Respondents Of the Study And Sampling Techniques


Reading time

19 minutes

Respondents Of the Study And Sampling Techniques

This chapter presents the methods used in this research. The respondents of the study and sampling techniques, devices and methods used, the data gathering types of procedures, and statistical methods carried out on data.

There are several methods that could be used to handle the study and it is dependent on the research problem area. When working with a research problem, you can use any of the three categorizations of research (Yin, 1994).

Exploratory research is usually carried out when the problem is not well discovered or it is not visibly defined as yet, or its real range is really as yet unclear. It allows the study person to collect the information whenever you can relate to a specific problem. Exploratory research helps conclude the best research design, data collection strategy, and selection of topics, and sometimes it even results that the challenge does not be there. Exploratory research is quite casual, when it relying on secondary researches such as looking at available literature, data, or qualitative solutions such as casual conversations with customers, employees, management, or competitors, plus more formal strategies through comprehensive interviews, focus categories, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies (Yin, 1994).

This is a study type in which the primary goal is to comprehend the temperament or mechanisms of the partnership between the 3rd party and dependent changing. This approach is needed when it's essential to show that one variable trigger or concludes the worthiness of other adjustable. This research is good to work with when there is absolutely no unambiguous apprehension in what model should be used and what characteristics and relationships that is significant (Zikmund, 1994).

3. 1. 3 Descriptive

Descriptive research is used to get information regarding the present position of the phenomena to explain "what is out there" regarding variables or conditions in circumstances.

Descriptive research can be used when the goal is to provide an organized definition that is as factual and exact as is possible or when the problem is well purchased and there is absolutely no objective to study cause/effect relation. It offers you the number of occurrences something happens, or consistency lends itself to statistical computation such as calculating the average number of occurrences or central tendencies (Yin, 1994). One of its major constraints is that it can not help conclude what causes a specific incident, behavior, or inspiration. We can say that it cannot produce a causal research marriage among factors.

My research goal and research question disclose that this review is generally exploratory. It really is exploratory because the info has been gathered through unstructured interviews and questionnaires to explore the issues that influence the Pakistani community's intentions to look at Internet banking services.

3. 2 Research Approach

There are two basic types of research techniques, qualitative and quantitative. In the quantitative approach, outcomes are based on statistics and figures that are offered in figures, whereas in the qualitative approach focus sits on explaining an occurrence by using words.

Although this research on the adoption of Internet banking services in Pakistan is not very extensive when compared with the debate of the benefits, the majority of the concepts in this analysis have been seldom analyzed before, but generally in the European context. Only hook research addresses usually Singapore, Hong Kong or China, which are incredibly developed economies and not envoys of all Parts of Asia. so to gain a deeper knowledge of the issues in the Pakistani framework, this research is conducted as a qualitative study to explore the belief of internet banks in the Pakistani community.

The Use of this approach provides richer and forensic particulars for checking out viewpoints in the first level of research. Hence the intention is never to make any simplification, but instead create a closer contact with the objectives of preceding research, that have it in mind to provide us a deeper knowledge of the participants' behavior and perceptions. Finally, my goal with this research is to spell it out, explore and find complete specific information about the problems of Internet bank adoption in Pakistan, so the quantitative way is the best option method for my research.

3. 3 Research Strategy

The research strategy is a wide plan which ultimately shows that where way this research will continue, and exactly how the research person will answer the questions that are set by the person conducting the study. It has clear objectives, derived from research question that identifies the source from which research person be going to acquire data and consider the restrictions that research people will undoubtedly have such as usage of data like time, location and money, ethical issues (saunders, 2000).

Qualitative research can be executed using quite a few strategies including research study, experiments, surveys, histories, and examination of archival information (Yin, 1994). Following are the brief justification of the above five research strategies:

3. 3. 1 Case Study

A case study identifies the collection and display of extensive information in regards to a specific participant or small group of participants. A case study is a written reason for a problem or situation and normally examines the interplay of most variables for providing a complete understanding of a meeting or situation as you possibly can. A case study is ideal when the researcher has little control over the occurrences, and when there is an up-to-date focus within a real-life context. The rationale of a research study is to place participants in the role of decision manufacturers, asking these to differentiate relevant from unimportant facts, to recognize central alternatives among numerous issues contending for attention, and make strategies and policy tips (Yin, 1994).

3. 3. 2 Experiments

The experimental method will involve manipulating one varying to decide if changes in one variable surface change in another changing. This method depends on controlled methods, arbitrary assignment, and the manipulation of parameters to check a hypothesis. This plan is utilized when the research person needs to contrast two parameters and analyze their cause and result connections (Malhorta, 1996).

3. 3. 3 Survey

It's a research technique in which information is gathered by interviews with a huge number of respondents utilizing a predesigned questionnaire (Zikmund, 1994). This research strategy has three important characteristics:

I. Purpose: The goal of study research is to generate quantitative descriptions of some characteristics of the populace in the study. Review evaluation may be mainly related either with associations between factors or with projecting results descriptively to pre-defined inhabitants (Yin, 1994). Basically, Study research is a quantitative strategy, contacting for standardized information about and/or from the content being analyzed. The subject matter under study might be individuals, teams, organizations, or neighborhoods; they also might be assignments, applications, or systems.

II. Method: The most important way of collecting information is by bringing up people set up and predefined questions. Answers of questions given by people, which can make reference to themselves or various other units of evaluation, comprise the data to be analyzed (Yin, 1994).

III. Analyses: Information is usually collected about only some of the populace understudy, but the information is gathered in such a way as to be able to take a wide-ranging view of the whole populace. Usually, the test is huge enough to allow extensive statistical analyses.

3. 3. 4 History

This method deals with the past and is used when none of the regarding person are alive to interview or article (Yin, 1994). This technique is specially used to describe the content, composition, and function of the data accumulated for the study.

3. 3. 5 Evaluation of Archival Information

The reason for this method is to explain the incidence or pervasiveness of a phenomenon (Zikmund, 1994). The usage of the archival information is difficult when this theme is arriving research area.

The following desk demonstrates the conditions that need to be attended to when shaping a technique.

The most extensive condition for selecting a research strategy is to categorize the type of research question being asked. Based on the research question "what" which I set for this research, I have chosen to check out case study and market research strategy, because this research is not reliant on the same critical, extreme, exclusive, or revelatory case.

3. 4 Sample Selection

Sampling is study-founded research where research people need to review the sample in regards to a population to be able to answer the research questions or match the research objectives (Saunders, 2000). Once the problem has been vigilantly identified, the research person must setup the sample that will sketch out the analysis to be completed. It's important for the research person to clearly define the prospective inhabitants from whom the precise sample will be taken. Sampling is significant if cost and time constraints can stop research from surveying the entire population. The sample provides a more impressive range of accuracy and fasts correct result.

Occasionally, the whole people will be sufficiently small, and the study person can take account of the complete population in the study. This kind of research is known as a census analysis since data is gathered on each member of the population.

Generally, the population is quite large for the research person to try and survey the complete of its customers. A little, but the vigilantly chosen sample can be used to symbolize the population. The sample signifies all of the characteristics of the population that it is taken out.

The sampling approach can be grouped into two types (Saunders, 2000):

Probability Sampling

Non-Probability Sampling

3. 4. 1 Probability sampling

While using possibility sampling, sample selection is performed in such a way that every unit of the populace has a known possibility of getting selected. It really is this belief of "known chance" that allows for the statistical projection of features predicated on the test of the populace (Saunders, 2000). The advantage of probability sampling is the fact sampling error can be expected. The sampling problem is the total amount to which an example might be different from the population the Probability method includes.

Random sampling

Systematic sampling

Stratified sampling

3. 4. 2 Non-Probability Sampling

While using non-probability sampling, selecting the sample is done so that the probability of being chosen for each device in the populace is unknown. In fact, the procedure of choosing the subjects is random or subjective, because the research person depends on his/her experience, gut feeling and judgment. Subsequently, there are no statistical techniques that permit for the measurement of sampling mistake, and the total amount to that your test differs from the populace remains unknown and therefore it is not suitable to the job the sample distinctiveness to the populace (Saunders, 2000). Non-probability includes:

Convenience sampling;

Judgment sampling;

Quota sampling;

Snowball sampling.

3. 4. 2. 1 Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling can be used in investigative research where in fact the research person can be involved in getting a low-priced approximation of the reality. As the name shows, the test is chosen because they are convenient. This non-probability technique is time and again used during research times to get a gross approximation of the results, without increasing the cost or time required to choose a random sample (Saunders, 2000).

3. 4. 2. 2 View sampling

Judgment sampling is a common non-probability technique. The research people choose the test depending on the judgmental strategy. That is generally the addition of convenience sampling. For example, a study person may make a conclusion to draw the entire sample in one "representative" city, albeit the populace comprises all metropolitan areas. When using this technique, the research person must be in without doubt that the chosen sample is effectively representative of the complete population (Saunders, 2000).

3. 4. 2. 3 Quota sampling

Quota sampling is the non-probability the same as stratified sampling. Like stratified sampling, the research people first identify the stratums and their magnitude as they are symbolized in the populace. Then convenience or common sense sampling is employed to choose the necessary level of subjects out of every stratum. This diverges from stratified sampling, where all of the stratums are packed by random sampling (Saunders, 2000).

3. 4. 2. 4 Snowball sampling

Snowball sampling is a special non-probability strategy used when the most well-liked sample feature is exceptional. It may be extremely difficult or unaffordable to find respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling depends on recommendations from starting things to create additional subjects. Whereas this system can noticeably reduce the research costs, it comes at the expense of bringing in bias because this technique by itself lessens the likelihood that the test will symbolize a good cross-section from the population (Saunders, 2000).

Sampling in qualitative research entails two actions; (Miles and Huberman 1994):

The setting of boundaries: "To explain aspects of circumstances that we can examine and link it directly to the research question".

Creation of structure: "to help us find out, confirm, or qualify the basic processor constructs that reinforce our study"

Non-probability (convenience) sampling has been chosen because of this research because we've targeted the Pakistani community which is dealing with lenders.

3. 4. 2. 5 Sampling procedure


The procedure for sampling requires using large numbers of items or elements of subsets of the populace to make finish regarding the complete population. The purpose of sampling is to calculate some unfamiliar characteristics of people.


The population is any complete set of groups of subjects. Like people, stores, students, companies, etc.

Sampling frame

A sampling shape is a report on the elements that the actual test will attract. Keeping the study because we will attract the sampling body asunder.

The population is the folks of Pakistan having bank accounts, we narrow down our analysis and then Punjab province

The sampling frame will be the major cities of Punjab like Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, and Sahiwal.

Keeping because of the time and cost available for the research we have narrowed down the study only to four major metropolitan areas of Punjab.

Sample size

The sampling approach proposed is arbitrary sampling techniques. The computation for the sample size is listed below.

Population size = 100, 000

Sample %era = 0. 3%

n = 100, 000x0. 30/100

= 300

So our test size will be 300

3. 5 Data Collection Methods

As the data collection method is highly affected by the technique, which is chosen (Saunders and Thornhill, 2000), questionnaires are used to gather the empirical data for this research in order to identify the problems that have an impact on the adoption of Internet banking services in Pakistan.

As this research's main concern is examining the issues that have an influence the adoption process of Internet banking in Pakistan, the questionnaire was created based on the requirements for adopting such a service

3. 6 Questionnaire

The questionnaire contains three pages and twenty questions (Appendix A). It offers different kinds of questions including wide open-end questions, close-ended questions, and multiple questions.

It was made to record all the segments of the community which use the banking services.

3. 7 Validity and Reliability

In order to lessen the possibility of getting wrong answers, attention needs to be paid to validity and trustworthiness (Saunders et al., 2003).

3. 7. 1 Validity

Validity is concerned with whether the findings are really in what they seem to be about (Saunders et al., 2003). Validity defined as the amount to which data compilation methods or methods properly measure what they were anticipated to evaluate (Saunders et al., 2003). Yin (1994) says in these words, no solo source has an overall advantage over all of the others (P. 85). The resources of different kinds are highly complementary and as many sources as is feasible should be utilized for a good case study. The usage of various sources of evidence can increase the validity of scientific studies (Yin, 1994).

The following steps were taken up to ensure the validity of the research:

The needed data was accumulated in the format of a structured questionnaire that had been designed predicated on the books related to the adoption of innovation.

The questionnaires were pre-tested. A pilot test was conducted with the questionnaire.

3. 7. 2 Reliability

According to Saunders et al. (2003), reliability identifies the extent to which data collection method or methods will produce regular results, analogous observations would be made or results come to by other research folks, or there exists clearness in how sense was created from the unprocessed data. Consistency can be assed by the following three questions:

Will the solution produce the same results on other occasions?

Will other observers reach similar observation?

Is there accuracy in the method of how sense was made from the unprocessed data?

The role of dependability is to minimize the errors and biases in a study (Yin (1994). This means that reliability is to demonstrate that the procedures of the study, like the data collection steps, can be repeated with the same end result. Saunders et al. (2003) assert that there may be four threats to reliability. The to begin these is subject of participant mistake, meaning a questionnaire may create a different end result at differing times of the week. The next threat to reliability is subject or participant bias, which is when interviewees might have been saying what they thought their bosses, needed them to say.

Third, there may have been observer mistakes that different interviewers may deal with the questions in several ways. Finally, there might have been observer bias, meaning there may have been different approaches to interpreting the replies.

The work with this thesis started with a considerable literature review. The literature I came across (mainly articles) was from several authors and frequently had Internet banking and adoption of e-banking topics, which recommended that I covered the region of Internet banking surroundings. This would suggest that bias, from reading only 1 creator and reading only about one issue, be held at the very least level. Widersheim-Paul and Eriksson (1997) describe some other erroneous perception that is usually to be avoided to be able to achieve high reliability. One of these is calculating error, which in turn contains respondent mistakes, gauging problems and errors that are the effect of the interplay between the interviewer and the respondent. As I used a questionnaire, this latter error was averted beforehand.

The respondent mistakes are such problems that are because of the fact that respondents sometimes are not able or unwilling to provide truthful answers. In order to minimize the effects of this kind of error, I found it essential to be cautious about the words and the wording.

Furthermore, the use of wording in the questionnaire was of major matter to avoid ambiguous or psychologically charged formulations. The chosen wording and language were simple, immediate and as far as possible without complex terms.

The gauging mistakes arise when a questionnaire includes erroneously designed questions, wrong order of question etceteras (Widersheim-Paul and Eriksson, 1997). The order of the questions was also subject to research and it was found to be ideal to have a disposition where in fact the initial questioning worried facts that the respondents easily could give a remedy to.

Numbers of different steps were taken to ensure the stability of the analysis:

Case studies were used during the data collection.

The same type of questions was asked from company's respondent in order to raise the reliability

Since the generalization is not the goal of the analysis, multiple conditions have been used to increase the degree to which the findings can be the same. It might be possible to get the same end result on the findings to a larger quantity of similar cases.

The theories that contain been decided on for the study were clearly defined and research questions have been created based on the previous theory. Data has been accumulated based on the research model that was attracted from the discussed theories. The objective is to be sure that if another investigator will follow the same steps and used the same research study items, the same conclusions would be produced.

3. 7. 3 Study

A pilot test of the questionnaire was carried out. All the test respondents filled in the questionnaire and their views on how they noticed about completing the questionnaire. The test was followed by many revisions before it was sent to respondents. After refining some questions and items within the questions, the second pilot review was run and asked respondents to check on for the wording, coverage, relevancy of the things detailed within the questions. Finally, at this time little modifications were needed and lastly, the well-improved questionnaire was developed.

By using these tools (trustworthiness, validity, and pilot analysis) I can further analyze the info that the respondents provided me in a far more exact way.

3. 8 Data Analysis

Data evaluation can be described "as constant of three concurrent channels of activity: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/verification" (p. 10) by A long way & Huberman (1994). Data lowering should not be regarded as separate from evaluation, but a portion of it. The data reduction level of the analysis helps the researcher to help make the data sorted, sharpen, concentrated, sorted out, and discarded to become able to sketch and verify summary (ibid. ).

The data lowering stage of the analysis helps the researcher to make the data pointed, sorted, centered, discarded, and sorted out in order to be able to draw and check conclusions. The info display is a way to organize and compress the reduced data so that it will make it easier to bring conclusions. This stage pays to when the researcher studies more than one case, so-called multiple circumstances. In the final outcome drawing and verification, the researcher notes regularities, habits, explanations, possible configurations, everyday flows, and propositions.

Data analysis requires analyzing, categorizing, tabulating, or otherwise recombining the gathered data (Yin, 1994). Every exploration should have a general analytical strategy in order to know what to analyze and why. Two standard strategies are advised. The researcher can either follow the theoretical propositions that led to the research study or create a descriptive framework to arrange the research study. Within these strategies, there are four different techniques for analyzing the gathered data. The foremost is pattern matching, which means to compare an empirical-based mostly routine with a predictable one.

The second strategy is explanation building, which refers to a kind of pattern matching where in fact the goal is to analyze the case study data because they build an explanation about the truth. The 3rd is a time-series examination that refers to repeated options of the dependent variable/variables in order to look at changes over time. The last strategy is to use program logic models, which is a blend of pattern-matching and time-series analysis where the analysis specifies an intricate chain of patterns over time.

Data analysis of this thesis is based on the three steps defined by Kilometers & Huberman (1994) i. e. , data reduction, data screen, and final result. After completing the data collection I have organized the data for every research study based on the issues that are chosen from the research model in line with the research question and literature review.

Within-case research I compared the findings of every case based on my research question and conditions determined from the research model. Furthermore, I conducted a cross-case analysis to compare the several case study in order to find the resemblance and variation between the instances.

Originally published Oct 15, 2018, updated Feb 20, 2021

Confusing homework?

Get expert help in any course or subject

Get Help