5000 BC; seen in ancient Sumerian details, the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and go up of the Roman Empire. Additionally, social change during the time of the industrial revolution and the work of Frederick W. Taylor, the 'dad of medical management (Frederick Winslow Taylor)'worked to inscribe the foundations of management theory. This antiquated legacy of management provided Henri Fayol (1916), Henry Mintzberg (1973) and Robert Katz (1955) the knowledge to construct their individual approaches to management. Indeed, Fayol's management functions, Mintzberg's roles and Katz's skills remain important for the present day day supervisor; however, it might be naЇve for a manager to espouse a particular management theorem because of the changing nature of society and the global current economic climate, but rather to buy the knowledge of a variety of theorems and work to manipulate them to match their specific requirements and business circumstances. Thus, modern day managerial theory is central to modern professionals engineering complex organizations, as it cultivates in the rapid contingency of today's changing overall economy.

Henri Fayol (1841-1925), first proven the functional approach to management in the early 20th century (Drucker). Fayol outlined the five key functions of management in his treatise, 'Standard and Industrial Management', which typified a 'superior' approach to management thinking. Fayol's five functions were collectively to forecast - 'prevoyance', organize, demand, coordinate and control the business enterprise entity - these functions are still highly relevant to the functions and activities of the modern day manager. Through the 1920's, Henri Fayol gained the title of being 'the dad of management' (Mote), as medical management rules were displaced by the classical management approach. Traditional management emphasized the recognition of universal concepts of management which, if honored, would lead to organizational success (Mote). These universal principles systematically created two broad categories being the id of business functions and the structuring of organizations and management of employees. Furthermore to Fayol's recognized 'five functions' of management, he also established 14 key points of management. The legacy of the principles continues to influence modern management theory. Oddly enough, Wren (1994:193) mentioned;

"Fayol's components of management provided the present day conceptualization of the management process; his rules were lighthouses to managerial action".

Fayol's model for the efficient approach to management was design was the coal-mining business he owned and managed. At that time, the coal mining company was a large business in the first 20th century; however, in the current age could have been considered reasonably small (Drucker). This notion of functional company is still, arguably the best way to structure specifically a small developing business. Within the same fashion, and arguably the precedent of functionalism, is its 'clarity' and 'stability'. Therefore, his method of management through functionalism performs exceedingly well for the simplistic kind of business it was created for. However, the useful model does not have got the performance capacities needed to offer with anything more dynamic or complex - an essential element in demand from the modern day manager. Also, Fayol's functional principle leaves little range for innovation and is thus, insufficient when attempting to develop, test and make employees. Peter Drucker, author of the publication 'Management: Tasks, Duties and Management', essentially discussed that;

"In businesses that exceed Fayol's model, in size, in intricacy, in innovative scope, practical design should be used only as you principle and never as the basic principle" (Drucker).

Finally, functionalism is hugely uneconomical, which is the result of its rigid design - nowadays, the development of a small business even to only moderate size, will cause for friction to create and end up being costly and resource inefficient. Thus, Henri Fayol's guidelines of functionalism is an outstanding approach for a small business, and especially small production business like Fayol's own, however the notion of functionalism alone, is not a practical strategy for a business exceeding Fayol's model and it was not until Mintzberg's assignments that sought a new trajectory in neuro-scientific management theory.

The pivotal characteristics of management theory looked for a new way in the early 1970's as experts began to question the rigidity of Fayol's fundamental concepts. Henry Mintzberg argued that Fayol's concepts of management didn't embody the turbulent nature of managerial work. In contrast to Fayol's systematic perspective on management theory, Mintzberg conducted empirical research, which involved observing and examining the activities of CEOs from five private and semi-public organizations (Ten Managerial Tasks). Mintzberg constructed his studies on 'real phrase' business managers instead of Fayol, who consolidated his managerial guidelines through the analysis of organizational framework. Additionally, Mintzberg determined ten different managerial activities that get into three categories: social, information handling and decision making (Section 9: Marketing Information Systems). Mintzberg's empirical research on the 'character of managerial work (Ten Managerial Tasks)', typified several defects from Fayol's management functions. Mintzberg published;

". . . the stresses of the work drive the manager to defend myself against too much work, encourage interruption, reply quickly to every stimulus, seek the tangible and steer clear of the abstract, make decisions in small increments, and do everything abruptly. (Mintzberg)"

Mintzberg understood the changing world that confronted the modern day managers which performed to combine his strategic approach towards management. Oddly enough, Mintzberg portrayed that effective managers must be proficient at giving an answer to numerous and varying problems without responding too abruptly, and working the tangible information into a thorough picture (Mintzberg). Mintzberg furthered this approach through stressing the value of your 'wide picture';

"the manager is challenged to deal consciously with the pressures of superficiality giving serious focus on the issues that want it, by stepping back in order to visit a broad picture, and by making use of analytical inputs. " (Mintzberg)

Finally, Mintzberg discovered that although individual capabilities influence the execution of a job, it's the organization that determines the need for a particular role, addressing the common belief which it mostly a manager's expertise that determines success. Effective professionals develop protocols to use it given their job explanation and personal preference, and match these with the situation accessible.

In 1974, Robert L. Katz proffered the value of skill between all supervision. Katz stressed the value of skill under differing conditions; 'a skill signifies an ability which can be developed, definitely not inborn, and which is manifested in performance, not only in potential. Therefore the main criterion of skillfulness must be effective action under varying conditions' (L. Katz, 1974). Additionally, Katz advanced this wide-ranging idea of 'skill' and figured effective administration depends on three basic skills, categorized as 'technological skill, individual skill and conceptual skill'. To begin with, Katz studied the notion of technical skill, where the manager must possess an satisfactory magnitude of technical skill in order to master the mechanics of the particular job for which he'll be culpable. Second of all, is the idea of human skill; where it is essential for the administrator to work cogently as a group member whilst being collegial within the organization he is leading. Finally, Katz pressured the idea of Conceptual skill, being the capability to visualize the venture as a whole (L. Katz, 1974). Acoustics conceptual skill permits manager's to decipher the consequences of change in any portion of the entity on the areas of the business and the way the differing functions of administration must unify and work in synchronization of one another. In fact, Katz extended the idea of conceptual skill to add a sound romantic relationship of the average person business to exterior relations affecting the business enterprise entity and hence, should enable the business enterprise to achieve inclusive affluence. Oddly enough, Katz had written on the paradigm of skill, defining it as 'an capability to convert knowledge into action' (L. Katz, 1974), and therefore, facilitate in the differentiation of these intricate skills.

Additionally, the importance of the abilities can vary with accordance to the level of managerial responsibility. Human and conceptual skills, although important in all levels of management seem to be of ideal use in the higher levels of supervision, whilst technological and human skills are most important in the low levels. However, it's the notion of conceptual skill that becomes most significant for the 'top' managers when working to achieve success. Katz emphasized that;

"This three-skill way emphasizes that good administrators are not necessarily born; they may be developed" (L. Katz, 1974).

The proven fact that good administrators may be developed alternatively than given birth to is important for the modern administrator as it offers managers the motivation to advance their skills to be able to progress their business end result. Also, the categorization of Katz skills, and the recognition of the abilities needed at the differing levels of management, provides an instrumental starting point for the training, and advance of professionals (ArticlesBase). Thus, Katz skills will allow the modern day manager to attain the optimum level of output labor and business efficiency.

"Good management is the skill of earning problems so interesting and their alternatives so constructive that everyone wishes to get to work and deal with them. " - Paul Hawken

Paul Hawkens idea on good management is considered to be significant to the development of today's manager. It's important to notice, and, as mentioned earlier, management is the development of a bureaucracy that needs proper planning, co-ordination, directing and managing of sophisticated decision-making functions (Olum). Essentially, management is the process of building and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working alongside one another in groups, efficiently accomplish selected seeks (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4). With this in mind; and, to varying diplomas, it is thought that Fayol's management functions, Mintzberg's functions and Katz's skills remain worth focusing on to the present day day management. Actually, relating to Pearson's textbook on 'Management', "an exceptional manager is separated from an average manager through the 'identification, approval and mastery of managing paradoxes - the ability to cope with makes that pull managers in different directions. Great professionals do not avoid these tensions but adopt them, harness them and use them (Hitt, 2007)'. Management theory has seen a substantial differ from the classical methodology, through the behavioral college and then into newer developments in management theory with the systems strategy, contingency theory, chaos theory and team building method of management. Agreeably, each management approach consists of its advantages and limitation's, and the administrator must interpret the variables before training the differing methods on the business. In this manner, the dexterity of Fayol's management functions, the impact of Mintzberg's administrative roles and the usefulness of Katz's skills are of fundamental importance for modern professionals and oddly enough simplistic businesses still advocate Fayol's classical approach to management. However, it's the manager who aims to convert the theory behind Fayol, Mintzberg or Katz, whilst systematically integrating the appropriate management solutions, will unquestionably boost the level of efficiency within their business rather than the administrator who adopts an experimental or learning from your errors approach to management. This will likely enable managers to accomplish a common goal; being to create a business surplus through increased output.

Written by Hamish Farquhar

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