Behaviorism Name Course University Behaviorism Operant conditioning describes learning that occurs through consequences for behavior. For instance a teacher’s praise after a student’s insightful response acts as a consequence that would encourage the student to respond to more questions in future. Therefore the key aspects of operant conditioning include reinforcers and punishers reinforcement schedules shaping and antecedents. Reinforcement involves using reinforcers to increase behavior while a reinforcer is a consequence that increases behavior (Eggen & Kauchak 2014). The teacher’s praise is a reiforcer. Reinforcement can either be positive or negative reinforcement. Presenting a reinforcer so that a behavior increases is called positive reinforcement while removing or avoiding an aversive stimulus so that a behavior increases is negative reinforcement (p.226). Whereas positive and negative reinforcers increase behavior punishers decrease or weaken behavior a process called punishment. Presenting positive reinforcers requires appropriate timing making the whole class realize what the teacher likes. She praises them whenever they have done a nice work. She initiates the praise focusing on the students’ ability to follow her instructions and she appears to deliver it with an affirmative and natural voice without making it look competitive or comparative across students as Conroy et al. (2009) would suggest. References Conroy M. Sutherland K. Snyder A. Al-Hendawi M. & Vo A. (2009). Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers' Use of Effective Praise and Feedback. Beyond Behavior 18(2) 18-26. Diedrich J. (2010). Motivating Students Using Positive Reinforcement (Masters). State University of New York College at Brockport. Eggen P. & Kauchak D. (2014). Educational psychology (10th ed.). Pearson College Division. Tofade T. Elsner J. & Haines S. (2013). Best Practice Strategies for Effective Use of Questions as a Teaching Tool. American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education 77(7) 155. http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe777155 [...]
Behaviorism - Youtube Video In the classroom, while there may be some classical conditioning involved as emotions about a class develop, the main process is operant conditioning. 1. What are the key aspects of operant conditioning? 2. What aspects of operant conditioning did you observe in the classroom you saw in the video? 3. How do teachers elicit responses from students and provide reinforcements? Modeling - Word Documents What behaviors were modeled? What were the effects of modeling on the students? What kinds of modeling were shown in the video that were identified in your eText? Also, discuss what principles of behaviorism were applied along with the modeling.