Posted at 11.26.2018
The main purpose of this report is to discuss causes of the building deterioration, effective maintenance program for buildings and with building repair in an attempt to overcome such common building problems. In addition, it also highlights cyclical, planned and reactive maintenance programs and principles of repair. Then we've discussed about how the look, construction and maintenance affect to the building's dilapidation.
Substructure and superstructure is the main part of almost any building (low rise, mid rise and high rise buildings). Whenever we speak about the superstructure, many services use in there. Such as for example electricity, telecommunication system, water supply system and etc. also superstructure is supply the beauty of the building and substructure gives the strength to the building. Now we check the way the maintenance programs connect for above things.
All the materials are we used for the construction decay with the time being. So, if we do not consider about or not give consideration for those materials, our building may be decay faster. That's the reason need for the maintenance program for every and each building. This maintenance system is very essential for the building. If we do not care maintenance for any building, that one building not is safe for the individuals who live or work within and folks not feel willing to be there. Also that building's life duration may decrease. So there have many deterioration factors. Therefore we should careful about the maintenance of the building. Appraisals can determine various properties of buildings and elements, both most related ones being strength and durability. Strength reflects the power of the structure to transport present and future loads, while strength identifies a duration over which the structure will be serviceable.
This deterioration effect for the building structure and then for the building services. Building structure mean walls, floors, roof and etc. then services mean electricity, water supply and etc. now let we discuss what are the deterioration factors and exactly how they effect for the building and their services.
Faulty of construction directly affect to the deterioration. During the any construction, there have many things to do. Such as for example dig the trenches, make the foundation, put the concrete, frame work, masonry work and etc. so those al the works should be do according to particular specification and drawings that induce from architectures and engineers. This specification and drawings shows the clear, protective and efficient path for the building. If supervisors not employing this specification correctly, the whole construction going wrong. So that will cause for the deterioration of this building. As s example, let us assume the specification says the trenches must be 2m depth. But employees may dig only 1 1. 6m. In order that is an error. That error will cause for deterioration of that building. This means, after some time left that foundation may be corrupted. If so, lack of supervision also affects. If supervisors do not supervise staff well, workers will do the works according to their willingness. So that it means, supervision also should be having standard level.
This supervision and using specifications factors also affect to the building services. If the electrical supervisor work without the specification and drawings which may be very dangerous. So that is the building service deterioration. This same to the other services also. Such as for example water supply, telecommunication system and etc.
But sometimes, some are failure to understand or follow the specification and drawings because of their duties. This factor also affects to boost the building and building services deterioration. The lack of skill labor will also cause because of this matter. In this case, there may have good supervision, accurate using of specification and drawings. But minus the skill labors, which works (concrete works, electrical, water supply etc) are cannot do correctly. Therefore that will cause to the deterioration of building and their services.
Faulty of the materials will affect to building and building services deterioration. Construction materials and services will be the two types of materials. Cement, sand, aggregate and etc will be the construction materials and electrical wires, pipes, lights, switches, air conditions, showers, taps and etc will be the building services materials. Actually, materials will directly affecting to the building deterioration. If construction materials (cement, aggregate and etc. ) are not in slandered level, we cannot expect the utmost lifetime of the particular building. Also, if we using not suitable building services materials (taps, lights and etc. ), we're able to not get the good services from that building.
Sometimes, client might not have bit enough money for his project. At that time he rejects some specific sub standard materials and then he reapply some low quality materials for that particular instead material. Which will be one situation we use low quality materials for the construction. Contractor also do that because for his advantage. This means, standard materials are cost than the reduced quality materials. Therefore contractor may use those poor materials.
Inadequate supervision also affect to the problem. Due to, sometimes supplier will decrease the quality of the materials. As an example, supplier will supply low quality sand for the project. So that will affect mainly for the plastering deterioration. Sometimes supervisor also does not care about whatever we acquiring from the supplier. For example, if supplier bring the bricks for the site. That bricks may be not in a typical level. So, if supervisor is not check those bricks that also are the building deterioration.
Lack of Storage facility also affect to the faulty of materials. In this case, supplier supplies the nice materials. But site may well not have well storage to store the materials. For example, if there have taps, air conditional units and etc things and there have not good storage facility, those materials will damage or materials quality will decrease.
According to above factors and examples, we know faulty of materials will affect right to the building and building services also.
Moisture is the most typical cause for building deterioration. Moisture is more effect to the building. Not for the building services. Moisture is required for everyone such actions. Therefore, keeping building materials in a dry state will greatly reduce the speed of deterioration. Because of the moisture is help to some harmful growth. if plants are allowed to take root in buildings, they can cause severe cracks, not only in masonry, but also in concrete. Therefore plaster will attempt to crack. Also Conditions under which wetting and drying take place will be the worst for the sturdiness of building materials.
Chemicals cause for the building deterioration. Within this section only the common chemical types will be discussed. Atmospheric skin tightening and reduces the alkalinity of concrete and will lead to depassivation of steel reinforcement. Chlorides will also lead to such reduction in alkalinity, and also promote electrolytic corrosion processes in both reinforced concrete and steel. Sulphates can attack the concrete itself, causing cracking and weakening in foundations. sulphates and chlorides can also enter concrete through polluted mixing water. Also, some chemicals should never use for the building repairs and things. Such as caustic soda should not be used because they contain soluble salts which likely can cause serious harm to walls, particularly of stone.
Structural form also one of the key factor one of the building deterioration. Nature of response of the structure will be based upon the form of loading, direction of the force. In the original form of construction, due to limitations of the strength of constructional materials, the spans of narrow spaces which led to a proper tied structure. Hence, deterioration due to form of the structure was low.
The structure would hold massive amount weight without losing the structural stability. In comparison, the modern structures where large modules of construction begin. So selection of physical movements increases rapidly. The numbers of joints are actually less with large spans of construction. Flexibility of traditional structure has been replaced with hardly. The form of structural design should have a connection with the working patience and quality of construction force. For example, use of trusses to get free space on the ground these trusses are exactly plumb and in a straight line. The stability of most joints depends on the truss plumb and in a line.
With the movement towards slim and tall structural elements there is a corresponding upsurge in slenderness percentage. The present day design criteria for brick improve load bearing walls has been developed around concepts of required thickness in relation to height and length. However, the quality of plumbness and quality of joints in the brickwork is likely to be excellent which unfortunately it is not.
Above factors causes to set-up stress and then that stress will distribute stresses cracking. Therefore structure's lifetime may decrease. Then we must repair those cracking. So, which will be additional problems in maintenance.
Affect of the atmospheric for the building deterioration is various for the united states to country, provision to provision and area to area. Wind, rain, sun and etc are some atmospheric elements nowadays. Therefore, we have to make decision about suitable substructure and what materials use for your and what kind of materials use for the superstructure in line with the atmospheric elements of the site area. Because various materials a reaction to the atmospheric elements from various ways.
As a good example, steel is expanding with the heat. So, whenever we use steel structure for any particular building, we have to consider about this factor. If we did not consider it which will be cause to the obstacle after and during the construction. And yes it will disturb to the maintenance of that building. This means, the maintenance cost may go increase.
Mostly the superstructure is uncovered for the external environment. Walls and roof is the primary area of the superstructure. So, superstructure will face to the all atmospheric elements. Therefore there have sufficient probability to decay the walls, roof, windows and doors. On the list of superstructure factors, the most sensitive factor is external fabrics and finishes. Because external fabrics and finishes will reaction highly with atmospheric elements. As a result of that, fabrics and finishes may be chip with the time. So that it is the one kind of building deterioration. Also, the external fabrics and finishes are showing the wonder of each building. So, there will need to have good maintenance program for the superstructure to control the deterioration of the atmospheric elements.
Heat will help accelerate all deterioration processes. In addition, heat can cause expansion and subsequent compression when heat source is lacking. Such thermal movements can weaken materials with low flexible strengths such as masonry, and cause cracking. Heat can also weaken some waterproofing materials, and lead them to lose their flexibility or even to crack. It will increase with especially in combination with direct solar radiation.
Cleaning also directly affect to the building and building services deterioration. This cleaning system should be doing in a proper way. Otherwise that could cause to increase the deterioration of the building and building services. When we live or work inside the any building, there must have well environmental. So there must have good cleaning system. Therefore, routine cleaning procedure must be a good level. But all the cleaning systems are not routine. Sweep, mop and etc are some of the routine cleaning things. In case the routine cleaning procedure not going a proper way, the building may unclean quickly. Mostly floors and walls may face compared to that.
Cleaners might not have good idea or pre experience about the cleaning and cleaning materials and techniques. So they'll use incorrect cleaning materials and or techniques. For example, if any cleaner do not know the strategy to clean the air condition unit or clean the escalators effectively and but he try to do this duty that air condition unit may break and escalator may be damage. Thus that will affect to the building services deterioration. Also if we not using the specialist man to clean this particular supply system in building, that also harmful for the supply service of creating.
Also, if there never have cleaver supervision for the cleaning system, that also will case for the building and building services deterioration. Because, cleaners not doing always their cleaning duty accuracy. Therefore, always requires the well supervision for control the cleaners and the cleaning system effectively. Then we can decrease the building and building services from the deterioration.
Cyclical Maintenance of the building is vital thing to safeguard the building from various deterioration factors. Which means cyclical maintenance program plays a major role for reduce building deterioration. Some buildings that do not care building maintenance may belong to several defects which may lead to structural failures. Any inspections completed by either architects or surveyors will include checking for any signs of abnormal deterioration, cleaning out gutters of leaves or harmful growth, checking lighting conductors, cleaning out all voids and spaces and changing tap washers. To secure the overall structural stability and life of an building, it is important to regularly inspect not only the key structural elements including foundations, walls and roofs.
Depending on the nature work of maintenance and repairs, this program of cyclical maintenance may be divided into two main categories. Those are day today maintenance and maintenance involving builder's works. The day today maintenance includes work which can be dealt by building owner without the need to employ outside labor. This consists of cleaning leaves from gutters, down pipes and drainage channels, removing plant growth from walls and checking ventilation. In addition, fire detection systems should also be checked as well as windows, doors and electrical system. It really is recommended to ask cleaners to report any defects they note such as broken windows, leaks in roof, falling pieces of masonry and lime dust from spall of plaster.
The second category, which is maintenance involving builder's works, is most beneficial carried out by using an annual basis by way of a builder who has knowledge of and sympathy towards construction of buildings. Such works include replacing loose or broken roof tiles, gutters, down pipes and inspection of soil drainage systems. Also, testing all fire extinguishers, cleaning up ducts and air conditioning units, servicing lift and decorating and cleaning parts of the building interior are needed in the building maintenance.
cyclical maintenance you start with daily routines and working up that involves periodic programs of daily, weekly, monthly, semiannual, gross annual ensure that you every five year routines. For the every five year routines, it is the responsibility of architect or surveyor to checking any structural defects. The permanent maintenance plan should be revised and updated after each checking. Any focus on the building defects should also be studied for the next report presented. A number of the tasks that the architect or the surveyor should look in the checking are cleaning out all void and spaces, checking lighting, inspecting and testing electric installation, checking any sign of abnormal deterioration and cleaning out gutters of leaves and plants.
Planned maintenance gives the owners and the property managers more time to prepare for the works and, more importantly, to secure the required funding. It usually starts out by an intensive condition survey to evaluate the existing situations, identify the entire extent of works required and lay down the level of expectation. Considerations include execution programs, standard of performance and reliability, as well as maintenance budget and life cycles of certain elements and facilities. Daily maintenance of essential features such as cleaning of surface water channels to avoid blockage of drains, servicing of small factors of equipment or easily wearable items such as children's play furniture are essential to ensure safe and smooth operation. A detailed plan for maintenance to be carried out everyday should be used as per the equipment supplier's recommendations, needs and expectations of the owners.
Regular maintenance is the ultimate way to ensure the continued protection and future use of any building. Such work is part of the day today responsibility of all owner occupiers. Maintenance is most reliable when carried out regularly, on a well planned cycle. Not merely should planned maintenance extend the life span and preserve the appearance of your building and designed landscape, but it is most beneficial in protection terms because less historic fabric is lost in regular, minimal and small scale work than in disruptive and extensive repairs. Good maintenance needs the regular investment of smaller amounts of money and time, but the cost of preparing and following a planned maintenance program should be much less than the expenses resulting from some unplanned major repairs, and it'll enable you to plan your future financial commitments needs.
In such a case, a written report containing information of updated maintenance and repair work, photos, drawings and tips should prepare yourself by a professional expert. That is to certify that the report will be a valuable way to obtain reference for those in charge of a building now and in the foreseeable future.
However, to secure the general structural stability and life of any building, it's important to regularly inspect not only the primary structural elements including foundations, walls and roofs. Proper planned, design and reactive methods and techniques of creating repairs and good maintenance programs are equally important. It is a duty of owners, architects, local authorities and the general public to see an historic building is handed on to the next generation in good shape.
There have many reasons for the building dilapidation. In first chapter, we've discussed about the building and building services deterioration factors. After that, we speak about the necessity of the planned, cyclical and reactive maintenance program for building through the next chapter. Now we are going to discuss about the relationship between design, construction, maintenance and the dilapidation of building.
Before commence the almost any construction, there should be an in depth design, drawings and specifications. Otherwise, we cannot start the construction. Because we have no idea how the building appears like, what the condition of the building, what are the features and etc. therefore there must is a design for any building. This design will show the building's substructure up to superstructure. It means, design will show the building's foundation up to roof. Which means this design is vital to the every building. Also, this design may cause to the building dilapidation. So, designers have to get ready the design meticulously. Therefore building design directly affect to the building maintenance cost.
Now per day we have seen fancy buildings in every country than the old rectangular form buildings. In present, everyone loves to fancy and beautiful buildings. Whenever we construct those fancy buildings, there will need to have good designed foundation, colorful claddings, roof and etc. but that foundation might not suitable for hold the load of the building. That will assist to the building dilapidation.
Also there has to be beautiful interior decorations and things for inside the building. So, when we use fancy design what to our building, we have to have planned, cyclical and reactive maintenance program for those ideas. For example, if any building uses glasses instead for the building cladding, owner has to maintain that at right time frame. Otherwise, if owner does not consider about the maintenance of glass, that glasses will face to the dilapidation prior to the maximum usage of that glasses. Therefore owner has to hold big cost for the maintenance. But if he uses another material for cladding, you don't need to spent big cost for the maintenance. Based on the above factors, we can understand the designing is cause for the building dilapidation.
Among this section, we make an effort to discuss about the relationship between construction and dilapidation. Mainly construction will cause to the building dilapidation than the look. Whenever we construct any building, we must use design, drawings and specifications. In that case, if contractor not use those documents properly for the construction, that construction might not exactly be successful. And yes it is not really a safe destination to live or working. As an example, if specification says the foundation depth should be 10m. But contractor might not consider following that and if he put the foundation 8m depth, that building will dilapidation quickly. Because that foundation cannot bear the live load of the complete building. So, foundation may crack after many years. So, we can not expect the utmost lifetime the building in line with the specification. The consequence of the not following specifications properly during the construction may affect to dilapidation.
During the construction going on, there have large probability to happen the mistakes from workers. So, those mistakes will be the reason for the buildings dilapidation. As an example, if labors not laying properly the steel bar for the slab, that slab might not exactly be able to well accuracy. Also if reinforcement columns are not dead vertically, that building structure will be going wrong. Therefore, this is another way to occur building dilapidation.
Maintenance also the one factor for building dilapidation. Dilapidation and deterioration be based upon the maintenance program. Therefore we have not any particular point to talk about the reasons of dilapidation by the poor maintenance. So, we'd discusses about this topic from between above chapters.
Identifying common building problems and knowledge of building materials explained in this report is considered as part of the process of protect and managing historic buildings.
Most buildings today are constructed of reinforced concrete. Although this material requires the reduced maintenance of all common building materials to get the utmost duration its useful life beyond its estimated design life of 60 years is the most difficult. Between the various causes for deterioration in buildings, moisture is the most typical and harmful reason. So, keeping the building dry. Then we can get the maximum life time of this building.
Building repair and maintenance require sufficient supervision of a skilled person to ensure that the work is carried out to a reasonable. All repair and maintenance should be recorded, photographed and documented for future building maintenance.