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A number of the form , where is a positive rational number which is not the square of another rational number is called a pure quadratic surd. A number of the form , where is rational and is a pure quadratic surd is sometimes called a mixed quadratic surd (Hardy 1967, p. 20).Quadratic surds are sometimes also called quadratic irrationals.In 1770, Lagrange proved that any quadratic surd has a regular continued fraction which is periodic after some point. This result is known as Lagrange's continued fraction theorem.

The number of digits in an integer is the number of numbers in some base (usually 10) required to represent it. The numbers 1 to 9 are therefore single digits, while the numbers 10 to 99 are double digits. Terms such as "double-digit inflation" are occasionally encountered, although this particular usage has thankfully not been needed in the U.S. for some time. The number of base- digits in a number can be calculated as(1)where is the floor function. For , the formula becomes(2)The number of digits in the number represented in base is given by the Wolfram Language function DigitCount[n, b, d], with DigitCount[n, b] giving a list of the numbers of each digit in . The total number of digits in a number is given by IntegerLength[n, b].The positive integers with distinct base-10 digits are given by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, ... (OEIS A010784). The number of -digit integers is given by(3)(4)(5)(6)where is..

Niven's theorem states that if and are both rational, then the sine takes values 0, , and .Particular cases include(1)(2)(3)

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