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Importance of Communication in Daily Life

Content
  1. "To effectively talk, we must recognize that we all have been different in the manner we perceive the globe and utilize this understanding as a guide to your communication with others. " - Anthony Robbins
  2. Communication Is Integral To Individuals Life
  3. 1. 2 COMMUNICATION FOR BUSINESS
  4. 1. 3 PRE-REQUISITES OF COMMUNICATION
  1. WHAT TO Speak- CONTENT
  2. Information
  3. WHY TO COMMUNICATE- PURPOSE
  4. will understand
  5. THE Goal IS FULFILLED
  6. HOW TO Connect- SKILLS
  7. Speaking Skills
  8. 1. 4 DEFINING COMMUNICATION
  9. 1. 5 FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION
  10. 1. It is an exchange of ideas.
  11. 2. Two parties get excited about it.
  12. 3. It really is a two-way process.
  13. 1. 6 Aims OF COMMUNICATION
  14. 1. Intra-Organisational Communication
  15. 2. Inter-Organisational Communication
  16. 3. Personal Communication
  17. 1. 7 PROCEDURE FOR COMMUNICATION
  18. David Berlo's Model of Communication
  19. PHASE I- IDEATING:
  20. 1) Idea
  21. 2) Sender/Encoder
  22. PHASE II- ENCODING:
  23. 3) Encoding
  24. 4) Message
  25. PHASE III- TRANSMITTING:
  26. 5) Channel and Medium
  27. Channel Medium
  28. PHASE IV- RECEIVING:
  29. 6) Receiver/Decoder
  30. 7) Decoding
  31. PHASE V- RESPONDING:
  32. 8) Feedback
  33. 1. 8 OTHER MODELS OF COMMUNICATION
  34. 1. The Linear Model
  35. 2. The Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)
  36. Developed Version of the Shannon-Weaver Model
  37. 3. Berlo's S-M-C-R Model (1960)
  38. Berlo introduces a new concept by stressing the role of the partnership between the encoder and the decoder in the successful completion of the communication process.
  39. According to this model, there are five elements within both the encoder and the decoder which influence and determine the fidelity of communication.
  40. Berlo shifts the emphasis from the transmitting of the message to the meaning itself and features the significant role of the encoder and the decoder and exactly how it affects fidelity of communication. Thus, Berlo makes the message the central factor. The S-M-C-R Model recognizes that the receiver is as important to communication as the sender and the message, as without the receiver there may be no communication.
  41. Berlo emphasizes the fact that the notion of encoding and decoding is difficult, as translating our thoughts into words or symbols is a sophisticated mental process and deciphering what and icons of others into ideas that we can understand and interpret is evenly challenging.
  42. CHAPTER SUMMARY
  43. KEY TERMS
  44. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  45. I. REVIEW QUESTIONS
  46. II. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
  47. III. MATCH THE FOLLOWING
  48. A B
  49. IV. ACTIVITIES
More...

"To effectively talk, we must recognize that we all have been different in the manner we perceive the globe and utilize this understanding as a guide to your communication with others. " - Anthony Robbins

Communication Is Integral To Individuals Life

Communication is deeply intertwined with the real human existence. It is a fundamental element of it. One cannot think of real human life without communication. Can you imagine what would happen if you aren't allowed to talk for a long period? You'll feel suffocated.

In personal life, we have to communicate to cope with various concerns and problems of lifestyle. In professional life also, it is communication that helps us to make healthy relationships and credibility with co-workers.

Only speaking/chatting is not communication. Communication can take place in many forms. Sometimes, we speak by 'chatting' about our ideas, thoughts or thoughts; at other times, we might wish to speak through the written word or even non-verbally. Whatever form we choose, getting the subject matter across is what communication is focused on.

Communication is an activity that is energetic, constant, and irreversible but at the same time, it is reciprocal in nature. It is an ongoing process.

Roughly, we can specify communication as a distributed meaning between several individuals. The distributed meaning arises out of the individual's experiences, qualifications, education and training. Similarity in experiences, background, training, etc. makes communication successful between individuals.

Communication helps us to comprehend others. The inability to communicate can result in a lot of problems both individually and professionally.

Imagine a day without communicating! We can instantly feel the void it would create. Can we ever forget that it is our potential to converse verbally that distinguishes us from animals? Communication helps form a robust relationship among people and makes us cultural beings.

Besides, knowledge is not the only real requirement of the achievement of success. A person may have got good knowledge, but his/her performance will be assessed largely based on his/her capacity to connect. Therefore, if you are a good communicator, you have better chances of success in life and running a business.

1. 2 COMMUNICATION FOR BUSINESS

Communication is becoming indispensable today. Real human activity will come to a standstill if there is no communication. All human transactions become possible only through communication. It's the life-blood of every business company. Especially in the current globalized market overall economy, effective communication is essential to the success and success of any company.

Businesses need people who have good communication skills because communication is an essential part of the sort of work that is performed running a business organizations. It extends across every area of business, including managerial, technical, clerical and communal positions.

In present times, several factors have contributed to the importance of communication. They are-

  • faster method of communication because of technological and scientific advancements
  • shrinking geographical boundaries due to option of faster method of transport
  • growth of the multinational companies that has resulted in the creation of a globalized market economy
  • generation of highly advanced management techniques because of this of the growing need for professionalism in the management of business
  • the information revolution that has brought with it highly sophisticated networking technologies
  • multiplication of systems of communication by any means levels of company because of professional knowledge that has business lead to departmentalization
  • advancements in the field of sociable sciences such as in mindset and in sociology which may have created a knowledge about the real human mind and behavior and how they impact communication

Communication undertaken by a business company with the purpose of achieving certain specific goals is known as business communication. Actually, business communication is a particular type of communication undertaken to meet the needs of the organization. Powerful concepts in modern management like contribution, motivation, involvement revolve around communication.

According to R. Ludlow, "Business communication is an activity of copy of information and understanding between different parts and people of any business firm. It involves various settings and media involved in communication interchanges. "

Effective communication is necessary for growth and development of any company. H. G. Hicks has rightly directed out- "Communication is basic to the organization's living from delivery of the organization; when communication stops, prepared activity ceases to can be found. " Increasing communication skills increases the probabilities for success of an business. Effective communication brings improvement and prosperity to it.

Moreover, in this time of specialization, planning, development, sales, advertising, money, welfare, etc. are treated by different departments. In absence of effective communication, there will be a serious issue of co-ordination among these departments and there would only be chaos and confusion in the organization.

Communication is also quite significant keeping in mind the growing need for human relationships and human resource management in today's world. Communication helps a administrator in developing significant interactions with the subordinates, changing their behaviour, boosting their morale and soliciting their assistance.

Communication links people collectively to achieve common goals. Additionally it is required to maintain good pr. Thus, executives tend to be expected to give speeches and interviews to the mass media to be able to project a favourable image of the business.

Effective communication is required to deal with various crises and issues of interests in an organization. Additionally it is needed to be able to impart sufficient training to the employees in managing latest technology. Subordinates often resent the benefits of changes in the methods of working. This poses a challenge to the management to educate the employees in order to smoothly adapt to the dynamic personality of the organization. There is also to just work at alleviating worries these changes will probably generate unemployment.

Thus, effective communication can help in changing the bad attitude of the employees towards technological advancement. It helps meetings which play an important role in the performing of a business. Effective business communication depends not only on the abilities of the sender of the communication but also on the skills of the main one who will get that concept.

Thus, you can say that communication is not an end in itself; somewhat, it is a way to achieve an end.

1. 3 PRE-REQUISITES OF COMMUNICATION

Now the question is- What's communication and exactly how it could be achieved? What do we require to carry out communication? Hence, prior to taking a look at this is of communication, it might be helpful to know how we plan it.

For example, you want to create a notice. What all do you need for it? A bit of paper. A pen. A table for support. Is there anything else that you want besides these exact things? Certainly you decide to do. You need to dwell on three important things-

1. Goal 2. Content 3. Skills

These three precede all speaking or writing.

WHAT TO Speak- CONTENT

Information

Observation/ Receive by Select/Reject Think and Understanding

Attention hearing or as per your evaluate results into

by reading 'interest', 'need' the information knowledge

or 'expectation'

This is how information is processed in to being knowledge. Knowledge produces in you the self-assurance to communicate. If you're well prepared with this content, then half the task is performed.

It is the craving expressing 'something' that commences communication. It could be an idea, an feeling, an view or some information. Without this basic idea/need, there can be no communication.

However, we do not communicate whatever involves our mind immediately. There is a need to plan- what things to talk, how to converse and whom to connect it to. We do not talk without a purpose; therefore, it is essential to answer these questions before actually conversing. This helps us to talk effectively also to get a desirable response from the individual with whom we live exchanging our ideas.

WHY TO COMMUNICATE- PURPOSE

Speaker's/ will hear/see

Purpose of Writer's Listener/

Communication Expectation Reader will hear/read

will understand

will take action/respond

THE Goal IS FULFILLED

Purpose is the principal pre-requisite of most meaningful communication. The sender initiates communication with some goal i. e. expectation. S/he desires the receiver to hear/see his subject matter, to listen/read it attentively, to understand it and react/respond to it. Once the receiver gives responses or does the expected action, then communication is said to be successful. However, the response would be based upon various factors like concentration, physical environment and psychological cosmetic of the receiver.

The next question is- just how do we talk? Communication does not simply imply speaking or writing. We live communicating even when we smile or shrug our shoulders. However, when we decide to connect, we need some medium by which to transfer that idea to the other person.

HOW TO Connect- SKILLS

You may have got good knowledge and may be ready to convey it but if you do not learn how to do it, it could not be effective. Low-quality speaking or writing skills is a real hurdle in communication.

Speaking Skills

Read aloud: Take a tiny written piece from a papers, magazine or a reserve and read it aloud. This will help you know how you speak- your tone of voice firmness, pitch, etc.

Observe: Observe people speak- their pronunciation, accent, intonation, stress, style, rhythm, etc. Make an effort to emulate the speaking design of good speakers. This will help you increase your own design of speaking.

(For an in depth note on speaking skills, writing skills and non-verbal communication, refer Chapter 2 Types of Communication. )

Just the idea/information that the communicator has, the multimedia of transmission available and the existence of the receiver are not enough for communication to take place. We desire a proper context and an atmosphere where there are no hindrances in the communication process.

Does communication end following the idea is communicated? As explained earlier, we talk to a purpose. Appearance of the idea/information is half the task done. But communication is considered complete only when there exists some response from the receiver. Only then we can say that the goal of communication is satisfied.

Communication includes three basic activities for both the participants i. e. the sender and the receiver.

On the sender's part, they are-

Thinking to develop the content to create a message

Speaking/Writing to convey the subject matter to the other person

Feeling to help make the message persuasive

On the receiver's part, the activities include-

Listening/Reading to soak up the idea/information within the message

Interpreting to comprehend the meaning of the message

Responding to convey the popularity or the disagreement with the message

Communication has always been an important part of human being life. Language and the ability to communicate ourselves using that vocabulary come to us spontaneously. And the necessity to speak is so inherent in real human nature that we hardly realize that effective communication skills can be acquired and honed.

There are four basic communication skills- speaking, writing, tuning in and reading. They always work in the following adjacency pairs-

Speaking/writing is dealt with by the sender of the note and hearing/reading by the receiver of the concept. Understanding these four skills is very essential if one needs to become an effective communicator.

As children, we figure out how to speak by hearing first. Thus, hearing is the first skill that we acquire even as develop the words instinct. Then follows the reading skills once we start schooling and lastly we learn the writing skills as a part of our formal education.

Thus, learning words/s and the related communication skills follow a organized process. It does not happen accidentally and instantaneously.

Despite of this, people often turn out to be poor communicators as most of us have a tendency to take its importance for awarded. Most of the time, we neglect to achieve our purpose while we communicate. This is really because of our failing to mention our ideas in an accurate and clearly understandable manner. There could be a lack either in the content of the subject matter or in the way in which it is conveyed to the designed audience, or both.

The point is we do not normally concentrate much on 'what to talk', 'when to communicate' and 'how to talk'. Also, we have to consider another evenly important aspect 'why to speak' i. e. the purpose.

Thus, it is very important for us to recognize and study the fundamental elements mixed up in process of communication to be remembered as effective communicators.

Every aspect of life, whether personal, social or professional, entails communication. The basic meaning of the word 'communication' is- "an exchange of thoughts, communications, or information, as by conversation, alerts, writing, or behaviour". The meaning of the term has not been through much change. However, the ways and means of communication have improved greatly consequently of technical and other socio-cultural improvements in recent times.

Thus, these advancements have added numerous new proportions to the communication process, which has become more complex over a period. It, thus, calls for a detailed study of the many components that are involved in it to become able to communicate effectively.

1. 4 DEFINING COMMUNICATION

In order to comprehend the term communication, it would be useful to have a look at some definitions given by professionals.

The phrase 'communication' is derived from the Latin phrase 'communis' this means 'to transmit', 'to impart', 'to exchange', 'to talk about', or 'to convey'.

Communication means "the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using various other medium. " (Oxford British Dictionary)

Communication is "a two-way procedure for reaching mutual understanding, in which members not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share interpretation. " (Business Dictionary)

According to Newman and Summer, "Communication can be an exchange of facts, ideas, thoughts or emotions by several persons. "

Keith Davis states "Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. "

F. G. Meyer defines communication as "the intercourse by words, letters or information, the intercourse of thoughts or thoughts. It is the act of making one's ideas and opinions recognized to others. "

In what of Theo Haimann, "Communication is the procedure of passing information and understanding from one person to another it's the procedure for imparting ideas and making oneself known by others. "

According to C. G. Brown, "Communication has been thought as the transfer of information in one person to some other, whether or not it elicits confidence or becomes an exchange or interchange. However the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver. "

William Scott identifies communication as "an activity that involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by responses for the purpose of eliciting actions that may accomplish organizational goals. "

Louis A. Allen says, "Communication is the total of all things which a person will when he wishes to produce understanding in the mind of another. It entails a organized and continuous process of telling, being attentive, and understanding".

According to McFarland, "Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful relationship among human beings. More specifically, it is a process where meanings are recognized and understanding is reached among human beings. "

These definitions describe communication as

"a process of moving information and understanding" (Keith Davis)

"a two-way procedure for reaching shared understanding" (Business Dictionary)

"the act of earning one's ideas and viewpoints known to others" (F. G. Meyer)

"the procedure of imparting ideas and making oneself realized by others" (Theo Haimann)

"the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by responses for the intended purpose of eliciting actions" (William Scott)

"a systematic and continuous process of telling, tuning in, and understanding" (Louis A. Allen)

"a process by which meanings are recognized and understanding is come to among humans" (McFarland)

Thus, these definitions properly highlight and exhibit in concise form the important top features of the process of communication. In short, we can explain communication as "a process in which two or more elements of a system interact to be able to attain a desired results or goal. " (Larry L. Barker and Deborah A. Gaut, Communication; 2001)

1. 5 FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION

On the basis of the aforementioned discussion, let us now discuss certain important features of the process of communication.

1. It is an exchange of ideas.

Communication is the procedure by which an exchange of information occurs. It is the writing of information, ideas, ideas and information.

2. Two parties get excited about it.

In communication, the exchange of information takes place between two or more persons. Therefore that we now have minimum two different people involved in the communication process at any given time.

The person who initiates the exchange is the sender of the communication (speaker/writer) and the one who receives and interprets it's the receiver of the subject matter (listener/audience).

3. It really is a two-way process.

Communication is a two-way procedure for exchanging ideas or information. One person alone cannot carry out communication. Once you communicate, there must be a receiver or an audience that would reciprocate. Then only your communication can be complete.

Thus, communication is an activity of transmitting and acquiring verbal and non-verbal messages. It is considered effective only when it achieves the desired effect or response from the receiver. The response may maintain positivity or negative. In case of absence of any response, communication is imperfect.

Thus, communication works well only when a concise and clear subject matter is sent well, received effectively, understood completely, and responded to promptly.

1. 6 Aims OF COMMUNICATION

There is not a human action that is performed without any purpose. Even the simplest and most natural action like deep breathing has a purpose- to remain alive. Communication is also always completed with some purpose. (Refer '1. 3 Pre-requisites of Communication')

Communication begins with two-fold objectives or purposes that occupy the sender's head:

Immediate or Main to convey or to share

Objectives information

of

Communication

Ultimate or Supplementary to encourage or to

persuade people

To inform and persuade will be the two basic purposes (goals) that are ever before present in the mind of the communicator. Sometimes, he looks for only to notify, as in medical writings; sometimes, his goal is to persuade the reader, as with journalistic writings; and quite often, he wants both to inform also to persuade the audience, just as sales letters, advertisements, etc.

Communication is vital to business. The communication activities of a business get caught in three broad categories:

1. Intra-organisational

Communication FORMAL

Business 2. Inter-organisational

Communication Communication

3. Personal INFORMAL

Communication

1. Intra-Organisational Communication

It is communication in a organization. It really is done to implement business plans. It takes many forms like orders, instructions, reports, messages, etc.

2. Inter-Organisational Communication

It is communication a business organization does indeed with people outside the organization i. e. with others, customers, clients, public, etc. It requires the form of planned promotion to boost its image and pr with the help of business emails, advertising, exhibits, etc.

The success of any business depends on its ability to fulfill the customers' needs. Besides providing services, it must talk effectively with outdoors people and communities because of its success.

3. Personal Communication

It is communication with out a specific business aim i. e. without an ulterior motive or purpose. Man is a social animal, therefore we have a compulsive need to talk even when we have nothing substantial to mention. Such communication also occurs at work. For example, personal discussions, gossip, Grapevine occurrence, etc. If an example may be not allowed to activate in such casual communication, it could lead to annoyance and other such internal problems.

(For a more detailed talk on corporate communication, send Chapter 7 Formal and Casual Systems of Communication. )

The primary purpose of communication is to mention or show information. Business organizations suffer from a big and numerous amount of information on a regular basis to be able to execute various business activities. Thus, proper move of information helps those to make right decisions.

Another equally important purpose of communication is to persuade people to accept a point of view or to change their frame of mind and accept a new or modified attitude. Persuasion is achieved through rational arguments or an psychological appeal to simply accept the change. Advertisements are an apt example of the persuasive aspect of communication. Essentially, all communication is a deliberate and intentional act of persuasion. A communicator desires the reader not only to understand the meaning but also to be influenced as designed by him. (For an in depth discussion, send '10. 6 Persuasive Communication', Chapter 10 Characteristics of Attitude and its own Influence on Communication)

Communication really helps to convey information from experts to trainees within an organization for the intended purpose of educating or training them to take care of new technology or to adjust to the changes in the task environment.

Communication is an efficient tool in the hands of the professionals to motivate and raise the morale of the employees. This enables the organization to accomplish higher efficiency. Through advice and counseling, the management can help the employees in working with their psychological problems as well as problems pertaining to maladjustment and to give career instruction. Through letters of gratitude, special mention in reviews, minutes of meetings, etc. , the management can appreciate the work of the employees. In case of hits, lockouts, and dismissal of specific employees or disciplinary action against them, the management uses communication channels to issue warnings.

Communication also helps in co-ordination of intra-organisational activities, inter-organisational deals, business ventures, and commercial orders through conferences, meetings, adverts, requests, ideas, reviews, and conversations. Without communication, coordinating the actions of different people engaged in owning a business is a distant possibility.

The management and the subordinates come better through communication. Communication promotes cooperation and good commercial relationships as it conveys thoughts, ideas, viewpoints, and viewpoints of one party to the other get together.

The plans and programs produced by the business to steer the workforce have to be conveyed to those who are accountable for the execution of work to achieve the organizational objectives. Only effective communication can translate the plans into actions. It supports teamwork by enabling people to work together. It helps perform basic management functions like instructing, coordinating, staffing, planning, etc.

Thus, these are the few important aims of communication in the context of business organizations.

So far, we have discussed what comprises communication and the significance of communication in our personal, social as well professional life. We have also highlighted some of the fundamentals of communication. Let us now analyse the process of communication and observe how it is completed.

1. 7 PROCEDURE FOR COMMUNICATION

Process is some things done to achieve something. Communication also uses an activity.

Communication commences when the sender/encoder recognizes the need to communicate some idea/theory/information. Then encodes/formulates it into a message utilizing a medium that can be realized by the receiver/decoder of the meaning who in turn processes it in his mind's eye and responds to it. Once the decoder understands the communication completely, fidelity of communication is said to be 100% and the communication process is reported to be complete. (Refer David Berlo's Style of Communication) Thus, communication is a two-way process.

Fidelity of Communication

Idea Idea

Concept Encoder Medium Decoder Concept

Message Message

Information Information

Fidelity of Communication

David Berlo's Model of Communication

If necessary, the receiver may send a reply or may act in response or respond to the message. This response or effect is also called opinions. But sometimes, there could be no response at all from the receiver even if it is required.

Absence of reviews can be attributed to either of the following reasons- a) the message does not reach the receiver or b) the receiver does not understand the concept. Such situations may come up because of the presence of some factor/s that can- a) obstruct the communication from being transmitted or b) distort the meaning of the concept.

The factors that hamper the stream of communication are known as 'obstacles' to communication. (Refer Chapter 4 Resolving Barriers to Communication)

Communication occurs in five stages and it involves the following eight components that happen to be inter-related:

Idea

Sender/Encoder (Presenter/Writer)

Encoding

Message

Channel and Medium

Receiver/Decoder (Reader/Listener)

Decoding

Feedback

Let us now discuss in detail the various periods and elements mixed up in communication process.

PHASE I- IDEATING:

1) Idea

Every communication whether oral or written has its origins in an proven fact that germinates in your brain of the sender of the concept.

Every idea refers to some context. Framework is a common frame of reference within which the sender and the receiver communicate with each other.

Thus, the idea or information that the sender wishes to convey to the receiver is the foundation of the communication in the communication process.

2) Sender/Encoder

The one who initiates the communication process is known as the encoder. The procedure of communication begins with the sender who recognizes the necessity to communicate. He might want to see or even to persuade or to influence or to make the receiver have a particular plan of action.

The sender must have a definite picture in his mind's eye about what he desires to communicate and really should accordingly select symbols, words, images, etc. that would best express his suggestions to the receiver.

He must identify his audience and formulate the meaning so that the receiver is aware of completely what he intends to convey and interprets it within the same context.

PHASE II- ENCODING:

3) Encoding

Encoding takes place when the sender formulates his idea into a note to be transmitted to the receiver, utilizing a series of symbols- verbal and/or non-verbal, written or oral.

The sender should encode his communication keeping in mind the goal of communication and he should select words or icons in order to make the receiver understand the communication correctly also to achieve the expected responses.

The sender as well as the receiver should add the same meaning to the icons or words, in any other case communication would fail. Thus, proper encoding is essential for successful communication.

4) Message

That which is encoded, i. e. the idea/strategy/information, is the communication. Message is an idea changed into words.

It can be expressed in several ways depending on subject-matter, purpose, audience, personal style and ethnic history of the sender.

It can be sent effectively only once it is well-formulated, clear, and complete alone.

PHASE III- TRANSMITTING:

5) Channel and Medium

An appropriate medium chosen to send the concept is known as channel. It's the vehicle which helps the sender to mention the meaning to the receiver.

Channel is the machine used to transmit a message, whereas medium is one of the varieties or types used under that system.

For example, oral communication is a channel and telephone dialogue (a kind of oral communication) is a medium.

There are three extensive stations of communication and there are several media under each-

Channel Medium

1. Mouth face-to-face conversation, cell phone conversation,

audio-tapes, voice mail, etc.

2. Written words, memos, reports, manuals, notices, circulars,

questionnaires, minutes, email, fax, etc.

3. Audio-visual theatre, tv set, video-tapes, video conferences,

video chat, etc.

Thus, there is a difference between medium and channel. The sender should make a decision the perfect route and medium to transfer the note.

The collection of an appropriate route/medium would be inspired by the following factors- a) the type of the note, b) the urgency of the subject matter, c) the amount of receivers, d) the cost factor, and e) the relationship between your sender and the receiver.

PHASE IV- RECEIVING:

6) Receiver/Decoder

The one who obtains the encoded concept is known as the decoder. He is the supposed audience of the message.

The receiver may be an individual or a group of individuals. As communication is a two-way process, the receiver is really as important as the sender of the concept.

Communication will not be complete in the following situations-

a) in the lack of the receiver,

b) if the message will not reach the right/supposed receiver, and

c) if the receiver will not understand the communication.

A receiver may be considered a listener or a audience or a audience of the subject matter. He not only obtains the subject matter but also attempts to comprehend, interpret, and perceive the total interpretation of the concept, as was planned by the sender, and gives necessary reviews.

7) Decoding

It is an activity by which the receiver interprets the communication and translates it into significant information.

The meaning of the communication is the sum total of the meanings of what (symbols) alongside the firmness and the attitude of the sender as reflected by his selection of words and the composition of the subject matter.

If the receiver's decoding is the same as or similar to the sender's intended subject matter, then fidelity of communication is reported to be achieved.

Encoding and decoding should not be affected by sound (Refer Chapter 4 Resolving Obstacles to Communication), if communication should be effective.

PHASE V- RESPONDING:

8) Feedback

Feedback is the response given by the receiver of the subject matter to the sender of the message. If the encoder receives reviews, he reaches know that communication has been completed.

Feedback can be immediate, as in the case of face-to-face communication, or it may be at a later time, as regarding written communication. It could be positive or negative. It can be verbal or non-verbal.

In communication, reviews performs an important role. It helps in mitigating the discrepancy between the message as transmitted by the encoder and the concept as interpreted by the decoder. It thus means that the receiver has received the meaning and known it just as it was meant by the sender.

Silence and being attentive are two common varieties of feedback in oral communication. Usually, these types of reviews can be interpreted only in relation to the decoder's body gestures, especially his facial expressions. Feedback can even be in the form of a reaction like applause which expresses authorization or popularity of the encoder's subject matter or information.

An effective communicator is usually very sensitive to feedback and constantly modifies his/her message based on the reviews received. Thus, reviews is the most crucial component of communication. Without opinions, communication process is imperfect.

Example: Let us identify the many components of the communication process in the following instance of communication.

A university student, who lives in a hostel, wants some money. So he writes a letter to his dad asking him to send him money. The father sends money, plus a letter cautioning his child to be careful while spending it. In both instances (sending the amount of money and mailing the notice), the daddy is responding to the communication initiated by his child.

Encoder- the pupil/child

Message- needs money

Channel- written communication

Medium- a letter

Decoder- the father

Feedback- sends money, sends a notice cautioning his child to be cautious while

spending money

1. 8 OTHER MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

One way to understand the complex functions involved in communication is by learning the different types of communication as conceived by different scholars over a period.

1. The Linear Model

According to 1 of the initial conceptualizations of communication, communication was considered as a one-way process where information moves from the sender to the receiver.

According to this model, the receiver will not take a dynamic part in the communication process. He passively will get the meaning and acts as instructed or desired by the sender.

Another drawback of the model is that it assumes that the subject matter, while getting transmitted through the channel and medium chosen by the sender, grows to the receiver without the distortion or change.

2. The Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)

Around the next World Warfare, Claude Shannon who was a research scientist at Bell Mobile phone Company worked after devising a way of reaching maximum telephone series capacity with bare minimum distortion. He previously never anticipated that his theory of signal transmitting for telephones would turn out to be one of the significant contributions in the introduction of the idea of communication.

This occurred when Warren Weaver drew on Shannon's idea of information damage and applied it to social communication, thus creating an almost correct model of communication.

Shannon and Weaver produced a general model of communication in which the emphasis is on transmission and reception of information. Therefore, this model is also known as Transmission Model of Communication.

It is a straightforward linear model which can be easily understood. But the significant addition here is the introduction of the idea of noise in the communication process for the first time.

According to Shannon and Weaver's model, a note originates at an information source, it is then conveyed through the transmitter, and then dispatched to the receiver via a signal. Before achieving the receiver, the message has to pass through certain 'options of interference', that is noise. And lastly, it grows to its destination via the receiver.

The concept of noise as employed by Shannon and Weaver refers to semantic noise i. e. barriers that come up due to distinctions in meaning that folks assign to words, in modifications in shade, in gestures, etc.

However, this model has a disadvantage. It conceives the communication process as a linear act, i. e. it talks about communication as a one-way process. Opinions is not considered an integral element of the communication process.

This model is dependant on the theory that communication is complete when the message has been received, preferably without any distortion.

Developed Version of the Shannon-Weaver Model

The downside of the general model was remedied by the addition of the feedback loop. Weaver introduced responses as a corrective to noise.

But this developed version is also not flawless. Its major disadvantage is the fact that it considers the subject matter as relatively unproblematic. The challenge arises with the assumption that meanings are somehow included within the message. (Refer Section 4 Resolving Barriers to Communication)

3. Berlo's S-M-C-R Model (1960)

Berlo introduces a new concept by stressing the role of the partnership between the encoder and the decoder in the successful completion of the communication process.

According to this model, there are five elements within both the encoder and the decoder which influence and determine the fidelity of communication.

Berlo shifts the emphasis from the transmitting of the message to the meaning itself and features the significant role of the encoder and the decoder and exactly how it affects fidelity of communication. Thus, Berlo makes the message the central factor. The S-M-C-R Model recognizes that the receiver is as important to communication as the sender and the message, as without the receiver there may be no communication.

Berlo emphasizes the fact that the notion of encoding and decoding is difficult, as translating our thoughts into words or symbols is a sophisticated mental process and deciphering what and icons of others into ideas that we can understand and interpret is evenly challenging.

To sum up, the comprehensive evaluation of the type of communication and the phases by which it moves along its way from the sender to the receiver that people have carried out in this chapter shall equip the readers with the basic knowledge required to know how communication is completed and this shall definitely prove to be a valuable first rung on the ladder in their quest for the goal of acquiring effective communication skills and becoming successful communicators.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

In this chapter, we have outlined the many factors in charge of the growing importance of communication in the framework of modern business organizations. We've discussed this is of communication generally speaking and the importance of business communication in particular.

Then we have enlisted the significant features as well as objectives of communication. Also, we've analysed in detail the procedure of communication and the many elements involved with it.

Lastly, we have discussed how the communication process works by using different models of communication created by the experts in the field of communication, starting from the most basic ones to the highly advanced conceptions.

KEY TERMS

Business communication: communication performed by way of a business group with the purpose of attaining certain specific goals

Common structure of research: the framework where communication will take place

Communication: "an exchange of thoughts, communications, or information, as by speech, indicators, writing, or behavior"

Co-ordination: the skillful interaction of varied activities

Interpersonal communication: an exchange of information between two individuals

Decoder: one who gets the encoded message

Decoding: a process where the receiver interprets the note and translates it into significant information

Encoder: the individual who initiates the communication process

Encoding: an activity by which the sender puts his idea/s into words

Feedback: the response distributed by the receiver of the subject matter to the sender of the message

Idea: (in communication) thought, concept, information to be communicated

Inter-organisational: between two different organizations

Intra-organisational: within the same organization

Mass communication: an exchange of information between an individual/s and a larger band of people

Message: the idea/notion/information which is encoded utilizing a series of symbols- verbal and/or non-verbal, written or oral

Noise: (in communication) sources of interference

Productivity: (in business) the quality of being effective in obtaining desired results

Transmission of note: the act or process of conveying the message

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

I. REVIEW QUESTIONS

Define communication. Discuss its significant features and make clear its main objectives.

Explain the procedure of communication. Discuss the many elements mixed up in process of communication.

What is a message? What stages should it pass through along the way of communication?

State three meanings of communication as given by some of the eminent communication experts. Based on this, explain the meaning, characteristics and goals of communication in simple.

"Communication is a two-way process of exchanging ideas or information. " Describe the affirmation and discuss the role of opinions in communication.

"Without feedback, there is absolutely no communication. " Comment.

What is business communication? Clarify the functions of business communication in modern times.

Discuss the significance of effective communication in a company organization and the factors that are accountable for it.

"To inform and persuade will be the two most important goals of communication. " Comment.

What, according for you, if the communicator do to make communication effective?

"Communication is the life-blood of each business business, especially in the current globalized market current economic climate. " Explain.

Analyze different types of communication. Compare their features and discuss their drawbacks.

Explain in detail the Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication.

Write on take note on David Berlo's S-M-C-R Model.

"Communication links people mutually to accomplish common goals. " Comment.

II. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

The expression 'Communication' comes from the Latin word

a) Communis b) Community

c) Co-ordinate d) Commune

The person to whom the concept is transmitted is known as

a) the sender b) the organiser

c) the receiver d) the transmitter

The process of communication is set up by

a) the decoder b) the listener

c) the receiver d) the encoder

For a important communication, the sender must know

a) the audience b) the objective

c) the terminology d) all of these

Feedback is sent to the______________.

a) channel b) sender

c) decoder d) receiver

Effective communicators predict the barriers to communication and

__________ them.

a) insert b) remove

c) gather d) adopt

Which of these enables you to evaluate the effectiveness of your message?

a) Language b) Firmness c) Feedback d) Eyesight contact

The first step in the process of communication is

a) encoding b) ideating c) responding d) receiving

Choose the wrong statement:

a) Communication is an exchange of ideas.

b) Communication is an ongoing process.

c) Communication is only listening.

d) Communication is a two-way process.

Communication involves sending, obtaining and _______ emails.

a) involving b) handling c) interpreting d) exchanging

III. MATCH THE FOLLOWING

A B

1. An exchange of facts, ideas, a. Purpose of communication

opinions or emotions

2. Negative response to a note b. Message

3. Live relay of the talk on radio c. Encoder

4. Co-ordination of activities d. Context

5. Notice to a pal e. Medium

6. A concept changed into words f. Mass communication

7. Movies g. Feedback

8. Fields of experience h. Interpersonal communication

9. Mobile phone i. Communication

10. Sender of the concept j. Audio-visual Channel

IV. ACTIVITIES

Observe a particular example of communication in the group which you are a component of- i. e. classmates, family, neighbours, friends, etc. Do you think it was effective? Justify your answer with careful arguments. Use good examples from that one conversation to illustrate your views.

Indicate the critical difference between effective and ineffective communication by making use of at least five instances.

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