Name Professor’s Name Course Date Whythe USCitizens Are Gaining Weight Rapidly: Annotated Bibliography Arnold Melina et al. "Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk: a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States." European journal of epidemiologyVol.31. No.9 (2016): 893-904. This is a health article compiled by several healthcare organizations. The authors aim at explaining the relationship between weight gain and cancer cases in the United States. The report indicates that most of the older overweight people are at a higher risk of getting cancer as compared to the young overweight people. The authors of the article are clinical practitioners as well as qualified doctors and hence they have the knowledge required in educating the public on the issues of weight gain in relation to other diseases. The article analyses the impact as well as the overweight intensity and duration in adults. Additionally the article argues that during the first week after delivery are at a higher risk of becoming obese at later stages in their life. As a result if such signs of weight gain during the first week of a child’s development are noticed preventive measures need to be taken to curb obesity. Thus obesity may be caused by the feeding habits of a child during the first week after delivery. The article "Weight gain in the first week of life and overweight in adulthood"is relevant to the study because it highlights childhood feeding habits as great determinants of rapid weight gain during adulthood. Such information is essential in supporting the arguments of the research. Also the authors of the article use substantial facts as well as supportive references to support their claims. I plan to use the article’s information in explaining childhood weight gain as an indicator of rapid weight gain in adults. [...]
Using Sources . As you probably already know, all uses of sources require citations. When you refer to sources within your text, remember to do the following: 1.Introduce the sources to let readers know who is speaking: According to John Smith, editor of the New York Times. . . . . 2.Present the source in a summary, paraphrase, or quotation. 3.Cite the source. If you have named the author, you need to include only the page number in parentheses after you have used the source. If you have not named the author, you need to include the author’s last name and page number in parentheses after you have used the source. If there is no author, use the first few words of the title. Remember that the purpose of the parenthetical citation after using a source is to lead readers to the full information about the source available in the Works Cited list. 4.Comment on the sources. Source material should not be assumed to speak for itself. You need to introduce it, share the source material, and then comment on what the source means, how it contributes to the point YOU are trying to make. Summarizing •Capture the main point and sub-points as succinctly as possible in your own words. •Use summary to represent the whole of an article in a sentence or two when the reader does not need to know all the details or when you want to provide an overview before you discuss the source in more detail. Paraphrasing •Represent the author’s argument in your own words. A paraphrase differs from a summary in that it represents a passage of similar length. A 25-word paraphrase represents an author’s idea that took about that many words. To paraphrase well, you need to really understand what the author is saying. Paraphrasing is not just a matter of replacing the author’s words with synonyms and keeping the sentence structure more or less intact. •Use paraphrase when you need to present a more specific excerpt from a source but want to use your own words so the reader is not required to shift from your voice to the voice of the sources. Quoting •Word-for-word from the author, indicated as such by quotation marks at the beginning and the end. •Quotes should always be introduced. Readers need to know who is speaking (whose words are inside the quotation marks). •Quote only what you need. •Be sure to quote accurately. Don’t take only part of the quote or leave out words that change its meaning. •Use quotes when you want to be especially careful to represent the source’s ideas exactly, for example, if the quote is strongly worded or represents a strong point of view. •Use quotes when the author uses specialized language that can’t be paraphrased easily. •Use quotes when the language is stylistically effective. Synthesizing •Synthesizing texts means bringing together more than one source and generalizing about them. You might say, “Researchers disagree about the cost of rebuilding New Orleans. Some sources believe the cost outweighs the benefits. Others believe that New Orleans must be rebuilt at any cost.” After those generalizations, refer to the sources that led to those conclusions—typically more than several sources in a paragraph. Annotated Bibliography Instructions . An Annotated Bibliography is a list of sources on a specific topic that includes a summary of each source as well as a critical appraisal of the source. As you research your topic (the same topic you outlined in your Issue Proposal), you will develop a bibliography of relevant sources with annotations. Your final Annotated Bibliography should include annotations for at least 10 sources that represent multiple perspectives (at least three) on your issue. Only 1 source of the 10 can be an interview. The list is compiled in alphabetical order using the appropriate citation format—in this case, Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Consult Wood and your handbook for directions for completing a bibliography in MLA style. Each annotation should demonstrate that you have read the source critically. Each annotation should also include the following: 1.MLA citation for the source, 2.A summary that demonstrates that you have read the source and understand the content, 3.A response to the text, and 4.A note about how you will use the information in your research. Keep in mind that your sources must be current (typically published within the last two years), relevant, and credible as well as offer multiple perspectives on your issue. You must also provide concise, clear, thorough summaries, responses, and evaluations of your sources. As you write your annotations, try to answer the following questions: 1.What kind of source is it—book, journal article, magazine article, newspaper, encyclopedia entry, database summary article, website (and what kind of website)? 2.Who is/are the author(s)? What are the author’s credentials? How does the author establish his or her authority to speak on this subject? Consider also the credibility of the publication outlet. 3.What kind of text (genre) is it—a news report, an editorial, a report of scientific research, a summary of a number of sources? What is the purpose of the text? 4.Who is the intended audience? Consider where the text is published, the degree of specialized knowledge needed to understand the text, how objective or argumentative the text is. 5.When was the text published? How does the publication date affect the relevance and usefulness of this source? Begin by gathering at least 12-15 sources. Then use your critical evaluation skills to choose the 10 sources that will provide you with the fullest understanding of your topic. Your FYW textbook, pgs 337-345, as well as your handbook have a great deal of information about evaluating and annotating sources. Please review this information carefully before beginning your Annotated Bibliography. There are also sample bibliographies in the course (Simply click on the "Sample Papers" tab just to the left to find them). For additional advice about compiling a bibliography, see the information provided by the Cornell University Library at http://www.library.cornell.edu/olinuris/ref/research/skill28.htm.