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Linguistic Anthropology experts please- Language and Cuture

Examine some aspect of verbal and/or nonverbal communication processes (i.e., interactive use of language) in terms of what we can learn about culture from their study. Here are some possible topic areas to begin your research in: 1) Multi-lingualism, multi-dialectalism is the rule, rather than the exception in societies and communities around the world, including our own country and region. The study of communities of practice – and looking at the kinds of linguistic practices that mark membership in a certain community (such as uses of a particular term or set of terms, or code choice and code switching) can reveal much about the social dynamics of social interaction and social identity within a community. By studying the language used by specific communities of practice, what can we learn about interethnic/interclass education (or mono-ethnic or mono-class education), political and/or economic interests or conflicts, and/or other aspects of society? In other words, what can we learn about culture and society through a study of specific kinds of linguistic diversity? Choose a narrow topic from within this very broad area, such as one language community that you are familiar with. 2) One narrower area of interest in topic #1 is the use of code-switching. If you are bilingual, you can record conversations by bilinguals (in languages you share) to discover patterns of individuals using one or the other language for any particular utterance. The switches can occur at the word, phrase, and sentence level. Try to discern any possible rules for inclusion or exclusion of words in a phrase; that is, can one say, for example, “la casa red” or la red casa”? What types of topics are addressed in which language? Many of these choices are individual ones, but many others are typical of all code-switching behaviors. 3) Intercultural communication issues between cultural groups in our own society or between Americans and members of other societies. You might pick intercultural communication issues in a particular setting, such as education, business, law, or some other situation, and explore the ways that intercultural communication can inform those involved as to the similarities and differences in communicative style and other communication factors. Again, choose a narrow topic from within this very broad area. Verbal art, verbal play – proverbs, poetry, jokes, narrative genres, verbal dueling, oratory, teasing, etc. – can be studied for their cultural information. You could choose a narrow topic within this area for your paper. 4) Verbal and nonverbal symbols/terms that index social relationships, status and identity in our own or other societies. For example, there is extensive literature on terms of address, i.e., use of personal names and naming practices, title, pronoun use, etc. Other literature studies greeting routines in particular cultures. Or, studies have been done on use of graffiti, or profanity, or slang terms. What can we learn about culture from a study of this kind of language variation? Choose a narrow topic from this and research it. 6) Processes involved in the ongoing organization of discourse, or talk, in our own and other societies, including topics like: synchrony and contextualization; politeness and face; turn-taking and other processes found in discourse analysis; speech act theory and other facets of the study of meaning in social context; and many others described in our text can all be studied to learn about culture. Choose a narrow topic from within this broad one to research for your paper. 7) Face-to-face processes of child language socialization, including through formal education, in our own and other societies have been studied through observation of verbal and nonverbal communicative interaction. . Choose a narrow topic from within this broad one to research for your paper. 8) Compare creole languages based on the same western dominant language, such as West Indian dialects (see Bob Marley’s dialect) across island groups in the Caribbean Sea. What do they have in common? What are some differences? 9) A number of indigenous groups have recently been attempting to revitalize their indigenous languages, even those that no longer have any native speakers. Choose one to focus on, analyzing the reasons they are doing this process now, what types of records they are using, and how they are implementing the revitalization among the members of the group, especially the children. Some examples of indigenous languages include many Native American languages in California and other states in the U.S., South America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 10) There is a great deal of research on gendered language use that you can focus on, including same-sex women’s vs men’s discourse, transgendered or LGBT speech patterns (if there are any), cross-sex conversation, etc. You might consider recording some conversations to see if you can detect any commonalities which you can use to illustrate your library research. 11) Focus on speech acts: What are some options for accomplishing a particular speech act, for instance a directive, taking into consideration the context of the interaction and politeness constraints? Power constraints? 12) Choose another topic and discuss it with me for appropriateness. LIBRARY VS ORIGINAL RESEARCH The paper can be based entirely on library research or partly on data that you collect yourself. In either case, you must use scholarly sources (those with references to other scholarly works – not Newsweek or Time). Any references from the internet MUST be appropriate scholarly references. Wikipedia is NOT a scholarly source. There are lots of ways to find references to your areas of interests now, particularly with use of the web. You can talk to me for ideas for references, and also to the librarians for more sources that may be appropriate to your topic. (See me during office hours for individual help.) If you are not sure of a topic, talk to me for some suggestions. Give yourself plenty of time to work. If you collect and record natural discourse data, transcribe it using accepted transcription conventions. You can find suggestions on Beachboard for how to do this. Many of our readings also include transcriptions of natural speech, which you can use instead. LENGTH AND STYLE: The paper should have a cover page and be stapled in the upper left hand corner. No extra covers are needed. Length should be about 8 to 10 pages, typed, double-spaced, plus a reference sheet (this is critical for your paper!). Font should be 10 to 12 pitch and margins one inch all the way around. Do not use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources, but put them on the reference list at the end of your paper in alphabetical order by author’s surname. Endnotes or footnotes are used for parenthetical data, citations, and comments – not for primary citations or text. When you use someone else’s work, you must cite them. Do this in the American Anthropological Association style (found on the web) by, in parentheses [see below], giving the last name of the author, year of publication, and page(s) that are involved in the citation. If the author is already mentioned before the citation, just put the year of the publication and the page(s). Two examples of this kind of citation style are listed below, both with and without direct quoting so you can see how it is done. Don’t forget, whenever you use someone else’s ideas, you must cite them or you will get an F for plagiarism on your paper. Like many anthropologists, Spradley and McCurdy (1984:2) believe that culture is not what people do but what they know. The authors state (Spradley and McCurdy 1984:2): “Culture is not behavior.” “Culture is not behavior” according to Spradley and McCurdy (1984:2). And I agree with the statement, “culture is not behavior” (Spradley and McCurdy 1984:2). At the end of your paper, include a reference sheet with all cited sources. They must appear in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. You need to give the complete citation – so if someone wants to look up the reference, they have enough information to do so, including page numbers, when relevant (when a chapter of a book, or an article from a journal, for example). Don’t forget that when you are citing a chapter of an edited book that the chapter is usually written by someone different from the book author’s name, so you have to give that information correctly. This is right: Ochs, E. and C. Taylor. 1992. Mothers’ Role in the Everyday Reconstruction of “Father knows Best.” In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz and B. Moonwomon (eds.), Locating Power: Proceedings of the 1992 Berkeley Women and Language conference (pp. 447-62). Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. Notice that the chapter is written by Ochs and Taylor. But I’ve seen students refer to a chapter in a book (like this example) and put it in the reference list only under the name of the book and the editors, like this: This is wrong...do you know why? K. Hall, M. Bucholtz and B. Moonwomon (eds.), Mothers’ Role in the Everyday Reconstruction of “Father knows Best.” Locating Power: Proceedings of the 1992 Berkeley Women and Language conference (pp. 447-62). Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. Here are some other appropriate ways to reference things. A book: Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. 1940. The Nuer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Another chapter in a book: Dole, Gertrude E. 1972 “Developmental Sequences of Kinship Patterns. In Kinship Studies in Morgan Centennial Year. Priscilla Reining, ed. Washington, D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington. An article from a journal: Blu, Karen I. 1977 “Varieties of Ethnic identity.” Ethnicity 4:263-286. An article from the internet: many are taken from an original printed publication, so reference the printed source. If it was originally written for the internet, give the web address. DO NOT USE WIKIPEDIA for a primary resource. You can use it to direct you to other sources though. Referencing is very important. I will take a whole grade off for incomplete or inaccurate referencing, depending on the severity of the errors. It is essential that graduate students do this correctly.
Examine some aspect of verbal and/or nonverbal communication processes (i.e., interactive use of language) in terms of what we can learn about culture from their study. Here are some possible topic areas to begin your research in: 1) Multi-lingualism, multi-dialectalism is the rule, rather than the exception in societies and communities around the world, including our own country and region.
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19087
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CREATED ON
March 28, 2016
COMPLETED ON
March 30, 2016
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