Keywords: books in esl school room, literature teaching strategy
This chapter endeavors to point out on relevant books review that demonstrate the following details; description of literature, the value of pedagogy, benefits of teaching literature in ESL School room, trainee professors, and past studies.
Literature is defined as bits of writing that are appreciated as artwork, especially novels, works, and poems (Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 2005). For literature in British, William Shakespeare is one of the famous freelance writers who acquired produced substantial masterpieces. He had been widely thought to be the greatest article writer in the British language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist (Greenblatt, 2005). Books is also known as 'the windows of the world' as it includes the learners or visitors the gist of ones' culture, record, and traditions (Carter & Long, 1991)
Literature in British has been put in place in the Malaysian education system to enhance students' skills in the British Language through the analysis of a place prescribed literary text, as well as adding to personal development and figure building (Ministry of Education, 2000The claim "the analysis of books is fundamentally a report of language in operation" (Widdowson: 1971) is dependant on the realization that literature is an exemplory case of language used, and is a framework for words use. Thus, learning the terms of literary text messages as terminology in operation is seen as improving the learner's understanding of areas of the various systems of terms organisation (O'Sullivan, 1991). By the end of the extra school English Vocabulary program, students should be able to achieve the objectives set for them. Unfortunately, after ten years being in the English syllabus, literature is still not viewed as an important role to learn English vocabulary in Malaysian curriculum.
There are several classification of coaching, and one of this is is by Bruner (1996), he described teaching as an attempt to aid or condition the progress of students; it is mean that teacher should have an effort such as to prepare lessons, should know additional information on what they will teach to make their students understand more. The teaching process should be a two way communication between the educator and the students such that it will be a meaningful learning. Therefore, to have the ability to have an improved understanding on an outstanding teaching process that results in significant learning, a instructor should have pedagogical knowledge on coaching which comprised methods, strategies, and strategies of coaching.
According to Collins British Dictionary 6th Release, 2006, pedagogy is defined as the key points, practice, or occupation of teaching. Pedagogy came to be determined as practice, techniques, methods, or execution, either segregated from theory or insufficient to revise it (Salvatori, 1996). In learning to be a tutor, trainees should be equipped with the data of pedagogy and really should be able to implement and utilize it in the real classroom. Pedagogy establishes the effectiveness of a lesson by implementing the techniques and methods, as stated before. Effective professors display a wide range of skills and skills that lead to building a learning environment where all students feel safe and are sure that they can succeed both academically and privately. (Early Childhood/Generalist Benchmarks, 1998).
" pedagogy considers how education can provide individuals with the various tools to raised themselves and enhance democracy, to make a more egalitarian and simply society, and thus to deploy education in a process of progressive interpersonal change"
As described by Giroux, pedagogy encourages one individual to identify her flaws and find out the to be an improved person. A professor, for instance, could discover her/ his weaknesses in teaching by the techniques or strategies used in class. According to Entz (2006), it is possible to identify the key elements of coaching that plays a part in successful learning for all children by implementing on pedagogical tactics with the weakest and most challenging students. Entz gives that the most important areas of inquiry are the way the teacher selects to connect to learners, constructions the class room and delivers the content which conforms to the theory that the knowledge on pedagogy of coaching is crucial in order to be a teacher. Furthermore, Agree (1998) has mentioned that "Good understanding of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and understanding students' interests and needs are a few of the requirements had a need to teach literature competently". Therefore, it is proven that pedagogy is one of quite elements in identifying if the lessons are successful or not.
Apart from that, educators should have uncovered the benefit of teaching literature in ESL classroom. Regarding to Dr. Ganakumaran Subramaniam, a chief executive of Malaysian British Language Teaching Connection (MELTA), books is presented into syllabus for plentiful purposes. Literature is hoped to be able to (1) provide wealthy and diverse contact with terminology, (2) improve vocabulary, syntax, and composition, (3) develop understanding and interpretation skills, (4) develop understanding and drive. As stated in the Curriculum Specification (also known as Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah), the analysis of literary text messages is intended to inculcate principles and broaden learner's prospect. All the aims mentioned can be related to books aspect that existing British Syllabus.
There are three core areas that books can help a language learner. The first aspect is literature assist learners' words development. According to Fook and Sidhu, (2010), a literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners enhance their reading and writing skills but moreover helps them internalize sentence structure and vocabulary. Sidhu(2003) and Savvidou (2004) add that the study of literature unconsciously improves students' overall linguistic competence including their knowledge of syntax, morphology, semantics and phonetics. Hiёmanoёlu (2005) stated that, books provides learners with a wide range of specific lexical or syntactic items. Students become familiar with many top features of the written dialect, reading a considerable and contextualized body of text. As explained by Davis et al (1992), literary style and composition pose a difficulty for students in seeking to comprehend literary text messages, therefore, it somehow plays a part in students' attitude towards books learning. For example, poems are identically disliked as it contains amounts of figurative words and images which students fail to interpret (Wan Kamariah, 2009). In order to make literature as the visible role in enhancing English language, professors can change this hindrance into appeal.
Literature also boosts ESL students' understanding of society. Inside the literary texts well prepared, students are subjected with various ethnicities from different countries. As mentioned by Kow (2002) noted that children's literature are multifunctional. They help students to increase their imagination, apart from literacy. Literature helps students to cope with problems be they sociable, cultural, racial or issues that crop up in working with life in real life. It also helps to inculcate specific interpersonal attitudes that are thought to be satisfactory in their community. Actually, one of the advantages of using literature is the fact that it can provide as a medium to transfer the culture of the people who speak the words in which it is written. (Valdes 137). Valdes also warns us however, never to use literature only as a way of imparting social information (Valdes 137). The analysis of literature allows students to learn new ideas and knowledge. It increases their understanding of concepts and ethnic traditions and beliefs and issues in life. Expanding respect for self applied and more and encouraging one to become aware of one's audience are learning profits to be derived from the study of literature.
The third area that books will benefit English language learner is fostering students' critical thinking.
"Since it is highly suggestive and associative, books talks subtly different meanings to differing people. It is rare for two readers to react identically to any given wording. In teaching, it has two advantages. The first edge is that each learner's interpretation has validity within boundaries. The second edge is an almost infinite finance of interactive debate is guaranteed since each person's belief is different. That no two readers will have a totally convergent interpretation establishes the strain that is necessary for a genuine exchange of ideas. "
In other words, Hismanoglu arranged that literature helps bring about students to believe critically as they have got different belief and prior knowledge towards one literary text. Regarding to Norliana Ghani (2009), students choose books or texts that discuss the problems of youth, romantic relationship, and interpersonal changes. These text messages or reports are will often have clear terms, good corporation of the storyline, and thought provoking. This is why why in literature class, students should have conversations or presentations of their opinions which indirectly promote critical thinking. Critical thinking is very useful as it pertains to problem handling as one must weigh before making any decisions.
In this study that involves trainee instructors; several aspects will be looking at. The first one is trainee teachers' readiness. In assuring the aims of the KBSM to be achieved, trainee professors should be prepared, knowledgeable, and comfortable to teach this issue they are majoring in. Instructor preparation accounts for 40% to 60% of the full total variance in students' achievement (Hammond, 2000). Darling Hammond also added that tutor planning has a more powerful connection with students' achievement. Which means teachers should become aware of all subject areas and sub issues used in coaching process and in a position to discuss as well as enlighten students to comprehend the topic. For literature, one of the best ways to obtain effective literature coaching in school is to be ready and prepared in advance.
According to Safiah Osman, (1992), the success of learning and coaching will depend a great deal on the professors. The problem increases here's whether trainee instructors are well-equipped with relevant knowledge about books or not. As future British teachers who are going to teach Literature for the topic, they will encounter some problems in teaching literature as they have least knowledge about literature elements. For those who are taking books as their trivial, they will learn various kinds of literature from the many Literature content for example Asian Literature, Contemporary Literature, Women and Books, Books in the British Classroom, Creative Writing, and Books and Multimedia. Throughout these topics, the future British teachers will be learning and inspecting the components of books from various bits of work. This show they gain their understanding of literary elements and devices needed in teaching literature.
Teaching literature during micro/macro coaching is completely different with teaching literature in the real classroom. Teaching audience who have been embedded with the data of the literary text messages is very much indeed easier than teaching students who have zero prior understanding of the text. As explained in a research done by Nor Liyana Ghazali (2009), ninety seven percents of her respondents concur that prior understanding of the literary texts is vital in comprehending the texts. Through my experience, as a student in addition to a trainee instructor, most students go into the literature class without reading the texts, even following the teacher had told them to take action. Teachers definitely can't hold off the lessons they have planned before hand, hence, their strategies and techniques in making these students understand and take part in their instruction is crucial. If to compare with 'students' who've examined the literary text messages, trainee teachers will found a huge difference and recognize that their ambitious aims and objectives of the lessons can't be implemented in the true classroom.
As Grieve mentioned in his Teaching Strategies and Suggestions for Adjunct Faculty, instructor should be able to be considered a facilitator of learning this means they need to know how to develop learning skills and instruct students to learn and to organize their materials. He added that teachers are actors or actresses on stage. They can be responsible to their audience by assuring that the look of them, conducts, communication techniques, and physical features are constantly under scrutiny. Teachers are also suggested to vary their coaching activities to keep students interested. The use of teaching helps like films, videos, demonstrations, or little sketch/dilemma should be helpful in feeding their attention course. After that, teachers have to be sensitive and alert to early symptoms of issues and ready to provide assistance and recommendations to the students. This is parallel to Brown's recommendation in teaching British which professors as the foundation of information. In literature teaching, teachers can assist students with limitations in regions of reading and writing.
As the conclusion, it can be seen from the assertions above that instructors play crucial functions in identifying students' interest and frame of mind towards literature coaching. Teachers' possession on pedagogical knowledge, creative imagination to conduct books lessons, exposure and readiness to teach literature will be the aspects to look for the successfulness of the literature lesson.