Posted at 12.14.2018
There are many varied methods to counselling in modern-day culture to which all have their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this task is to discuss the talents and restrictions of Transactional evaluation (TA) and Cognitive Behaviour Remedy (CBT). The first portion of this assignment provides a brief overview of TA, then moving on to go over and analyse its unique strengths and limits and the research data that can illustrate its functions. This dialogue is then further developed with a brief overview of CBT, then shifting to discuss and analyse this approaches unique talents and limitations and the research evidence which implies this is a successful therapeutic approach.
Eric Berne (1975) defined Transactional Analysis as "a theory of personality and cultural action, and a clinical method of psychotherapy, based on the analysis of all possible transactions between two or more people, based on specifically described ego state governments into a finite range of set up types".
Aaron T Beck (1979, p. 3) defined Cognitive Behaviour remedy as "a dynamic, directive and time limited, organised approach used to take care of a number of psychiatric disorders".
Transactional analysis was initially developed by Eric Berne a psychiatrist in the US during the overdue 1950's. TA is described as being truly a theory of personality because it has the ability to show us how people are organized psychologically. It can do this by using what's know as an ego status model which can help us understand a people expressions of their behavior. TA is also referred to as a theory of communication because is can analyse human relationships between individuals and the orders which occur. This specific theory also links back to you very neatly with Freudian explanations of child development because it web links with the development phases - dental, anal etc. TA has been recognised for its launch of the "Life (or Years as a child) Scripts", which is, a story we can perceive about our very own life. TA is well known for this uses in the diagnosis and treatment of several types of psychological disorders, and a method of therapy for individuals, couples, young families and groups. Lastly TA has been found in education, to help educators stay in clear communication at a proper level, in counselling and consultancy, in general management and marketing communications training and by other physiques (Harper, 2009).
TA is known as an extremely adaptable procedure for therapists to utilise Dusay (1986) believed TA as a restorative system had two major advantages the first being that there is a complete and simply communicated theory of personality, and second, as a result of this, the therapist is absolve to develop their own impressive style of treatment which utilises their own strengths. He gives, if we detected a tuned transactional analyst doing his thing therapeutic styles ranging from a far more "intellectual" cognitive approach to a "feeling" emotive approach" would be noticeable.
TA is known as easy and simple to understand because of its terminology which makes it easy for clients to comprehend Dale (2009, p. 3) states
"The theory is easily understandable, and it appears to make sense across cultures. In my own practice I have taught the fundamentals to Mauritians, Asian, Black and Afro Caribbean clients, and a variety of Western clients. "
However some feel that but the terminology used in TA differs from which used in other counselling approaches it is considered both a durability and a weakness of the model Hough (2006, p. 172) states
"even though the language is memorable and accessible, it is also deemed by some critics as simplistic and superficial"
Paradoxically, again the strengths of the strategy are also its weaknesses. Because TA is considered to be easily understandable and accessible to therapists they often times use it without having a detailed knowledge of the complexities of computer. Dale (2009) state governments therapists are at risk when requesting a client to transfer ego state governments and separate a part of their personality without being certain that your client can reintegrate can cause serious damage. However Davis & Meier (2001) believe that TA can be altered to brief, set up, problem focussed therapy, which is known as a great strength in many configurations. Experts who work within set up treatment frameworks have less time to gather consumer information, make a formal diagnosis, provide orientation to the healing process, create rapport and intervene.
Another significant power of TA which could also be considered a weakness of the procedure is the fact it emphasizes on individualism Corey (no time, p. 36) states
"Many people are restricted by their early on decisions: they cling to parental messages, live their lives by unexamined injunctions, and frequently are not even aware they are residing in a emotional straitjacket. Conceptually, re-decision therapy offers tools participants may use to free themselves from an archaic life script and achieve an effective and important life".
However clients who result from collective cultures may not fit in as easily into the paradigm of scripts explained by Berne while others (Hough, 2006).
A further power of TA is the fact it allows a variety of opportunities for both preventative and remedial work by providing for both an educational and healing structure. It really is vital that the information divulged in the therapy sessions are well balanced by experimental work which involves the client both emotionally and cognitively Greenberg, Korman, & Paivio (2002) advised that interventions in remedy will be successful and produce sustained changes if they involve the emotional domain alternatively than focussing strictly on the cognitive realm.
A critical restriction of TA is that there is too little empirical evidence capable of validating its theory and process because of the fact a lot of Bern's principles were presented in such a manner that it would be unachievable to create a research research to check them. Medical observations and testimonies are the only information of success. Corey (no time, p. 37) states
"Executing well-designed research studies to evaluate the procedure and final result of remedy has surely not been one of the strengths of TA".
As mentioned previously there's been limited research into either the outcomes or procedures of TA counselling and psychotherapy. However within the site of process components, there have been several studies which may have attempted to assess ego state performing and its affect on therapy.
Emerson et al (1994) exhibited that psychological disruption which had been measured with a typical indicator checklist, was linked with a higher than average concordance rate of Critical parent and modified Child ego expresses. It was believed that successful Transactional research could significantly reduce the prominence of the ego state governments in clients. Research like this suggests that Transactional analysis may be used to address and reduce the significance of mental health disruption which is clearly related to the recurrent use of the two ego areas.
Loffredo et al (TAJ, Apr 2004) reviewed reliability research and kept up to date their own research in a report which assessed the reliability of your questionnaire made to pinpoint the five ego says. This shows that their questionnaire reliably recognizes these five ego areas in individuals. In addition to this Loffredo et al established significant construct validity, the five ego expresses were identified by his questionnaire which symbolized five specific types of thought, feeling and behaviour. Research like this suggests that the ego expresses are in existence and can be effectively identified by those with understanding of Transactional research theory.
Cognitive behaviour therapy was developed with a psychoanalytically trained psychiatrist in America known as Aaron Beck in the 1960's. CBT functions by integrating both cognitive and behavioural strategies. CBT relies on both the customer and therapist working collaboratively in just a therapeutic alliance. The purpose of CBT is to help your client overcome their problems by discovering and changing negative computerized thoughts (NAT's), behaviours and feelings. CBT therapy is a structured process which is goal orientated and measurable. This model targets present emotions that act as female guide to core values and meanings. CBT is a structured model of remedy with a specific agenda and concentrate for each therapy session. Homework is also given which is an essential component of treatment (Harper, 2008).
CBT in comparison to TA is known as to truly have a substantial amount of empirical facts to aid its efficiency when treating a number of disorders. Essentially CBT is the most likely remedy to be offered within the Country wide Health Service (NHS) Judith Beck (1995, p. 1) boasts that cognitive therapy
"is unique for the reason that it is something of psychotherapy with a unified theory of personality and psychopathology recognized by significant empirical data"
CBT is also believed to be a directive strategy which utilises structured programs and sequenced therapy sessions lay out by the therapist. Nonetheless it has been critiqued for making the assumption that the therapist has expert knowledge encompassing how the customer should tackle the issue, which may not be appropriate for every individual (Bandersnatch, 2007). This assertion cannot be generalized to all clients however as most clients find its commonsense method very appealing as it allows those to see that the issues they face are part of their earlier experience and learning history which has attributed to success and failings of their life. In addition, it supports them in their breakthrough of new behaviours and even more productive means of thinking for future years (Lehman & Coady, 2001).
Case formulation with CBT in addition has been commended for being simple and easy for clients to be able to understand and utilise Stephens (no night out, p. 8) states
"Used, cognitive formulations are generally understandable, non-esoteric, and easy to talk about with clients".
However this suggestion is at the mercy of criticism for possible over simplification of 'sophisticated mental health dynamics' (Person et al, 1996). Specifically it is debatable whether all of a client's issues can be handled by a single circumstance formulation. CBT therapists do not declare that this can always be done however the temptation to attempt to offer with multiple issues can be strong (Willis & Sanders, 1997).
CBT is also thought to be incredibly available to falsifiability in regards to case formulation unlike other techniques in counselling Person (1989, p. 55) states
"The therapist can't ever be certain her hypothesis about the primary mechanism is accurate and must always anticipate to revise or change when confronted with evidence. That is a continuous process; in simple fact, diagnosis and treatment are a continuing process of proposing, screening, re-evaluating, revising, rejecting and creating new formulations".
However these circumstance formulations are believed to be open to the prejudices and biases of the therapist and may be imposed despite evident defects as Willis & sanders (1997, p. 52) stated
"We may develop a perfect, sophisticated and theoretically sound conceptualisation which includes little empirical or practical value to your client, and, because of our very own cognitive distortions, begin to see everything in those terms".
CBT's case formulation can also be critiqued for its approval of the client's judgement regarding the accuracy and reliability of the formulation regarding when contemplating its clients attitude towards change and the remedy getting used. Weishaar (1993, p. 108) states
"Critics from both psychodynamic and cognitive science camps accuse Cognitive Remedy of overlooking the role of unconscious processes. "
This shows that a lot more credit which has been attached to the role of unconscious functions, the less that may be directed at a client's judgement in regards to the appropriateness of your case formulation (Stephens, no day).
Lastly CBT has also been criticised for relying on simplistic entities within its theory such as schemas that face controversy and issue with regards to their existence. Skinner (1971) a radical behaviourist within psychology believed these so called internal constructs could not proved and are not a vital necessity within the theory or practice of psychotherapy.
The efficacy of CBT has been established in controlled research, and its efficiency documented in a number of scientific studies DeRubeis et al (2005) completed a study whereby 240 people where hospitalised with scientific depression. Their depression was assessed with a Hamilton depression size. After 16 week of either modern medication remedy or CBT their degrees of depression where assessed again using the same scale by the end of remedy and after 2 years. They discovered that the short-term ramifications of both CBT and medicine therapy where equally as effective as 58% in both groupings recovered. Research workers also discovered that after 2 years 75% of the individuals who received CBT and retrieved where still free from depression compared with 60% of folks who received medicine therapy. Research like this suggests that CBT is probably better than medicine therapy in the long run, altered thinking and better self applied awareness allows your client to make long-term changes reducing the probability of relapse.
The fact that both CBT and medication therapy can be evenly effective treatments can be seen in the next clinical analysis. Goldapple et at (2004) conducted a study to examine biological changes within the mind associated with the use of CBT. 17 un-medicated unipolar depression patients possessed their brain changes in reaction to CBT examined before and after 15 to 20 week span of CBT. Results revealed a full course of CBT resulted in substantial specialized medical improvement in the 14 patients that completed the course of CBT. It had been concluded that like antidepressant treatments CBT affects clinical restoration by changing the working of specific sites in the mind. This research shows that although both CBT and medication therapy's impact specific parts of the brain in different ways CBT together is with the capacity of inducing significant improvement in the treating unipolar depression.
In conclusion to this task both TA and CBT have varied strengths and limitations with regard their success. Following the conclusion of further research there is a substantial difference in the amount of empirical evidence that facilitates TA and CBT. CBT has been determined as being the most dominant and extensively offered therapy in regards to the treatment of mental medical issues and for that reason has copious amounts of research to substantiate these boasts. However although CBT has been discovered as a more developed and effective remedy in the treatment of depression, anxiousness, eating disorders etc there is certainly little data to claim that it could be considered the most effective therapy in the treatment of all atypical behaviours within modern day society.