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Universalist Approach To Strategic Human Resource Management Business Essay

Your role and history is that of a Man Reference Management generalist advisor who has been called in to provide observations and ideas to the current situation. You are an HRM generalist who may have been asked to stay in on the meeting with John of PF. The CEO will require your opinions about how exactly the company can progress and overcome the existing conditions that it is experiencing.

This is based on two critical types of fit. Firstly, external fit and secondly inner fit. The exterior fit is due to the HR strategy that matches with the demands of business Strategy. Additionally it is known as vertical integration, the internal fit which is also referred to as horizontal integration shows that all HR guidelines and activities fit together in order that they make a coherent overall, are mutually reinforcing and are applied constantly. The strength of this model is the fact that it provides a simple framework showing how selection, appraisal, development and praise can be mutually targeted at produce the required of staff performance.

Resource centered approach

This approach in worried about the associations between internal resources of which Human resources are one, strategy and the strong performance. It targets the Campaign of sustained competitive benefit through the development of human capital alternatively than only aligning recruiting to current tactical goals.

The 'universalistic' point of view posits the 'best' of HR practices, implying that business strategies and HRM guidelines are mutually indie in identifying business performance. The 'contingency' point of view emphasizes the fit between business strategy and HRM policies and strategies, implying that business strategies are followed by HRM procedures in deciding business performance. The 'configurationally' perspective posits a simultaneous inside and exterior fit between a firm's exterior environment, business strategy and HR strategy, implying that business strategies and HRM procedures interact, according to organisational context in identifying business performance.

Recruitment and selection

Using the three recruitment ways of advertising in the national press, advertising in the complex press, and the internet, evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each.

National press

When considering a press adverting campaign there are two main locations to take into account; newspapers and magazines. Each has its benefits and drawbacks. The magazine advertisements look better but the quality and the workmanship that switches into producing a journal advertisement make it expensive. The readership of an newspaper, on the other side, is much simpler to target, and it is comes with the type of magazine you select; a car journal, activities or fashion magazine. On the other hand, magazine advertising are looked at more times than magazine ads and can double the vulnerability of the readership. the newspapers ad is much quicker and cheaper. Magazines vary in circulation and with this they vary considerably in price. In the national press marketing campaign in papers, advertising in newspapers still holds a appeal.

Newspapers give credibility to the ads unlike radio advertising that is listened to while doing another thing, newspaper reading is performed whenever a person has free time and his attention is not diverted. Local press advertising has benefits when working with an area supplier.


Advertising is the branch of marketing that deals with connecting to customers about products, brands, services and companies. The Internet, as a global communications medium, provides promoters with unique and frequently cost-effective ways of reaching advertising viewers. As with all multimedia, however, advertising on the Internet has unique benefits and drawbacks.

Advertising on the Internet is almost essential for modern businesses, especially those that do business outside of their local community. Consumers make an online search for more than merely entertainment or information, as they are doing with radio, television set, magazines and newspaper publishers. Consumers make an online search to aid them in practically every aspect of life, creating many opportunities to place relevant, targeted advertisement announcements. The Internet's vast reach can allow advertisers to attain significantly more people than traditional advertising press at a portion of the price. Internet advertising is ideal for businesses with a national or international marketplace and large-scale distribution capabilities. As a rule, the more people your business functions, the most cost-efficient internet advertising can be. Internet advertising can even be more targeted than some common media, making certain your messages are seen by the most relevant followers. One drawback of advertising on the web is that your marketing materials are automatically available for anyone on earth to copy, whatever the legal ramifications. Logos, images and trademarks can be copied and used for commercial purposes, or to slander or mock your enterprise. This isn't the situation with television set and newspaper advertising, wherein images must be replicated rather than copied electronically. Another disadvantage is the fact that the Internet-advertising silver rush has begun to introduce advertisement clutter to the Web. Web users are so inundated with banner advertising and spam email they have begun to ignore internet advertising as much as advertising on traditional mass media.

Technical press

There are many trades, specialized and professional periodicals read by customers, suppliers and businesses in your sector. If the business provides to other businesses, adverts in these magazines can be considered a powerful way of getting sales, product enquiries, higher profile, trade partnerships and even potential traders.

Editorials are generally perceived by readers to be unbiased and impartial and are therefore viewed as more dependable than adverts. Editorial support or endorsement helps give your business reliability with the audience. A proactive PR strategy can boost your chances of increasing advantageous editorial content. The complex press can be used for recruitment and to source suppliers. Trade publications provide a variety of ways to advertise:

Classified advertising - particularly for recruitment and gaining suppliers.

Display and semi-display - screen advertising are bigger plus more sophisticated, often seem on editorial web pages or in special supplements, and can use pictures and other design devices.

Advertisement features - they're organized like editorial internet pages but feature you and your business or product. You purchase them, and you'll also get ad space. Your suppliers might advertise as well and offset the cost.

Loose inserts that you supply yourself to the newspaper publisher to allow them to insert in to the magazine.

Advantages and Drawbacks of performance related pay

Performance related pay is the thought of Fredrick Taylor who comprised his theory of methodical management. It really is a benefit salary increase given consistent with an employee's accomplishment over a variety of criteria. These criteria rely upon each job. Prizes are decided based on appraisal results. They must link successes to pay.


Rewards employees with highest productivity

It is argued this technique motivates staff

It enables firms to recruit highly qualified personnel who like the thought of being to earn a bonus

Encourages employees whose performance is not u to scrape to leave company on the voluntary basis

Easy to recognize companies aims and objectives


Only those who perform well get paid

High flyers find it attractive possible to provide employees no pay surge at all

Inflation means pay will be minimize and this coupled with; the indignity of being judged and found wanting, would make it that employee's see a job anywhere else.

Employees can be de-motivated if the goals set are too much to accomplish.

Disgruntled employees

Performance related pay cannot be determined unless there is a measuring system in spot to assess output. It also provides a restricting factor to the utilization and expansion of incentive pay in instances where work is difficult to evaluate. Where output cannot be measured, the wise solution seems never to pay any benefit. However, because some jobs are difficult to assess, doesn't mean that good performance shouldn't be rewarded. .

Learning and Training

The essential reason for training is to develop that knowledge and the ones skills and aptitudes which contribute to the welfare of the company and its own employees. Further, all training programs target at making the employees more effective and successful in their present job and increasing their prospect of higher level careers.

For effective transfer of training that occurs, two conditions must be achieved;

The trainee must be able to take the materials learnt in working out process and use it to the work context in which they work.

The use of the learnt material must be preserved overtime on the job.

Benefits of Good Training Programme

It rises performance face to face, if applied. It help employee to improve current skill levels and perfect any deficiency which may have in doing their job efficiently.

It permits present employees to acquire more and greater skill, thus increasing their flexibility for exchanges and their qualifications for deals.

If employees are properly trained, damages, soiled work, and damage to machines and equipment are reduced.

Training helps employees to change to new methods and functions that are unveiled from time to time.

Good training reduces dissatisfaction and absenteeism because it helps both new and experienced employees to work with fully, their specific capacities.

It improves the quality of output that will benefit the company in the long run.

Training enhances the promotional possibility.


The HR Manager has o critically assess the training following the training exercise to determine when there is any change in their knowledge, skills, behaviour and ability. It is important to comprehend which skills; attitude and ability been around before it is therefore recommended that a way of measuring performance be carried out before the training curriculum begins.


This address the question, to what extent does the participant job behaviour change as a result of the training? Are the individuals using their newly bought skills and knowledge in their work place? Is their change in behaviour and new knowledge suffered, are they using them effectively overtime. Is the trainee able to transfer the new skills to some other person?


Results answer fully the question, how is the training impacting on the organization overall. Is There a decrease in cost, upsurge in sales, is there more people being drawn to company, improvement in production levels, less customer issues or decrease in incidents?

Performance appraisal

This system is designed to measure the genuine job performance of a worker. It provides feedback about the success about past trainees and discloses the necessity for extra training. It can help to ascertain rewards or sanctions eg, of pay back are pay increases predicated on his/her performance, promotion, commendation, demotion, warning or termination. It also gives the employee an obvious understanding where he stands in relation to the company performance expectation.

Performance Management System

Performance appraisal is a method of analyzing a personnel performance to ascertain how well he/she is reaching up with performance standards and focuses on and communicating it to the worker in order to create an idea of improvement. Performance is the amount of accomplishment of the jobs that define an employee's job. An individual's performance is a blend of:

Effort-physical and mental energy devote a work

Ability-personal characteristics used doing a job

Role perception-an knowledge of path and requirements of a job

Performance analysis on person and group is usually based on:

Standards establish at the planning stage

Performance targets established for individual or groups

Accountability-the rate at which an employee knows and calls for responsibility for his actions

Competencies-the skills, experience, knowledge a worker displays in a job

Uses of performance appraisal

Performance appraisal information can be used for:



Merit pay increases

Individual and organisational training and development

Suggesting changes in behaviour, attitudes, skills or knowledge

Selection methods, and

Human source planning

Performance Appraisal Methods

Performance appraisal methods include:

Goal environment, or management by objectives (MBO)

Work standards approach

Essay appraisal

Critical incident appraisal

Graphic score scale


Behaviorally anchored ranking scale (Pubs)

Ranking methods

1. Goal setting techniques or management by aims. Management by objective contains the following steps:

Establishing a clear objectives for the work to be achieved by an employee

Developing an action plan indicating how these aims should be achieved

Allowing the employee to implement the action plan

Measuring objective achievement

Taking corrective action when needed

Establishing new aims for the future

2. Work specifications approach. This technique of appraisal entails setting a standard or an expected level of outcome and then checking each employee's level to the standard. Performance criteria include:







Attendance, etc.

3. Article appraisal

In this technique the appraiser prepares a written declaration (narrative) describing a worker's strengths and weaknesses, and earlier performance. An average article appraisal question might be "Describe this employee's performance, including quality and level of work, job knowledge, and ability to be friends with other employees. "

4. Critical occurrence appraisal

In this method the appraiser continues a written record of incidents that illustrate both sufficient and unsatisfactory behaviors of the worker. The appraiser then uses these situations as a basis for assessing the employee's performance.

5. Graphic rating scale

This method requires the appraiser to indicate on a range where the worker rates on factors such as quantity of work, stability, job knowledge, and cooperativeness. Graphical scores include both numerical ranges and written explanations. Former mate. On "level of work" (1) the staff member does not meet minimum necessity (2) Does sufficient to get by(5) has an excellent work creation record.

6. Checklist

In this method the appraiser answers with a yes or no to some questions about the behavior of the employee being rated. The checklist can have varying weight assigned to each question.

7. Behaviorally anchored rating scale (Pubs)

This approach to appraisal establishes an employee's level of performance predicated on if certain specifically job habits are present. Pubs consist of level value and anchors.

Scale values identify specific types of performance such as: Excellent, good, average, poor, etc. Anchors are statements which indicate the level of performance on the range opposite that one anchor.

8. Standing methods

In this method of appraisal, the performance of an employee is ranked in accordance with the performance of others.

Ranking methods include:

Alternation ranking

Paired comparison position, and

Forced distribution

Alternation ranking-the appraiser lists the titles of employees to be scored on the kept side of the sheet of newspaper. The rater chooses the most valuable worker on the list, crosses that name off of the left-hand list, and puts near the top of the column on the right-hand part of the paper. The rater repeats the process for all titles on the left hand side of the paper.

Paired comparison standing: imagine a rater is to judge six employees. The names of these folks are detailed on the kept side of an sheet of newspaper. The rater then compares the first employee with the second employee on the chosen performance criterion, such as quantity of work; he then makes a tag on the first employees name if he produced more. Then compares the first worker with the 3rd, fourth, fifth, and 6th employees on a single performance criterion.

Forced distribution-In this method, the appraiser places a certain ratio of employees at various performance levels. It assumes performance in a group of employees is sent out according to a normal curve. Thus, the rater could place 60% of employees as getting together with expectation; 20% as exceeding expectation, and 20% as not get together expectations.

Model of Attendance

Your company won't suffer from much from the casual staff day off or sick and tired day, but habits of absences can create havoc in your projects place. With several employees from the office, creation slows, or other employees may need to grab the slack causing the quality of their work to put up with. When you can't prevent every absence, you can take steps to decrease the number of overall absences.

Create an Attendance Policy

Some employees may show up overdue or take several days off because they do not understand the business's stance on absences. You need a clear-cut attendance insurance policy so every employee knows what you anticipate of him. Include known reasons for acceptable absences, what you take into account unacceptable and any disciplinary action or reduction in pay the staff may face after abusing holiday break or sick times. Make sure every employee will get a copy of this coverage. Have your supervisors monitor their employees and enforce the insurance policy.

Improve Morale

If your office staff suffers from general low morale, employees will start to dread approaching to work. This may increase absences throughout the staff. Spend time every week on improving morale. Make certain every staff has regularly scheduled breaks each day. Offer group lunches, awards for completing assignments or other incentives. Setting up a positive environment that incorporates effort with down time helps improve morale.

Reduce Stress

An worker can feel pressured in the workplace, especially if she has a large workload. High degrees of stress can result in avoidance, or even cause an illness. Both which can result in frequent absences. Make sure every employee has an even workload and can complete duties directed at them. Create teams to complete jobs, rather than assigning one staff to the complete task. Lowering workloads and positioning the right people who have the right careers will certainly reduce stress levels at work.

Steers and Rhodes developed a model on absenteeism which according to Harrison and Martocchio, 1998 was deemed to be very influential and sometimes cited in literatures about absenteeism within organizations. The model state governments that the capability of employees or workers to attend work is mainly dictated by how stimulated as well as their potential to attend and perform their obligations. These variables, ability and determination have been thought to interact in a manner that an individual expected ability to be there at the job usually moderates his/her excitement to wait work-what has been known as attendance relationship(Steers and Susan, 1978). The two further argued that personal characteristics or capabilities which include sex(gender), tenure, family size, education, in addition to that, job satisfaction, organizational determination, the capability to sign up for which encompass sickness, family responsibilities, accidents as well as transfer problems, pressure to wait which include attendance prize system/bonuses/bonuses, work group norms all either in isolation or in combo influence absenteeism of employees. It really is worth to note that these were addition to their preliminary model developed in 1978 which only discovered job satisfaction as the only specific significant factor influencing attendance motivation. From the diagram, attendance inspiration is influenced by organizational practices, culture of absenteeism, frame of mind, ideals and goals of employees. Employees who are completely content with their jobs do have strong commitment to the organization and pleased with it hence will wish to actively take part in activities to better the organization, and this is done by being present at the job.


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