"Critically compare and contrast Maslow and Rogers accounts of the Self-Actualised/Fully Performing Person with Positive Psychological Ideas of the 'Smart Person'. "
Talk about the similarities and differences
Self actualization described by Larsen and buss as a "development based motive, a motive to build up, to flourish, and become to become increasingly more what the first is destined to be". The humanistic psychology area focuses on the individual's potential and strains the value of development and self-actualization. This essay will be compared and contrast two personality theories of do-it-yourself actualization from Abraham Maslow s hierarchy of needs and Carl Rogers concept of the fully working person.
Self- actualization to Maslow represents the progress of a person toward fulfilling the best need. Maslow (1968) identified it as 'the procedure for becoming a lot more what one idiosyncratically is, to become everything that one is with the capacity of becoming'. Maslow suggested that individuals aren't doing what they were made to do, they just can't feel completely fulfilled, making the average person feel unsettled about their future. Both Maslow and Rogers agrees that everyone is good and can self actualize.
Maslow was the first to research and initiate the purpose of self-actualization. His theory stems around the idea of 'need', Maslow's hierarchy displays a linear pattern of expansion and is hierarchically organized. More basic needs are found at the bottom of the pyramid, and the do-it-yourself actualization need is at the top. The bottom of the pyramid is the main of the hierarchy in conditions of survival of a person set alongside the higher-level needs (amount 1) to get to the top underneath must all be satisfied. Maslow's hierarchy is described as follows:
- At underneath the pyramid will be the emotional (or basic) needs of an individual: breathing, food, water, rest, sex. The next level is protection needs: security, order, and stableness. These two levels are very important for the basic survival of the average person. Once this is all accomplished, they can strive more.
- The third level of need is love and belonging: once the individual has looked after themselves, they will be ready to discuss themselves with others, such as having family and friends. The fourth level is esteem- this is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have got achieved, Maslow (1968) believed individuals needed to fulfill two types; esteem from others and self-esteem; individuals wish to be recognized by others as successful as well as popularity of their successes and ability. When individuals gain this esteem from others, it is translated into self-confidence; they see themselves as good and valuable.
- The top of the hierarchy is the do-it-yourself- actualization need. That's where the average person knows who they are or what they want to be and has very few questions when coming up with decisions about their life route. It's a state of tranquility and understanding because their full potential has been achieved. Maslow recognized this kind of people who have peak experience and are highly creative.
Maslow (1968) stated that lower degrees of needs within the hierarchy pyramid must be satisfied first before fulfilling the bigger ones. The low-level needs are more powerful and urgent to attain due to their relevancy of success. The needs are established specially to show that an individual must have sufficient food and feel safe before attempting to earn esteem. Maslow (1968) advised that the hierarchy was made to reflect the common specific, it emerges during individuals development -gratifying the low needs early in life, and little by little as the individual develops these needs. Your higher needs will fall under place and become satisfied. Maslow (1968) also theorized that those who attempted to go right to higher need their inspiration would be weak and easily disrupted. 'This inner tendency toward personal actualization is not strong and overpowering and unmistakable like animals' intuition. It is weak and delicate and refined and easily beat by habit, ethnic pressures and wrong attitudes toward it, ' (Maslow, 1968).
Even though Maslow's hierarchy is popular however he previously little research to demonstrate this theory, this theory was based on his thoughts about determination towards self-actualization. Rogers(1902-1987)had an alternative reason to self-actualization. He called it the operating person-"The organism has one basic inclination and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism" (Rogers, 1951). He thought that a fully functioning person is an individual who has already been or on theory way to becoming self-actualized- this occurs whenever a person's ideal self(who they wish to be) is congruent with the actual behavior (self-image). He presumed that everyone could achieve their goals, desires and wishes in life and when the person did so, self - actualization occurs. Rogers (1961) says that not everyone can self-actualize and the people who reach compared to that are called fully performing persons. - the individual is touching her and today and the individuals experiences and thoughts are constantly growing and changing "Such a person encounters in the presindividual'smmediacy. The guy can are in his emotions and reactions of the moment. He's not bound by the structure of his past learning's, but they are a present resource for tom in as far as they relate to the experience of the moment. He lives freely, subjectively, in an existential confrontation of this minute in life, " Rogers (1962) article).
In amount 2 Rogers identified five characteristics of the totally functioning person:
- Open to experience-both positive and negative feelings are accepted. Negative thoughts are not cast away; alternatively, worked through them.
- Existential living- avoids prejudging and preconceptions in situations. Being able to benefit from the current moment rather than always looking back the past or forward to the future (living for the moment).
- Trust feelings-trusting their own feelings and judgment rather than seeking other people for direction. Trusting that their own decisions will be the right one.
- Creativity-the ability to adjust, change and seek new experiences. Risk-taking and not playing safe all the time. Have creative thinking in the individual's life.
- Fulfilled life- the individual is happy and satisfied with life but still looking for new difficulties and experiences.
Rogers (1959) implies that folks want to feel and experience and act in ways consistent with the self-image that reflect what we would like to be like, ideal-self. The closer the self-image and ideal personal are to one another.
The self notion includes three components:
Self well worth/or self-applied esteem- what the individual thinks about ourselves. Rogers thought this developed in early childhood made from the conversation of the kid and parents
Self image-how the person sees themselves
Ideal self-this is the way the person wishes to be. consisting of goals and ambitions in life.
Rogers thought people need to be viewed by others favorably, loved, and respected. Positive regards are to do with how people see them in interpersonal interactions. You will find two types unconditional positive respect and conditional positive relation. Rogers believed that infants needed to be positively self-regarded
Unconditional positive regard-this is where the parents accept and love the child for who they are. People who can self-actualize will have received unconditional positive regards from others, especially parents.
Condtional positive- the child behaves in a way where the parents approve of. The child is not adored for who they are with techniques where their behavior is based on what they consider accurate. A person who constantly seeks acceptance from others will probably have observed conditional positive relation as a kid.
This is where Rogers and Maslow ideas contrasted, Rogers thought that early childhood years experiences are important for the individual to achieve self-applied actualization. However, MaMaslow'sid not take this under consideration and only concentrated primarily on attaining needs within the hierarchy.
The two theories have an identical path in terms of individuals pursuing their way to accomplish self-actualization. Even more, basic needs in conditions of survival needs need to be satisfied first before a person might achieve do it yourself actualization. They both agree on being accepted can become more influential than the need for self-actualization.
They both compare in what they focus on after defining personal actualization. Maslow focused on understanding the characteristics of any do-it-yourself, activating individuals. Rogers viewed the characteristics and considered the ways to achieve self-applied actualization and growing therapy to beat barriers that restrict people from achieving their full potential. Maslow backed his theory by learning some people he thought reached their full potentials, such as Albert Einstein and Thomas Jefferson. He found that personal actualized people appeared to talk about similar characteristic attributes.
Maslow estimated only 1 percent of people are encouraged to become home actualized (Larsen and Buss, 2008); however, rogers believed that many people are with the capacity to become self-actualized. The thing that is stopping them has been fixated on conditions of worth wherein his remedy takes out that from his clients so they can continue on the path to becoming self-actualized.
Overall, between your two theories of home actualization, it seems to show that rogers think that all people can aim to become self-actualized. On the other hand, Maslow only believes that a small percentage can strive to that level. Rogers primarily focused on a remedy to help individuals reach their full potential, and Maslow arranged with this system. Suggesting that the two theories are similar in terms of their explanation and definition of self-actualization- similar chaterstics and features. No research findings have suggested what theory is more valid than the other as they both have identical terms with their theoretical basis towards home actualization. Although it suggested that Rogers's ideas are more valid as his reaserch includes clients' remedies, as Maslows had few facts, it was bottom on his thoughts.
References suggestedogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy research current practice, implications, and theory. London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and social connections as developed in the client-centered platform. In (ed. ) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of knowledge. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the sociable context. NY: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Learning to be a person: A psychotherapist's view of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. , Stevens, B. , Gendlin, E. T. , Shlien, J. M. , & Truck Dusen, W. (1967). Person to person: The issue of being human being: A new trend in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.