Name: Lecturer: Subject: Date: Background The high levels of competition in modern markets have led to the rise of financial malpractice and accounting fraud in particular. Initially cases of accounting fraud were mainly due to the pursuit of personal gain and could be considered a white-collar crime. However an analysis of individuals responsible for accounting fraud in organizations shows that a majority of cases are committed by high-level executives with studies showing that chief financial officers as being the main culprits (Satava Caldwell & Richard 272). As such this is due to the fact that accounting processes are complex procedures which are overseen and controlled by high-level executives. A factor that is correlated to accounting fraud is business cycles and this is due to the intense pressure placed on managing executives by chief executive officers during financial reporting periods leading to the manipulation of data in a bid to will also prevent accounting fraud as an individual will be able to recognize the sighs of white collar crime allowing them to report these issues to the relevant bodies in the organizations. The adoption of proper accounting techniques and collaborations with independent auditing firms will also ensure that accounting fraud is not committed by an organization. Bibliography Jones Michael ed. Creative accounting fraud and international accounting scandals. John Wiley & Sons 2011. Gerety Mason and Kenneth Lehn. "The causes and consequences of accounting fraud." Managerial and Decision Economics (1997): 587-599. Micewski Edwin R. and Carmelita Troy. "Business ethics–deontologically revisited." Journal of Business Ethics 72.1 (2007): 17-25 Satava David Cam Caldwell and Linda Richards. "Ethics and the auditing culture: Rethinking the foundation of accounting and auditing." Journal of Business Ethics 64.3 (2006): 271-284. Bhavani Ganga and Anupam Mehta. "Application of Forensic Tools to Detect Fraud: The Case of Toshiba." (2017). [...]
** Research Paper involves the critique of a research article on a managerial/cost Accounting topic or a related recent corporate accounting fraud scandal. Research paper should be at least 5 typed pages + cited references. Research paper on annual report should include following: -Brief summary of prior related research -Brief summary of research article -Summary of Conceptual Rationale -Summary of Research techniques -Pros and Cons of Article -Cited references Research paper on fraud scandal should include the summary of case and background, the Accounting and ethical issues involved, the lessons learned from fraud scandal and cited references.