Student’s Name Instructor Course Name Date Phoenix City Environmental Situation Introduction For a while the city of Phoenix has been one where people are prepared for the unforeseen rather than questioning what could possibly go wrong. It is ranked 13th largest metropolitan in the USA with a population of about 4.3 million people. The city exposes such a magnitude of people to a low bowl in the hot desert. In this place people are prepared for the unwelcomed heat waves and windstorms which visit regularly. The setting of this city is adjacent to the largest nuclear plant. Due to the fact that the city has exhausted some of its local sources it entirely depends on its infrastructure to draw water from the Colorado River. As a result the city is exposed to multiple challenges hence making it vulnerable. Each of these challenges has the capacity to magnify another challenge Affairs Arizona State Univeristy Phoenix AZ 85004-0687 USA; 3. School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University Bloomington IN 47405 USA); Building a Multi-Collaborative Community Governance System to Resolve the Dilemma of Collective Action--A Framework of “Product-Institutional” Analysis (PIA)[J]." Journal of Public Management 2 (2007). Larson Kelli L. et al. "Divergent perspectives on water resource sustainability in a public–policy–science context." Environmental Science & Policy 12.7 (2009): 1012-1023. Michaels Sarah and Douglas S. Kenney. "State approaches to watershed management: Transferring lessons between the Northeast and Southwest." Watershed Management and Operations Management 2000. 2000. 1-10. Zhao Pengjun. "Sustainable urban expansion and transportation in a growing megacity: Consequences of urban sprawl for mobility on the urban fringe of Beijing." Habitat International 34.2 (2010): 236-243. Appendix Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 the state of the earth Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 a presentation of Urban Heat Island Effect Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3 photo of urban sprawl [...]
The final project for this course consists of writing a 8-10 page research paper on sustainability issues and solutions for Phoenix. Throughout the course, you completed several sustainability activities related to Phoenix. Based upon these activities, your own additional research, and the outline you developed in Lesson 15, you should complete the following: Step 1 – Examine the development of Phoenix and how the sustainability issues discussed throughout the course affect the city. Describe each of the issues and their impact on the city. Step 2 – Assess the sustainable solutions that are being implemented in Phoenix. Indicate how these actions can benefit the sustainable future of the city. Step 3 – Finally, determine ways that the city can become more sustainable in the future by applying the information that you learned throughout the course and using examples of sustainable solutions implemented by other cities. Throughout your paper, make sure you address each of the issues and sustainable solutions that were discussed in Lessons 4-7 and 9-15. Below are questions that you should cover for each topic. Urban Heat Island Effect Indicate how Phoenix is an urban heat island. What are the causes of this problem and their effects on the city? What are some ways the city is reducing the urban heat island effect, and what are additional methods they could try? Use examples from activities in other cities that could be beneficial in Phoenix. Urban Sprawl – What are the historical and current trends in population growth and urban sprawl in Phoenix? What is the density of the city, and how does this affect sustainability issues? What impact does urban sprawl in Phoenix have on land use and environmental issues? What has the city done to reduce urban sprawl and related issues? What additional actions can be taken to build a more sustainable city? Water and Waste – What are the sources of water and water use patterns in Phoenix? How does the use of water impact the city and surrounding environment? What conservation methods are used by the city to reduce water use and wastewater? What are the problems with storm water runoff, and how does the city manage storm water runoff to maintain a sustainable water system in urban areas? What are some alternative water management practices that are being implemented in other cities that many be beneficial to Phoenix? How does Phoenix manage its waste, and which programs include activities such as waste reduction, reuse, and recycling to be more sustainable? What are some waste management alternatives used in other cities that may be beneficial to Phoenix? Health and Pollution –What factors lead to increases in air pollution in Phoenix? What are some of the health effects on the population? What is being done to monitor and reduce air pollution in Phoenix? What are alternatives used by other cities that may benefit Phoenix? Ecological Footprint – What factors contribute to the ecological footprint of Phoenix and the available resources needed to support the city? What are some activities Phoenix is using to reduce the ecological footprint of the city? Suggest other activities that may be beneficial in reducing the city's ecological footprint. Urban Green Space – What are the various types of urban green space found in Phoenix, and how much green space is incorporated in the city? What benefits do green spaces have for the city of Phoenix? What are some of the aquatic ecosystems in Phoenix, and what has the city done to preserve and restore these areas? What benefits does the aquatic ecosystem have for a sustainable city? What are some of examples of green spaces from other cities that may be beneficial in Phoenix? Energy Use and Green Building – What are some of the major uses of energy in Phoenix, and what programs/activities has the city implemented to become more energy efficient and use renewable energy sources? Does the city have many LEED-certified buildings, and does the city encourage green building? What are some of the ways to incorporate green building in the city? How do other cities incorporate green building that may be beneficial to Phoenix? Neighborhood Planning and Development – What is the density of land use in Phoenix development? How can future development lead to a more sustainable, compact city (if possible) in Phoenix? Do current and future planning programs for the city incorporate smart growth principles? What are some examples of planning in other cities that may be beneficial to Phoenix? Transportation – What transportation issues exist in Phoenix? Are residents dependent upon automobiles, or are there enough alternative transportation options? Is there transit-oriented development in the city? How can the city develop sustainable transportation options? What are the current mass transit systems in Phoenix, and are they effective? What are some transportation alternatives in other cities that may be beneficial in Phoenix? Sustainable Products and Practices – What sustainable products are used by the city, and what are their effects on sustainability? Does the city promote sustainable practices and sustainable development? As you prepare to write your final paper, make sure that you include all of the required information. Your paper should be 8-10 written pages (double spaced, standard font in 12 pt. size, and one-inch margins) and remember that your title page, reference page, and figures do not count toward the page total. You are required to include at least 10 research sources (references from sources in previous lessons or other outside sources) in your paper. They must be properly cited in your reference page and within the text. You must use MLA or APA style when citing your sources. Information on these citation styles can be found at the “Project Bibliographies” site. You must also include a minimum of two figures (images, tables, pictures) in an appendix at the end of the paper, and cite these within the text to support the topic. Include brief descriptive captions under the figures.