As information system use becomes more popular and more individuals and organizations rely on the internet as a way of conducting business, it becomes ever more important to assure that the internet is a place where level of privacy is safeguarded.
Additionally, as organizations rely more on information systems, they become vulnerable to disorders on these precious technologies. These are just some of the moral issues pros face when dealing with information systems and appearing solutions. Although often forgotten, ethical decision-making is an important issue for all those organizations and individuals in the market of information solutions. To be able to better understand the honest dilemmas facing specialists and private people and appreciate their effects, researchers, practitioners and academics must have access to the latest thinking and practice relating to ethics and information systems( ).
Table Of Contents:
Problem of the Research
In modern times, the Management Information Systems has seen a great technological revolution in conditions of software used, and the type of coping with this software and its own mechanisms and occupation in the service of varied administrative actions, what make necessary to increase guidance over the work of the software, whether self-censorship stemming from the persons themselves or by the direct administrative control.
Importance of the Research
The need for this research result from the growing importance of the role of management information systems in general management, whether public or private, as well as the significant go up in depending on new software and development it daily for the development of management information systems work. Also the value of the research come from the need of ethical controls governing how to approach this software and development to appropriate the needs of varied administrative and prevent the incorrect or bad use of the software, or use techniques that are in violation of the ethics of information systems.
Purpose of the Research
This research aspires to go over the role of ethics in general management information systems, by talking about the main top features of ethics in information systems, and management information systems, and the way the ethical behavior may improve the ways we use the management information systems, And thus boost the efficiency of administrative work, which depends on these systems.
Questions of the Research
This research trying to find the answer to the following questions:
What are ethics?
What are business ethics?
What the role of ethics in Information Systems in general?
What the key top features of using ethics issues in information systems?
How Management Information Systems should package with ethics?
What are Ethics? What are Business Ethics?
Ethics is the branch of idea that handles the determination of what's right or wrong, good or bad. To behave ethically is to live on one's life in accordance with a couple of ethical principles, which are based, in the end, on moral beliefs. Over the generations, philosophers have proposed many competing ideas of ethical do. Some philosophers assume that ethical tendencies must be grounded in complete moral rules, such as "Behave towards others as you want these to respond toward you. " Others believe that ethical behaviors are essential because they lead to the greatest good for the best amount of people. Still others assume that ethics must be founded in religious values( ).
The word ethics comes from the Greek root ethos, meaning personality. Ethics is a suite of guiding beliefs, requirements, or ideals that pervades an individual or an organization or community of people. All folks are accountable with their community for his or her behavior. The city can exist in such varieties as a city, condition, nation, or career. Unlike morals, ethics may differ considerably from one community to another( ).
A go through the dictionary implies that ethics deal with "what's good and bad and with moral duty and obligation", some researchers explain that three interrelated meanings are usually associated with the term "ethics". The first focuses on fundamental concepts of moral behavior that should apply, at least in theory, to everyone. The next refers to ideas of conduct produced by, and for, customers of a specific profession. The 3rd involves the systematic study of the beliefs people hold, and the habits they exhibit, relevant to morality( ).
Given these definitions of ethics, it may look like that the distinction between what is and what's not an ethical issue should be fairly clear-cut. That's, ethical problems deal with concerns of moral bank account capability related to "doing the right (good) things" 'or "doing the incorrect (bad) thing", while non ethical problems are ones where this aspect is not relevant( ).
Normative ethics provide the philosophical basis for building guidelines that are morally appropriate. As there is no universally accepted philosophical
base, ethics tend to be measured by many conflicting specifications. Most people
seem to fit the ethical basic principle to a particular situation. Therefore, to be meaningfully applied to the business environment, a general definition
of sensible ethics must be versatile. Lewis (1985) offered a description of business ethics stated that: "Business ethics is moral guidelines, standards, codes, or principles which provide recommendations for right and truthful habit in specific situations". Corresponding to this description, ethical codes are more than a tool to support ethical patterns; they are fundamental to this is of ethics( ).
Despite an explosion of interest running a business ethics, there is no universally accepted explanation. According to Taylor (1975), ethics may be described as
"inquiry into the character and grounds of morality where in fact the term morality is taken up to indicate moral judgments, expectations, and rules of conduct. " Thus,
business ethics identifies inquiry in to the characteristics and grounds of moral judgments, requirements and rules of do in situations involving business decisions. Arlow and Ulrich (1980) suggested that ethical situations running a business, when compared with ethical situations in general, involve higher complexities and also have some unique properties. These complexities might include things such as societal prospects, good competition and social responsibilities, whereas the unique properties of business ethics might
include all of the potential results of an individual's actions on others, including customers, employees and competitors. Thus, within the business context honest conflict is nearly inherent because the individual decision maker has tasks and tasks to various diverse communities whose interests tend to be inconsistent. Included among these teams is the individual's own home interest as well( ).
Ethics and Information Systems
Ethics signify basic societal worth, and assume that our world functions on trust. We trust that others will accomplish commitments they make with us. As ethical behavior engenders trust, unethical tendencies damages it. Technology of some type is definitely used to regulate the content and flow of information, but the technology itself is ethically neutral. It is critical for information systems specialists to understand this concept and realize that it's the users of the technology who make the honest decisions. The notion of the computer or information system in the back room, unseen and unaffected by alternative activities in the firm, is now outdated. When information systems staff take part in unethical behavior, the complete corporation suffers. Increasing scrutiny of the functions by both management and outside the house parties will make it difficult to cover up behind commentary such as: "Our job is to guarantee the integrity of the data. Use of the info is not our job"( ).
For firms to use ethically, there must be a local climate conducive to ethical habit in the world. Previous IBM Chairman John Akers mentioned: "Ethics
and competitiveness are inseparable. We be competitive as a culture. No society everywhere will compete lengthy or effectively with people stabbing each other in the back. . . There is no escaping this simple fact: The higher the way of measuring shared trust and self-confidence in the ethics of your society, the greater its economic power" (Grier 1991). An ethically conducive environment is created by people in the environment. If the people of a modern culture expect firms to act ethically, they need to respond ethically( ).
Ethics is necessary in information Systems to triumph over the following honest issues( ):
Privacy: What information about one's do it yourself or one's organizations must a person show others, under what conditions and with what safeguards? What things can people maintain themselves and not be forced to show others?
Accuracy: Who's accountable for the authenticity, fidelity and correctness of information? In the same way, who's to be held accountable for mistakes in information and exactly how is the injured party to be produced whole?
Property: Who possesses information? What are the just and fair prices for its exchange? Who owns the channels, especially the airways, through which information is sent? How should access to this scarce source of information be allocated?
Accessibility: What information does a person or a business have a right or a privilege to obtain, under what conditions and using what safeguards?
Information System ethics explores and evaluates( ):
the introduction of moral beliefs in the info field,
the creation of new vitality structures in the info field, information misconceptions,
concealed contradictions and intentionality's in information theories and techniques,
the introduction of ethical issues in the info field. etc
Exploring The Ethics Issues In Information Systems
Information systems confront contemporary society with a number of challenges of your ethical character, some old and some new.
1) Confidentiality: Some graduates of Information System (IS) classes will one day build systems for a full time income; all graduates will be users of information systems. Confidentiality of information is very important to all information-using professions.
Some solutions to securing data, such as demanding the use of the password to access data and providing passwords only on a need-to-know basis are fairly self-explanatory. But concomitant ethical issues, such as deciding who must know, are not so simple to address. For instance, should managers get access to their supervisee's medical documents or psychological profiles? If one worker discovers that another staff contemplates suicide, should a supervisor be enlightened and whose supervisor? What is the proper respond to a police request for information about an employee, merchant, or customer?
The possibility of coordinating of data from various databases confounds this matter. Databases matching occurs when information is accumulated from more
than one databases to locate persons who match some criterion.
2) Friendly responsibility of programmers and of their managers: An important moral question that students should confront is whether programmers have an responsibility to do something in a socially in charge manner. Berkeley (1962) explores this issues comprehensive. May a free-lance programmer ethically work with a thief? If not, how about working on your computer job that is legal, but unethical, like the one used to intern Americans of Japanese origins through the WW II? Is all that is legal ethical? Are honest decisions legal?
3) Social responsibility of systems analysts: An analyst's job is to design work flows that are successful One consequence of an analyst's work can be that people will lose their jobs? Is such conduct ethical? Some careers that analysts design, such as full-time VDT operators' careers, are known to be highly stressful and cause harm to the staff member. Should experts create such careers?
Research shows that computer monitoring of staff (range of keystrokes per hour, number of telephone calls responded to each hour) increases efficiency of the staff member. Is certainly activity an invasion of level of privacy? Should an analyst won't implement a system that creates computer monitoring or which involves privacy?
4) Issues common to all professionals: Should information system professionals refuse items from a merchant? Should the administrator refuse a cup of coffee or a caffeine glass? Is free books to teach the administrator legitimate? a free of charge vendor course? a free course, travel paid, presented in Hawaii? What in the event you do if your supervisor is apparently making a poor business decision because of a bribe? Is it reputable to call home if you will be overdue? To call home over the lunch break, just to talk? To call friends and family in town? in Hawaii?
5) Dealing with others: The many computer professional organizations, including Data Processing Management Relationship (DPMA) and Relationship for Computing Equipment (ACM) have established ethical standards for his or her members. Three common elements in these rules are to (1) maintain competence, (2) disclose issue of interest, and (3) maintain confidentiality of information even after occupation ends.
What should you do if the co-worker is incompetent? In case a colleague at another company message or calls, asking for your opinion of any former co-worker who was fired for incompetence, what should you do? Should companies show you violations of honest standards? In the event you forgo a good thing simply because you benefit from its use? (Should a professor not adopt his or her own booklet?) In the event that you write code for just one company, are you forbidden forever from using that code again for another workplace? If so, how many times can you re-invent the wheel?
Management Information Systems and Ethics
Presumably, Management Information Systems (MIS) professionals struggle with the same types of ethical issues faced by other business specialists. Honest dilemmas regarding issue of interest, theft, equal opportunity, and environmental impact minimize across professions. In addition to these basic concerns, several issues that apply specifically to the information systems (IS) occupation are brought up in the books.
The character of computer technology renders the ethical issues experienced by IS experts unique. Parker et al. (1990) contended that "advancements in computer and data marketing communications technology have led to the necessity to reevaluate the use of ethical key points and build new agreements on ethical tactics". Information on electronic and magnetic storage space press lends itself to help ease of reproduction, theft, and contaminants; raising issues regarding, propriety protection under the law, property privileges,
privacy, plagiarism, misuse, and flexibility of expression. Due to the growing benefits accrued from usage of computer systems. Johnson (1985) advised that there may be circumstances where access to computer systems, computer skills, computer pros, and decision making about computer applications could be construed as privileges( ).
The most encompassing, and possibly the most pervasive, inquiry manufactured in the literature will involve the role that's professionals should take in determining how their work is applied and also to what end it will serve. Implicit in this query is the issue of prioritizing obligations to different stakeholders who are damaged by the system. Several recent studies speak to these issues.
Recent studies of MIS, business, and anatomist students signify that undergraduate students have an alternative perception of ethically acceptable behavior than do experienced MIS experts( ).
These studies provide insights regarding possible conflicts and sources of misunderstanding among customers of the IS job about issues which all professions are judged. Vitell and Davis' (1990) analysis demonstrated that the MIS experts surveyed felt that they had many opportunities to engage in unethical tendencies, but that MIS professionals rarely does. Forcht (1991) surveyed chief executive officers on the 1988 listing of Datamation 100 companies. She asked topics to react to statements concerning
ethical action. Forcht's only final result was that "Any difficulty. the CEOs responding hold some very high ethical standards personally and expect their companies to abide by these same standards( ).
The evaluated MIS ethics studies reveal the importance that IS professionals put on ethics and the potential benefits of moral training for students and new experts. Experienced experts have a strong commitment to honest behavior and feel as if they can recognize unethical practices from acceptable tactics. These findings seem contradictory to the evidence provided by citations in popular and academic literature of moral transgressions of MIS professionals( ).
Within an MIS framework, a rigorous deontologist might view copying software as inherently unethical, and would oppose this practice no matter what the
circumstances. A rigid teleologist, on the other hand, might analyze the possible positive consequences for himself and the company (e. g. , increased productivity and cost savings) and think about these resistant to the possible negative consequences if the organization were to be prosecuted (e. g. , possible injuries and negative promotion). If they noticed that the positive effects outweighed the negatives ones, he could feel that this practice was "worth the risk" for himself and the organization. A person who was inspired by both the deontological and teleological perspectives might consider both natural rightness versus wrongness of copying software as well as the possible repercussions of it. This person might only consider this practice as a feasible alternate under very special circumstances (e. g. , if the survival of the organization depended upon it) ( ).
As for the relation between ethical benchmarks and MIS experts performance, we can please note the results of the study conducted by Scott J. Vitell and entitled "Ethical Beliefs of MIS Pros", who conclude that the honest standards can improve among MIS experts when top management helps it be clear that honest tendencies will be rewarded and unethical patterns will be punished. If top management does not support ethical do, it becomes less likely that subordinates will act ethically. Given these results concerning top management setting the ethical build for the company, it seems crucial that more organizations should write and enforce codes of ethics. At least some unethical routines could be eliminated by more top managers taking such a stance. Furthermore, industry codes of ethics could be helpful in minimizing unethical practices( ).