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Geography of Latin America Essay (Example)

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Geography of Latin America Name Institution Date Question 1: Definition of Import-substitution industrialization and neoliberalism Import- substitution industrialization (ISI) refers to an economic and trade policy which advocates replacing imported goods and services with domestic production. This policy is based on the fact that a country should always strive to reduce its dependence on foreign products through local productions. Most Latin American nations have implemented this policy with an aim of producing development and self-sufficiency through creating an internal market (Harvey 2007). This policy works through enabling the state to take charge of economic growth and development through subsidization of key industries nationalization highly protectionist trade initiatives and increased taxation. The ISI policy was however abandoned in most developed nations during the 1980s and 1990s as a result of insistence of the World Bank and IMF. Neoliberalism refers to the economic liberalization policies such as free trade deregulation privatization be welcomed if these nations became self-sufficient. The result of such scenario would be the preservation of local cultures. In addition moving away from neoliberalism is likely to prevent depletion of resources since nations will not be forced to compete globally something that leads to them overusing their natural resources. Based on these aspects we clearly see that developmental sustainability can only be achieved if nations are able to solve the various problems that come with neoliberalism. References García M. R. & International Association for People-Environment Studies. (2003). Culture environmental action and sustainability. Cambridge Mass: Hogrefe & Huber. Harvey D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Portes A. & Hoffman K. (2003). Latin American class structures: Their composition and change during the neoliberal era. Latin American Research Review 41-82. Silva E. (2007). The Import-Substitution Model Chile in Comparative Perspective. Latin American Perspectives 34(3) 67-90. [...]

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Geography of Latin America Essay 1. The policies of both Import-Substitution Industrialization and Neoliberalism strongly influenced the urban geography of Latin America, but in profoundly different ways. First, differentiate between the two policies and then compare and contrast their effects on urban areas, including the distribution of cities as well as what is occurring within cities. Be sure to include ALL of the following terms/concepts in your answer: • urban growth • overurbanization • urban primacy • informal sector (housing/employment) • squatter settlements/favelas • privatization • gender • secondary cities. When using these terms, be sure they are put in bold. If not, points will be deducted. 2. On p. 94, Klak states that “Sustainable Development has become a universal goal in recent years”. Discuss what is meant by sustainable development, both culturally and environmentally, followed by a discussion of how that goal is threatened or enabled by various activities within the region such as an expanding export economy, tourism in its various forms (be sure you incorporate at least 3 forms of tourism in this discussion), and drug production. Lastly, do you feel that the gradual transition away from neoliberalism would improve or deter the region’s sustainability efforts? Why (be as specific as possible)? Each answer should be 2-3 pages, single-spaced This assignment is very short notice, and the price/payment will reflect that.

Subject Area: Human Geography

Document Type: Reports

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Words 825

Pages 3

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Expert mbitheh

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She did an excellent job on a last minute paper. I needed it done within twelve hours. Ten hours, she had it done perfectly!

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08.09.2016

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