Posted at 10.09.2018
Keywords: brain drain theory, final result of brain dran
Many growing countries continuously lose a significant volume of high-level educated staff, especially scientists, engineers, academics, and physicians, who opt to move and stay abroad in more developed countries. While the face of immigration often potrayed in the media and thought by the modern culture is performed by low-skill personnel with low wages, the majority of documented immigration is in fact done by the high-skilled workers and high-level informed workers. This occurrence is called human being capital flight or more commonly known as brain drain. Brain drain is the emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals searching for higher income and a better quality lifestyle, among a bunch of other reasons, from the developing countries (Africa, South-East Asia countries, etc) to the developed one (USA, UK, Germany, Australia, etc. ). Brain drain phenomenon is strongly related to the agglomeration, a situation where the inhabitants is centralized in the metropolitan area as a result of people are looking for a more encouraging condition. Among the difference between brain drain and agglomeration would be that the agglomeration occurs in only one country, whereas the mind drain is going on surrounding the world concerning many countries.
Several studies point out that brain drain occurrence has turned into a common development in the developing countries. From the data computed by B. I. Logan from the e book "The Reverse Transfer of Technology from Sub-Saharan Africa to america", it is well known that between 1974 and 1985 in Africa, an average of 12. 416 technical and professional staff per 12 months were admitted to america from various contries in Africa. And according to the World Bank or investment company Group, practically 70. 000 of high-level informed staff in Africa leave their home countries to work in industrialized nations. Also, from the research conducted by UNCTAD, it is found out that doctors, ICT expert, technical engineers and other experts from poor countries continue to move and stay to productive countries each year. This research is conducted yearly in the 50 countries that are less developed, among other 8 countries in Asia, 33 countries in Africa, 8 islands and Haiti. It would appear that the mind drain or the individuals capital journey from countries in the region continue to climb. In 1990, the brain drain was amounted to 16. 5%. And today the number experienced increased to 21. 4%. The amount of highest brain drain is coming from Haiti which has lost 80% of educated and skilled individuals. From the researches above, we know that the mind drain sensation occurs in many developing countries and this phenomenon can be quite harmful to the relevant countries.
In this article, an attempt is made to answer the questions in what triggers brain drain, what exactly are the impacts of brain drain toward the developing countries, and if the high level of education really has a confident relationship with the inclination visitors to emigrate. In the next section we will discuss about theoritcal framework related to the mind drain sensation. Third section presents the relationship of the real data available with the causes and effects of brain drain as a theory of brain drain also to show the positive relationship of brain drain occurrence with level of education. The fourth section as the last section examines the conclusion of this essay.
Brain drain is the emigration of highly trained or educated staff from a specific country. Brain drain can be classified into three forms. The first form is "Primary Exterior Brain Drain", it happens when high-level informed staff leave their countries to look and work in the developed countries. The second form called "Secondary External Brain Drain", it occurs when high-level informed personnel leave their countries to and work in the other areas of the expanding region. The very last form is "Internal Brain Drain", this can be a condition when high-level informed workers usually are not employed in the correct field in their own country, or when they move in one sector to another sector in the country. This article will analize the causes and the influences from the first form of brain drain, which is the primary exterior brain drain.
There are two areas of why informed and skilled people emigrate abroad, the reason why can be from countries (living condition, political stability, degree of criminal offenses, and opportunities) and individuals (education, family influence, and personal desire).
Poor condition of home countries sometimes can be a trigger for people to emigrate. Many expanding countries still have inadequate facilities to support the people, for exampe, having less satisfactory sanitation system that can be a major reason behind disease. Inadequate infrastructure such as vehicles system can even be a reason of the increasing number of men and women who proceed to developed countries as it could cause severe traffic congestion.
A secure condition of politic means a predictable politics environment. Politics instablity encourage employees to leave their home countries to a country that includes a condusive condition to work or to operate a bussiness. People also proceed to a more steady area to feel safe and comfortable. When the host countries have more steady politic, then this problem will become a draw factor from the variety countries.
Poverty and unemployment are common problems generally in most developing countries, they can create offences. Robbery and theft rife in poor areas can cause huge loss to the modern culture. Failure to beat the crimes problem plays a part in lower investment capital needed in the united states. South Africa is one of the exemplory case of a country that has a high level of crime and it drives the individuals in the united states to go to safer countries.
The main reason of why educated workers emigrate is merely because there is more opportunities to achieve a much better life in the number countries. Scarcity of careers in their home countries cause them to become move and work in another country, and also the higher income that they can get in variety countries.
Education plays a huge role in stimulating the brain drain occurrence. Several studies show you the positive connection between your education attainment of specific and his / her wealth to emigrate. Specific with higher-level of income face wider income differintials and higher probabilities in the developed countries than the people who have lower level of education.
The view of the member of the family plays significant influence to produce a decision to remain and work in foreign countries, although it is not the key factor for the brain drainers. moreover, relatives who stay overseas can be one of the explanation for this brain drain.
Sometimes, some personnel come with an ambition to improve their career in foreign countries or even to explore another countries. So that is excatly why personal inclination is one the sources of brain drain.
After analizing the causes of the mind drain phenomenon, we will analize the influences of brain drain toward the house countries. Brain drain can bring many drawbacks to the home countries. First, brain drain can weaken the work structure, it is a major factor that inhibit the industry to move forward, because it will influence the performance of the home countries in term of monetary growth. Second, the mind drain sensation is a vicious circle of underdevelopment, which brings scarcity of educated and skilled staff in home countries. The knowledgeable and skilled staff have gone from the origin countries to find an improved opportunites in another countries. Third, the wider gap between rich and poor people. Fourth, it will waste the money of the foundation countries, because they have spent big money to educate the people to study in another country but instead of going back, folks work in the variety countries. Fifth, the staff who emigrate will be substituted by expatriates with the same features. But, they will ask for more costly fees that contributes to the inefficiency of the home economy. Sixth, brain drain causes a huge loss to the individual capital. Education is one of the main factor to improve the individuals capital. But as we know previously, education has positive connection with the mind drain phenomenon. It means that the bigger level of education that the employees achieved, the bigger propensity of the employees to emigrate to more productive countries. Next to the drawbacks, brain drain can also bring benefits to force the monetary growth of the house countries. Reverse brain drain happens in China and India, as they have got higher level of brain drain concentrarion. The benefits of the mind drain phenomenon are the international networking, the decreasing of unemployment level, the improving quality of human resources, the search engine optimization of production capacity in the house countries, and the availability of different investment resources.
In the third section, we will analyze the relation between the available data with the idea that has already been mentioned above. The United States is a favorite place for folks to emigrate. In term of living condition, United States is known for having an extremely sound infratructure. Travelling system was well built as it offers subway (underground rail) to aid the citizens if they want to venture out. Opportunities to experience a better quality lifestyle is much easier to be achieved for educated people, because the salary of employees in the United States is relatively high in average compared with other countries. High income is one of the reason why people want to go far away using their origin countries, that is why, in this article we will look closer at the brain drainers in america. The desk 1 (appendix) shows about the amount of immigrants to america according to the educational attainment for specific developing countries. This stand considers as all foreign-born individuals who emigrate to the United States. People who emigrated to america when they were children, and people who analyzed and graduated in america, or other things that are not related with the mind drain may still be one of them figure.
We can take an example to analize the sources of the mind drain to america. In 1990, Phillippines has the biggest volume of immigrants to the United States in Asia and Pacific with 728. 454 of total immigrants, 10. 680 from major or less, 224. 700 from supplementary, 493. 074 from tertiary schoolinf level. This lot of immigrants is related to the increasing of the unemployment rate that occurred in 1990 even as we can look in the graph of that time period series unemployment rate in Phillippines in the appendix. Unemployment rate is one of the signals to show that there is lack of opportunities in a country. Higher level of unemployment rate can be considered a push factor for individuals to emigrate. Therefore the reason of the high number of immigrants in Phillippines is relevant with the sources of the mind drain phenomenon mentioned above. Another example is from Mexico which added to the best variety of immigrants to america back in 1990. Among the reasons is the enactment of Immigration Take action (November 29, 1990) which increased the restrictions on legal immigration to the United States. Mexican people has already emigrated to america before 1990, both docummented immigration and undocummented one. Along with the enactment of the Immigration Function, there have been more immigrants from the Mexico. This problem means that politics condition in the host countries also play a role in the increasing number of the mind drainers.
Another important simple fact that we can study from the stand 1 is the fact that most of the immigrants with key or even less degree of education tend to contribute to the brain drain phenomenon in the United States leastwise amount. From Asia and Pacific from 2. 326. 277 of total immigrants, only 95. 320 of immigrants are from main or less schooling level. Africa has the same style, from 127. 853 of total immigrants, only 2. 060 are from lowest degree of education. North America and South America also have their lowest degree of education as their least contributor to the emigration. From North America, only 436. 420 immigrants from total 3. 761. 084 are from key or less schooling level, an in South America, it is merely 16. 320 from total 616. 040. Although the number of tertiary graduated immigrants is smaller than the extra graduated immigrants in North and South America, we still can conclude that as people attain higher-level of education the tendency to emigrate becomes stronger. People generally will search an increased income to accommodate their living. In cases like this, the high-level of knowledgeable workers generally can get higher income in the developed countries. So education is one of the most crucial reasons to answer this brain drain trend.
The higher rate of the emigration of high-level educated workers from producing countries to the developed countries can inflict a huge financial loss to the home countries. Although this brain drain trend also has a positive effects to both web host and home countries as described in the third section, however the loss is even bigger. Thus, it is important to the home countries to get the solution to beat this issue immediately.
The home countries could lower the power of the push factors that can cause people to move and stay in foreign countries. These factors are the political instability, poor living conditon, and the advanced of crime. Other ways is to boost food security, education, health care, infrastructue, and other things that can inspire people to stay static in those countries. In the last section, we know from the info that the unemployment rate encourage brain drain in Phillipines. Unemployed people will seek an available opportunities in other countries. So it is necessary for the federal government in the Phillippines to improve the employment sector to make more job opportunities, in exchange the brain drainers in Phillippines will decrease. Another final result from the prior section is the positive relation between the brain drain sensation with the amount of education. Higher-level of schooling completed will lead to the higher tendency for individuals to emigrate. It could be stopped by giving the people a proper motivation that is competitive with another countries which means an upward salary modifications.
Developing countries could also choose the strategy of India and China to transform brain drain to brain gain which can be very beneficial to the home countirus. For example, Kerala (city in India) has produced an incredible number of young pros to international areas like the Gulf or Europe, where they can search for better income. Kerala's overall economy has benefited greatly from the earnings delivered home by remittances staff. So, to resolve this problem, the leaders of the developing countries have to find proactive strategy to keep up with the high educated and skilled personnel to stay in the countries. Beside that, the leaders should nurture the nasionalism spirit to the residents, so they have a determination to develop their source countries. As you know, the prevention attempts are actually work better than treat.