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RSA numbers are difficult to-factor composite numbers having exactly two prime factors (i.e., so-called semiprimes) that were listed in the Factoring Challenge of RSA Security®--a challenge that is now withdrawn and no longer active.While RSA numbers are much smaller than the largest known primes, their factorization is significant because of the curious property of numbers that proving or disproving a number to be prime ("primality testing") seems to be much easier than actually identifying the factors of a number ("prime factorization"). Thus, while it is trivial to multiply two large numbers and together, it can be extremely difficult to determine the factors if only their product is given. With some ingenuity, this property can be used to create practical and efficient encryption systems for electronic data.RSA Laboratories sponsored the RSA Factoring Challenge to encourage research into computational..

A Turing machine which, by appropriate programming using a finite length of input tape, can act as any Turing machine whatsoever. In his seminal paper, Turing himself gave the first construction for a universal Turing machine (Turing 1937, 1938). Shannon (1956) showed that two colors were sufficient, so long as enough states were used. Minsky (1962) discovered a 7-state 4-color universal Turing machine, illustrated above (Wolfram 2002, p. 706). Note that the 20th rule specifies that the Turing machine should halt, as indicated by leaving the head stationary and not changing its state. Upon conversion to a 2-color machine, Minsky's universal Turing machine requires 43 states.Comparatively little more was published about small universal Turing machines until Rogozhin (1996) found examples with the numbers of states and colors given by (24, 2), (10, 3), (7, 4), (5, 5), (4, 6), (3, 10), and (2, 18) (Wolfram 2002, p. 1119).A 2-state..

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