Keywords: basic and applied research differences, applied research evaluation, preliminary research analysis
Research is one most important of the three resources of knowledge, the other two being expert and experience. Across the world, millions are allocated to conducting research in every known field. The goal of the study is to teach professionals around the world to be better outfitted in dealing with their respective domains and accomplishing better on the whole. Researchers worldwide have made ground-breaking discoveries by using structured researches. The underlying strategy behind all researches is that each event is defined about by an identifiable cause that could be uncovered and researched through ideal research method1. Every research attempts to establish the validity of a lay claim or a hypothesis based on an observation. The study studies this hypothesis and develops its arguments based on its findings. It needs inductive and deduction reasoning to attain a valid realization. Induction is the hypothesis which has been produced through values and observation. The screening of the hypothesis through research, interviews and questioning requires deductive reasoning. You'll find so many ways to review these identifiable triggers and research has been classified into two communities- applied and basic research. Both categories have been created based according to degree of their application and additional use of the study. Preliminary research is adopted to get knowledge and develop a basis for future studies. Applied research is implemented to employ the basic research and develop applications of the set up research to answer specific problems giving proven solutions in the particular field2. Both researches have their own differences and therefore different uses running a business and scientific areas.
As mentioned, there are two research principles in research- basic research and applied research. This paper attempts to compare these two research concepts matching to their use, functionality, dynamics and strategy.
Basic Research also known as fundamental research is research that builds up a particular theory. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH is utilized to boost the opportunity of knowledge in a certain field. It studies the how, why so when of the reason why for certain activities and their following reactions. The explanation for employing basic research are to find answers to questions like why apples or anything for example automatically falls on the floor when dropped. The purpose is never to discover or invent something but to appease the curiosity of the researcher.
Examples of hypothesis of the Basic Research could be:
- Business strategy is very important to the success of a permanent business plan.
- Customers aren't always consumers.
- Preservation escalates the life of foods.
Though PRELIMINARY RESEARCH as a rule is not conducted for the intended purpose of request but contrary to popular business idea, this will not undermine the importance of preliminary research. Basic research is important to lay out the foundation for future applied research. The hypothesis for Applied Research is induced from the findings of basic research. Without basic research, we would not need had the opportunity to clear old myths like caffeine is often bad for your overall health. Basic research tries to present the fact instead of shared beliefs.
Applied Research is research that can be involved with the practical application of a certain proven theory. It presents solutions to individual problems. It really is concerned with making use of the idea and assessing its importance in business as well as technological problems. Its main aim is to enhance the pre-existing conditions and come up with better solutions to unsolved problems. Research workers believe that at this time, applied research has gained importance over preliminary research since mankind is equipped with the essential knowledge and today it requires to be able to use the knowledge to improve his life.
Examples of hypothesis of the Applied Research could be:
- Proper placement of products brings about upgraded sales.
- Is manual purchasing of products from warehouse effective that automated ordering?
- It is important for the leader to be always a role model for his employees.
The uses of Applied Research have gained tremendous popularity especially running a business circles. People want answers to their problems and need information on how the correct way of nearing problems. It reveals a way to use an existing theory in the most efficient way. For instance, preliminary research may have proven that big idea is important for marketing something but it is through applied research which it researches try to devise ways for expanding the top idea for different products. Applied research is also used to develop newer and better products by studying existing products7.
There are three types of Applied Research, namely:
- Evaluation Research;
- Research and Development; and
- Action Research
Evaluation Research tries to evaluate the prevailing data to reach informed decisions. For example, is it profitable to employ unskilled workers and teach them in order to reduce overhead costs and eventually increase margin?
Research and Development seeks to develop services or methods through research. For example, a typical research and development would be finding ways to increase the top features of the new I-phone or create a more powerful camera that picks up smiles and take pictures automatically.
Action Research solves specific business problems by giving the right directions. It usually takes devote specific settings that are influenced by the results of the study. An example of action research would be 5 ways to increase sales of a neglected product10.
Basic Research and Applied Research go together. It might be wrong to expect that one is more important than the other. Though there are some marked differences between basic and applied research, both these differences work in several ways to boost the electricity of research. However most business analysts consider applied research as a way of enhancing their business knowledge and are in the favour of applied research over basic research3.
As studied before, basic research and applied research have different goals to attain. The primary difference between both researches is their purpose. The purpose of preliminary research is to develop a theory or an idea that is dependant on beliefs or experience. It does not have any practical application apart from being able to lay the foundation for further researches and meet the attention of the researcher. Applied research, on the other hands, evaluates, develops or defines a course that has useful applications. Applied research is designed to find answers and present directions to existing problem. It can not just stop at finding something but needs it forwards and uses it in the field. This is reason applied research is the most used research running a business researches. Business is dependant on practically making use of all concepts and because of this applied research is most suitable in businesses8.
The aim of both Basic and Applied research at a certain level is the same. Both researches have a point or a hypothesis to demonstrate. Every medical research is valid only when it aims to reach a conclusion based on its original hypothesis. The start of both research is the same even though their goal may be different. They both use inductive and deductive reasoning throughout the research to support the hypothesis.
Once the hypothesis has been identified, the researcher in case there is applied research would review all the books available on his subject before moving on to the actual area of the research. In case there is Preliminary research, the researcher might not have the correct books. Since his aim is to increase knowledge, he might not have enough books available on this topic and could sometimes have to depend on shared values and experiences.
The essential aspect of all studies, basic and applied is to reach a conclusion predicated on data gathered and examined. Though they could use different statistical inference methods but their method of data collected is usually the same. Data in both researches is accumulated through surveys, questionnaires, interviews and observations.
Both Applied and PRELIMINARY RESEARCH are approached in the same scientific method that is thought as the correct research methodology. They decide on a topic appealing, establish a hypothesis, define the techniques of data collection, accumulate data, evaluate it and present the final outcome impartially. Assortment of data could take any form from studies, interviews, questionnaires etc. Both applied and basic studies have the same honest and legal limitations that every research has. They have got the same collection procedures of getting close the study. Applied research though might not exactly be limited to the research lab and could be conducted in the real field. For example, to evaluate the effect of training employees, the study may have to be conducted in the real work place. Applied Research varies in the way it uses the final outcome and moves on further to modify that bottom line6.
The opportunity of basic research is a lot wider than that of applied research. Applied research tries to research a particular theory while preliminary research does not identify its parameters. Since the purpose of Basic research is to get knowledge, it includes long term results and findings can help in determining more researches. On the other hand, applied research is concerned with finding the answers of a specific problem and might not be beneficial in a different context or on a seperate location or time. The means that preliminary research has long-term results while the ramifications of applied research may be short-term9.
Typically Basic Research is much less well funded as Applied Research. Basic Research could even present practical value for the researcher in the long run but there may be often little chance of that opportunity. Most financers want useful use of the study and therefore few people want to purchase preliminary research. Many people are of the view that we now have more problems than alternatives and so applied research should be applied additionally to find alternatives. The non-commercial value of basic research ensures it gets limited money from private as well as authorities sources. The government has considerably reduced its financing in basic research and it is keener towards implementing applied research. Which means that Applied Research is much more popularly employed that Basic research4.
The conclusions gained from basic research as often amazing and also have been seen to deviate from the initial hypothesis. They often not in favor of the hypothesis and completely negate the prevailing belief of the researcher. But since applied research is dependant on the idea already proven by the essential research, the hypothesis is further founded in the conclusion of the study.
Both Applied and Basic research have their own advantages. They may have different goals evidently but their method of collecting and inspecting data is comparable. The method of creating a hypothesis for both basic and applied research is the same. Though, in case of basic research it is seen that the findings of the study may completely negate the hypothesis affirmation and present an alternative outlook than recently believed. However the method for performing the study, both in basic and applied research is the same. Applied research is more conformed to its hypothesis since its theory is developed from basic research. Another point of difference is the scope of Applied Research which is relatively narrows than that of Basic Research. Since Applied Research handles specific problems and their solutions, the effect is limited and even short-term.
Basic research is currently lacking in its funding department. Research financers have ended believing the importance of a non-commercial research like the essential research and are more in the favor of financing applied research. Every year, increasing show of basic researchs money is used to invest in applied research. The normal belief is that there is an increase in problems and applied research may help find answers to these problems like global warming, managing diversity etc. The condition could be dealt by merging the boundaries of basic and applied research. In this manner, researchers could increase the scope, financing and results from the study. Mixing both researches could raise the impact of the research without compromising any specific research5.