Basic theory for a gas chromatography lab report: the overview of the main principles

Nowadays, it is impossible to imagine a chemical laboratory without a gas chromatograph. Contemporary science uses gas chromatography to analyze solids, liquids and gases, and also it is the premier technique for separation of volatile compounds. Usually, both inorganic and organic materials are analyzed in a range of molecular weights from 2 to more than 1200 daltons. A chromatography lab report format states that capillary columns provide highly efficient resolution – for example, more than 460 components were separated in coffee aroma. Flame ionization detector altogether with other sensitive detectors can quantitate less than 50 ppb of organic compounds, showing a relative standard deviation of about 4%.

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Normally, the sample is injected as a vapor into the chromatographic column. The solubility of each component in the gas phase is greatly dependent on its vapor pressure and differences in the vapor pressure causes the molecules of given components to become separated between the stationary phase and the mobile gas phases. That is, molecules constantly move, changing between two phases, and their partition is caused by the difference in residence time in each phase. The process of detection is itself very complicated and that is why students often ask for help writing a research paper for chromatography. Every molecule that enters the gas phase moves with the carrier gas flow towards the detector. Therefore, substances with different chemical and physical properties will be swept to the detector at different times. There are two forms of chromatography and the difference is based on whether the stationary phase is a liquid or solid: gas-liquid (GLC) and gas-solid chromatography respectively.

In the gas chromatographic system the mobile phase is represented by the carrier gas. Since the resolution of the chromatography methods depends on the molecular exchange between the mobile and stationary phases, the carrier gas flow is a crucial variable, that is used in controlling the retention time of the compound components. Consequently there is a rule: to halve the retention time of all the components on the column one needs to double the carrier gas flow. Also, laboratory personnel ought to know all the technical requirements of chromatography processes before they would be allowed to work with analytical equipment – similarly to physical laboratory workers, who study many routine requirements before writing the simplest pendulum lab report. Thus, all the gasses that are used in chromatography must be of extremely high purity, and scientists put a lot of effort to remove trace quantities of hydrocarbons, oxygen and moisture before the gas enters the instrument. The worse contaminant is oxygen because it causes column degradation and promotes problems with detectors’ sensitivity, such as mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors. Analysts use cartridges of absorbent to remove contaminants from the passing gas.

Since working with inflammable gasses and/or gases under high pressure is a little more dangerous than an absence of Emergent Computer Technologies homework help, laboratory workers should know all hazardous specifics of the work with chromatography equipment. You should constantly observe the sampling system and gas cylinders in order to avoid gas pressure rise. Also, make sure that all heated elements such as the detector, inlet and oven are cooled down before touching them. Be careful with power cords and keep all safety panels in their places in order to elude electrical shock. Check attentively all fittings and plumbing to prevent gas leaks.

Unlike art history paper topics, the manufacturer’s manual for every chromatograph is usually clear and plain. Therefore, operators should familiarize themselves with characteristics and specifics of the available instrument. Here are tips that will be helpful for working with carrying gasses and adjusting the injector:

  • - remember that the provision of gas for GC analyses lies on your shoulders. As long as it is your responsibility, always use high purity carrier gases (usually, with purity of 99.996%) and coordinate your selection with the specific recommendations of suppliers and manufacturers. Also, chose the most effective cartridges to purify gases and replace the absorbent whenever necessary. Unfortunately, you ought to do that part totally on your own, since there is not the situation where you may say: write my papers for me!
  • - check and leak-test all joints and connectors in the gas delivery system to avoid the ingress of air into the instrument’s internal environment. Especially, testing procedures must be applied when detectors or the column were changed. Obviously, you should pay attention to such issues in every chromatography lab report example.
  • - if you are leaving the instrument to be running overnight, it is necessary for you to check whether the reserves of gas are sufficient.
  • - be especially careful with an injector temperature: too low temperature can lead to tailing peaks and too high temperature can cause component degradation. Practically, to find the necessary temperature equilibrium with manufacturer’s guidance is as easy as write a personal narrative essay with helpful and deeply concerned teacher.
  • - always examine peaks on the first chromatogram more attentively for your chromatography lab report: 1) distorted peaks indicate that too big volume of sample has been injected; 2) broad peaks at the beginning mean that the solute was not focused tightly into a band – therefore, check the parameters associated with techniques of sampling and injection.

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