If not to mention several differences, Turabian is very similar with CMS style. But The Chicago Manual of Style as a guide for writing concentrates on providing instructions for general publishing process, while A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is mostly focused on giving style guidelines for student research papers, theses and dissertations.
Turabian style also distinguishes from other writing styles created by professional scholarly organizations, like MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing and Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The differences are mostly in publication details, however, they are rather significant. For example, in contrast to the APA style, which has the purpose of directing writers concerning publication in professional journals, the goal of Turabian style is to guide writers through class research papers first of all. And, what distinguishes it from the MLA style, is that the latter is focused on high-school, college and university academic writing, while Turabian concentrates on all students on both undergraduate and graduate levels, who write theses and dissertation.
As a matter of fact, this style is required in publishing articles in the sphere of musicology, history, women's studies and theology. Its bibliography guidelines are widely used in writing papers for literature, history and arts studies and describe bibliographic information as for the footnotes, endnotes and actually bibliography.