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Response to Blake and Jose Student’s name Institutional affiliation Good work Blake!!!!!!!In your post I concur with you that the overall goal of the article "before the glorious revolution: The making of absolute monarchy?" by Goodland published on September 2007 was to compare and contrast the leadership style of Charles II and James II and culture which ultimately gave birth to a mixture of African and Brazilian cultures witnessed today. Great piece of work Jose!!!!! Reference Gomes H. T. (2007). Afro-Brazilian Literature: Spaces Conquered Spaces In-between. Research In African Literatures 38(1) 152-162. Graham Goodlad. "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy?" History Review September 2007 10-15. [...]

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Respond to Blake------------My overall impression of the article, "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy?" was that it's goal was to compare and contrast Charles II and James II, and to attempt an understanding of the real objectives of each king. For a larger picture, it is easy to see that each political move that Charles II made, James II made the same or took the concept to the next level in pursuit of absolutism. The easiest statement is to say that both Charles II and James II had many qualities in common that led them along the same paths that could have resulted in an absolute monarchy, but the reality never came to pass because of their underestimation of Parliament, the reliance on local government to establish authority, or perhaps in Charles II's case it was not his end goal. It seemed to me that Charles II's objectives were to not establish complete dominance over England, but to secure it's resources and positions of power for those who supported his religious view. Many actions by Charles II were viewed as negative, such as his dispense of Parliament when trade increased and he was no longer reliant on Parliament for funds that supported the Crown and it's agenda for England - but its also arguable that he did some good as well. By raising a small, well organized army of 8,500 men, he gave England a much better defense of it's borders and towns. Unfortunately, James II's action to increase army population to 20,000 gave Charles II's initial army construction a bad reputation - as it was feared that the Crown's army was a strategic move to further impose any law upon the people of England without a check by Parliament. Both Charles II and James II did their best to rule without parliament but James II again took it to more extreme measures by attempting to control the election of members of Parliament so that it would in turn bow to his wishes as he pleased and lack of protest of Crown action lead to absolute monarchy. After tackling Parliament, James II also sought to seep his influence deeply into local government by controlling local corporations by then requiring appointed positions to swear oaths of loyalty to the crown. This did not bode well for James II in the long run, and ultimately became his downfall. By turning locals in small government against the Crown, it turned the people of England against James II. He had lost support of the people despite their understanding the king had absolute power but was morally obligated to act within the law. William of Orange became a welcome, and post ruler James II was soon viewed as the real outsider who's interest was not of England as a king's mind should be. Thanks for reading! Blake------------------------------Respond to Jose------------Hello Everyone,  The country I want to discuss that stuck out to me the most about slavery is Brazil. In many ways the slave trade to Brazil is what helped sculpt the multi ethnical Brazilian identity in today’s world known as Afro-Brazilian. According to Gilberto Freyre, because of its ease of passage between the African and Brazilian coastlines, the slavery trade between the two created a special relationship causing the longest lasting slave trade in the America’s despite national laws and pressure from foreign power, it lasted till about 1888 (Masters and Slaves,1993). Although the country abolished slavery, like many Africans in the aftermath of slavery, they were still yet to be considered equals among their countrymen but rather as second class citizens.  Many imported slaves from Africa were oppressed by their slave owners to forget their previous lives, fearing it may be a threat to the system between slave and master, they forbid their slaves to have any kind of education to include the passing of their culture and traditions (Gomes, P.154). This of course didn’t keep them from spreading their home culture and traditions by mouth from one generation to another in order to lift spirits from their harsh reality which ultimately helped create their rich culture today. Today we see many beautiful creations that blossomed from integration of African culture with Brazilians giving birth to new styles of music, art and literature. Although much of the world frowns upon the dark and ugly history that deal with slavery many Afro-Brazilian look at it as an important part of their history, being that they are the 2nd largest African descendant population in the world, it gave birth to a mixture of African culture with Brazilian culture that Afro Brazilian are proud to be part of today. Ref: Gomes, H. T. (2007). Afro-Brazilian Literature: Spaces Conquered, Spaces In-between. Research In African Literatures, 38(1), 152-162. Freyre, G. (1993). Masters and the Slaves. New York, NY: Knopf  

Subject Area: Tourism

Document Type: Personal Statement

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Words 275

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01.14.2018

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