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Person Centred Counselling RESEARCH STUDY Examples

Keywords: counselling case study essay, person centred research study

Background Information

Rose, mother to five season old daughter, appears to be well spoken and articulate. No details when it comes to Rose's marital status, work or family aside from her child were readily evident from the session. No information is provided as to whether Rose has other children, or family living and work arrangements. Unfortunately, there is also no information in regards to any previous health issues.

Description of the Presenting Problem

The presenting issue was the five-year old girl not sleeping in her own foundation for the entire night time. When Rose's child would awaken in the center of the night crying, Rose would take her princess from her own room to her foundation, the reasoning that if Rose just put her back in her own foundation she'd be awake crying again in a few minutes. It was chosen (presumably a joint decision between Rose and her partner) that this should be ceased, as it was leading to problems for Rose in that she herself had not been able to rest as her child would dominate the foundation, and Rose was struggling to get sufficient important sleeping. The joint decision was that the kid would permitted to cry, and not transferred from her own bed.

Progress had been made in getting her princess to sleep in her own foundation for the full evening, but this improved two weeks in the past, and Rose feels they are back to square one. No information has been provided concerning whether there is a precipitating occurrence that caused the change in behavior and reversed the progress that had been made. Rose has had conversations with her daughter's teachers, however no files can be purchased in respect to any action taken.


It is involving that Dr Berenson as counsellor will not seem to obtain sufficient backdrop information on the condition that Rose is working with to create any prognosis or action plan for helping Rose. The difficulty being encountered by Rose is dealt with as an mental and relationship issue by Dr Berenson.


During the procedure, Dr Berenson, a therapist by using a humanistic approach, tries to help Rose offer with this problem. The person-centred counselling methodology used, also called client-centered, places a lot of the duty for the treatment process on your client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role (Egan, 2007).

The person-centred strategy considers the client as the expert independently experience, and that your client is competent to reach their own potential for change and development. Rogers believed people are intrinsically good and trusted, having the potential to understand themselves and deal with their own problems without undue intrusion from a counsellor (Geldard & Geldard, 2005).

Person-centred theory will not require that the client be diagnosed in order to get and realise improvement. Counsellors avoid being directive, as the client is in charge of the course (Egan, 2007).


The program itself felt quite short at only 30 mins long. The setting of the procedure as a training tool may also have influenced both the counsellor Dr Berenson and Rose as your client, making them very self aware, and not providing a comfortable and protected climate conducive to important communication. Dr Berenson makes note during the program about whether they are "ruining the interview or not", and it does appear that his attention is divided.

It also came out a bit strange in the light of the change and development in person-centered counselling theory in the decades since Rose and Dr Berenson registered this session. It was actually quite difficult to split up an evaluation of techniques and skills utilized by Dr Berenson, from the attitudes and varieties of the time. One could be quite revisionist, and appearance at the program only through the lens of current mind-set of the role of ladies in the house and the seemingly paternalistic manner of the male doctor towards a lady customer. Dr Berenson is not an inexperienced or untrained counsellor, and has developed counselling theory research in regards to social skills and organisational models.

However, when it comes to communication skills and counselling techniques modeled by Dr Berenson, there are some aspects that may be improved upon, and perhaps such a short training tape was not the best exemplory case of an array of person-centered techniques. In such a short, artificial setting up, it might be difficult to demonstrate every single counselling approach possible, plus much more difficult to develop a healing counselling relationship, and very much of problem to set the central conditions for healing change.

Roger's center conditions

The three main core conditions that Carl Rogers considered needed for effective counselling are unconditional positive regard, empathy and congruence (Myers, 1986). In addition to these three basic requirements, Roger theorised that there were six conditions in total, and if we were holding all fulfilled, the client would improve as time passes. These six conditions are that:

Unconditional positive respect, empathy and congruence must assist change and improvement. Without these conditions being present a healing relationship will not emerge. Your client has to be engaged. Emotional contact is necessary. If your client does not want to be there they may be free to withdraw and the counselling process cannot continue. Achieving any aim requires stimulating conditions - in unfavourable conditions, individuals may not develop in approximately often possible (Kottler, 2004).

Unconditional positive respect is thought as whenever a counsellor accepts your client unconditionally and unreservedly. Your client is absolve to explore their thoughts and values without fear of censure or disapproval. The client is free to explore without having to meet any requirements of behaviour or to anything to earn positive regard. The client can just acknowledge it as simple fact (Egan, 2007).

Empathic understanding is characterised by the counsellor effectively perceiving the client's thoughts and views from the other's point of view. When the counsellor understands the particular world appears like from the client's perspective, it shows that that view has value, which your client being accepted for themselves (Corey, 2009).

Congruence is thought as the counsellor being genuine and real. The counsellor does not present as a distant expert, but is right there in the procedure, present and transparent to the client (Corey, 2009.

The three main conditions are to help your client to expand and develop in their own way - to build up and develop their own home also to become an improved person free from outside pressures to do something or think in specific ways (Corey, 2009). During the treatment with Rose and Dr Berenson, these basic conditions weren't always evident. You can find is basic connection there, and Rose does indeed give thanks to Dr Berenson by the end for the chance, but throughout the treatment, Rose does not seem to really have the opportunity to notify her storyline without interruption or in her own words. Rose is very being listened to, or her insight valued. The treatment results in as more a psychology lecture than a therapeutic romantic relationship; more science than helping.


The session does start well, with reduced encourages, such as "Mmm", and "Umm" were found in the beginning, with Dr Berenson prompting Rose to inform her story. It does not always progress well. A number of the language utilized by Dr Berenson does not seem appropriate, informing Rose to "resolve the conflict inside" and "censor a few of that". This is very stilted and academics phrasing to be utilized in talking to a housewife.

Advising a mother of an five-year old that the child is a "partner in your time and effort", and also to give "that understanding to her" does not appear helpful in any way. Perhaps in an extended session, Rose could have had the opportunity to talk more with Dr Berenson, and go into problem handling models in more depth.

Interrupting is generally wii communication style for counselling, yet Dr Berenson does indeed interrupt Rose many times during the treatment. Dr Berenson also asks many shut questions, not presenting Rose the chance to tell her report, and ending up with a series of questions where in fact the only reply from Rose is "Yes". There where few probing questions asked; a more effective use of questioning may have helped Rose concern and explore her options.

The short procedure did not appear to show an authentic congruent relationship - communication did not always work both ways. Dr Berenson appears to be asking leading question - providing a remedy for Rose, rather than allowing her to answer, and informing Rose what she feels "partly you feel some guilt" "you are torn" "one sensing substances another". This does not stumbled upon a mirroring back again to Rose what the counsellor is reading, and possibly more level of sensitivity could be shown in naming emotions. Making assumption with inadequate information should also be avoided.


In general, this session seemed to be more about the counsellor, that your client. Again, this may be the consequence of the artificiality of the procedure, rather than a faltering of the counsellor. Still, there is no research that Dr Berenson is able to put himself in another's shoes, and show an understanding of what Rose is being.

Perhaps some talk about childhood norms may have been appropriate. It may be helpful for an initial time parent to know that this situation is not unusual. Perhaps some focused self-disclosure, if Dr Berenson is a mother or father who has been around similar situations, could be helpful for Rose to help make the situation less about issue and guilt, and focus more on doing what's best for herself and her family (Egan, 2007).

Dr Berenson also explains to Rose immediately what the target is; "to solve the conflict, within you, not get your little princess back in foundation" - somewhat than as an understanding listener, he is the one doing most of the talking by the end, and Rose is the one reduced to one word answers.

Problem Solving

To have the ability to solve a problem, the essential thing needed is information about the existing situation, and also determination for Rose to change and progress. Dr Berenson discussed guilt and tears, but seemed a bit brief looking at the source of any problems or difficulties, or on functional and substantial assistance in assisting Rose to deal with her problem.

It would also be of a concern if there have been other factors or issues impacting on Rose and her daughter. Dr Berenson, with a more in-depth dialogue, may have looked at a deeper reason for the night time time interruption, such as night time terrors or an identical rest disorder, which would effect on any intervention or action considered by Rose. There could be a far more serious actual cause for her daughter's waking at night, such as college bullying or marriage problems, and a dialogue with the institution teachers and when possible, the little princess, may be helpful. Providing problem fixing techniques for the daughter, somewhat than simply to Rose, in assisting to establish bed time routines, ensuring the bedroom is comfortable and inviting, or it could be something as easy as providing a good night light for the room.

Egan's Helping Model

This is a three-stage method of counselling and assisting clients theorised by Egan as an instrument to help people control problems and work out opportunities. The aim of this model is to help people "to become better at aiding themselves in their day-to-day lives" (Egan 2007). The clients' empowerment is stressed, as is the customers (not the counsellors) agenda. This model tries to move the person towards action that causes positive outcomes that contain been chosen by your client, and therefore more valued by your client.

This model is a framework for conceptualising the helping process, and is also very useful for focusing on current issues (Egan, 2007). The model works best if when used with Rogers' main conditions, and the counsellors methodology is based on genuineness, esteem, and empathy, in case good communication and energetic listening techniques are utilized.

The Egan model is designed to move your client through three phases:

  • The Current Picture - where am I now?
  • The Preferred Picture - where do I wish to be?
  • The Way Front - how do you get there?

Not every consumer will need to pass through all three phases, and some might need to move through past stages as, moving back and onward, as different strategies are tested and attempted (Egan, 2007). With an increase of time, and multiple trainings, Dr Berenson might have used this model to allow Rose to find her own avenue, and to test out options and alternatives, providing her ownership of any decision, and not only agreeing to advice from a counsellor.

Improvements and Changes

More empathy could be shown by the counsellor - enough to market a wholesome counsellor/client relationship, however, not so much that this overwhelms the restorative relationship, could have improved the communication between consumer and counsellor: "We sometimes identify so carefully with clients that we lose our very own sense of identification and assume their personal information. Empathy becomes distorted and militates against a restorative involvement" (Corey 2001).

Both counsellor and consumer seemed sidetracked by the tracking process; it could be difficult to promote real communication when the physical environment is distracting or uncomfortable. It is not only the setting when it comes to posture, eyesight contact, or sitting down position; if many people are inattentive scheduled to outside tones, too loud avenue sounds or if the area is too wide open (or closed down), can negatively impact on the therapeutic process (Egan, 2007).

Shorter reactions from Dr Berenson, with a greater use of wide open questions, might have allowed Rose more chance to tell her account, assess her options, and choose actions to accomplish her goal of getting her daughter to stay in her own foundation at night time (Geldard & Geldard, 2005).

The program may be improved upon with the addition of Rose's spouse - the actions and alternatives of the co-parent will impact on the success of Rose's chosen course. Counsellors can help clients to consider options and alternatives, to check out motivations and hurdles, establish goals, and form action ideas. The client has to take on the responsibility for action to accomplish improvement in their life. This session was about more than Rose, it engaged her little girl, and possibly her partner. An organization session might be considered as a choice (Kottler, 2004).

Because of its emphasis on unconditional positive respect and its basic assumption that humans are fundamentally good, this therapeutic way is less in a position to deal with genuinely destructive behaviours - if it surfaced that problems faced where arising from severe disturbances, a referral to a psychiatrist or general practitioner would be an alternative solution. However, where the client has been upset by disturbing events (if these problems where arising from a critical incident at college or at home), unconditional positive regard is a valuable to set up a safe and secure place for your client to cope with problems (Kottler, 2004).

Clients who've a desire to explore their emotions and discover more about themselves as a person may be drawn to the person-centred strategy. Clients who would favor a counsellor who provides great deal of advice and examination could find the person-centred methodology less useful. Clients who want to tackle specific behaviors or habits of thinking may take advantage of the addition of something like Cognitive Behavioural Remedy (Kottler, 2004).

It is very important that counsellors recognise that each client is exclusive and different, with unique needs, and plan intervention accordingly. The counsellor must settle on an individual way that will allow for openness with your client, provide better reactions and response, and lead to more fruitful benefits (Egan, 2007).

Recognising the value of each person is part of the process of developing client confidence and self-assurance, as is providing a safe and supportive environment throughout the counselling process (Geldard & Geldard, 2005). It is merely not always easy.


  • Corey, G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy. Belmont: Thomson/Brooks Cole.
  • Egan, G. (2007). The Skilled Helper: A Problem-Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Supporting 8th ed. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.
  • Geldard, D. & Geldard, K. (2005). Basic Personal Counselling 5th ed. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia.
  • Kottler, J. A. (2004). Launch to Therapeutic Counselling 5th ed. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia.
  • Myers, D. (1986). Psychology. NY: Worth Publishers Inc.
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