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Finch (2001, 2003) defines a -rough (or -jagged) number to be positive integer all of whose prime factors are greater than or equal to .Greene and Knuth define "unusual numbers" as numbers whose greatest prime factor is greater than or equal to , and these number are dubbed "-rough" or "-jagged" by Finch (2001, 2003). The first few unusual numbers are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, ... (OEIS A063538), which turn out to not be so unusual after all (Greene and Knuth 1990, Finch 2001). The first few "usual" numbers are then 8, 12, 16, 18, 24, 27, 30, ... (OEIS A063539).The probability that the greatest prime factor of a random integer is greater than is (Schroeppel 1972).

A number with prime factorizationis called -almost prime if it has a sum of exponents , i.e., when the prime factor (multiprimality) function .The set of -almost primes is denoted .The primes correspond to the "1-almost prime" numbers and the 2-almost prime numbers correspond to semiprimes. Conway et al. (2008) propose calling these numbers primes, biprimes, triprimes, and so on.Formulas for the number of -almost primes less than or equal to are given byand so on, where is the prime counting function and is the th prime (R. G. Wilson V, pers. comm., Feb. 7, 2006; the first of which was discovered independently by E. Noel and G. Panos around Jan. 2005, pers. comm., Jun. 13, 2006).The following table summarizes the first few -almost primes for small .OEIS-almost primes1A0000402, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ...2A0013584, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 21, 22, ...3A0146128, 12, 18, 20, 27, 28, 30, 42, 44, 45, 50, 52,..

A pair of prime numbers such thatThe only known examples are (2, 1093), (3, 1006003), (5 , 1645333507), (83, 4871), (911, 318917), and (2903, 18787).If the equation of Catalan's Diophantineproblemhas a nontrivial solution in integers and primes greater than 3, then must be a double Wieferich pair, as proved in 2000 by Mihailescu (Steiner 1998, Peterson 2000).

Mills' constant can be defined as the least such thatis prime for all positive integers (Caldwell and Cheng 2005).The first few for , 2, ... are 2, 11, 1361, 2521008887, ... (OEIS A051254). They can be represented more compactly through as andCaldwell and Cheng (2005) calculated the first 10 Mills primes. 13 are known as of Jul. 2013, with the firth few for , 2, ... being 3, 30, 6, 80, 12, 450, 894, 3636, 70756, 97220, 66768, 300840, ... (OEIS A108739). is not known, but it is known that (E. Weisstein, Aug. 13, 2013).The integer lengths of the Mills' primes are 1, 2, 4, 10, 29, 85, 254, 762, 2285,6854, 20562, 61684, 185052, ... (OEIS A224845).

A number such that the "LED representation" of (i.e., the arrangement of horizonal and vertical lines seen on a digital clock or pocket calculator), upside down, in a mirror, and upside-down-and-in-a-mirror are all primes. The digits of are therefore restricted to 0, 1, 2, 5, and 8. The first few dihedral primes are 2, 5, 11, 101, 181, 1181, 1811, 18181, 108881, 110881, 118081, 120121, ... (OEIS A134996).

An interprime is the average of consecutive (but not necessarily twin) odd primes. The first few terms are 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 26, 30, 34, ... (OEIS A024675). The first few even interprimes are 4, 6, 12, 18, 26, 30, 34, 42, 50, 56, 60, ... (OEIS A072568), and the first few odd ones are 9, 15, 21, 39, 45, 69, 81, 93, 99, ... (OEIS A072569).Interprimes cannot themselves be prime (since otherwise there would exist a prime between consecutive primes, which is impossible by definition).The sumhas zeros at almost integer approximations of the interprimes, with the single additional point 5/2 (D. Tisdale, pers. comm., Sep. 8, 2008).

A prime is called "good" iffor all (there is a typo in Guy 1994 in which the s are replaced by 1s). There are infinitely many good primes, and the first few are 5, 11, 17, 29, 37, 41, 53, ... (OEIS A028388).

A prime which does not divide the class number of the cyclotomic field obtained by adjoining a primitive pth root of unity to the field of rationals. A prime is regular iff does not divide the numerators of the Bernoulli numbers , , ..., . A prime which is not regular is said to be an irregular prime.In 1915, Jensen proved that there are infinitely many irregular primes. It has not yet been proven that there are an infinite number of regular primes (Guy 1994, p. 145). Of the primes , (or 60.59%) are regular (the conjectured fraction is ). The first few are 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 41, 43, 47, ... (OEIS A007703).

A Proth number that is prime, i.e., a number of the form for odd , a positive integer, and . Factors of Fermat numbers are of this form as long as they satisfy the condition odd and . For example, the factor of is not a Proth prime since . (Otherwise, every odd prime would be a Proth prime.)Proth primes satisfy Proth's theorem, i.e., a number of this form is prime iff there exists a number a such that is congruent to modulo . This provides an easy computational test for Proth primes. Yves Gallot has written a downloadable program for testing Proth primes and many of the largest currently known primes have been found with this program.A Sierpiński number of the second kind is a number satisfying Sierpiński's composite number theorem, i.e., a Proth number such that is composite for every .The first few Proth primes are 3, 5, 13, 17, 41, 97, 113, 193, 241, 257, 353, ...(OEIS A080076).The following table gives the first few indices such that is prime for..

A tetradic (or four-way) number is a number that remains unchanged when flipped back to front, mirrored up-down, or flipped up-down. Since the only numbers that remain unchanged which turned up-side-down or mirrored are 0, 1, and 8 (here, the numerals 1 and 8 are assumed to be written as a single stroke and symmetrical pair of loops, respectively), a tetradic number is precisely a palindromic number containing only 0, 1, and 8 as digits. The first few are therefore 1, 8, 11, 88, 101, 111, 181, 808, 818, ... (OEIS A006072).The first few tetradic primes are 11, 101, 181, 18181, 1008001, 1180811, 1880881, 1881881, ... (OEIS A068188). The largest known tetradic prime as of Apr. 2010 iswhere is a repunit (https://primes.utm.edu/top20/page.php?id=53#records), which has decimal digits.

A Smarandache prime is a prime Smarandache number, i.e., a prime number of the form . Surprisingly, no Smarandache primes are known as of Nov. 2015. Upper limits on the non-appearance of primes are summarized in the table below. The search from to was completed by Balatov (2015b), and search of larger terms is now underway (Great Smarandache PRPrime search). As of Dec. 2016, it is known that there are no Smarandache primes up to index 344869.reference200Fleuren (1999)E. Weisstein (Mar. 21, 2009)E. Weisstein (Oct. 17, 2011)M. Alekseyev (Oct. 3, 2015)S. Batalov (Oct. 22 2015)The Great Smarandache PRPrime search (Dec. 5, 2016)If all digit substrings are allowed (so that e.g., concatenating just the 1 from 10, just 10111 from 101112, etc. are permitted), prime digit sequences are known. In particular, such primes are Champernowne-constant primes, the first few of which..

Fractran is an algorithm applied to a given list , , ..., of fractions. Given a starting integer , the FRACTRAN algorithm proceeds by repeatedly multiplying the integer at a given stage by the first element that yields an integer product. The algorithm terminates when there is no such .The listwith starting integer generates a sequence 2, 15, 825, 725, 1925, 2275, 425, 390, 330, 290, 770, ... (OEIS A007542). Conway (1987) showed that this sequence has an amazing connection with prime numbers, and in fact is a generator for the primes. In particular, the only powers of two (other than 2 itself) that occur in this sequence are those with prime exponent: , , , , ....

A Pierpont prime is a prime number of the form . The first few Pierpont primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 37, 73, 97, 109, 163, 193, 257, 433, 487, 577, 769, ... (OEIS A005109).A regular polygon of sides can be constructed by ruler, compass and angle-trisector iffwhere , , ..., are distinct Pierpont primes and (Gleason 1998).The numbers of Pierpont primes less than , , ... are 4, 10, 18, 25, 32, 42, 50, 58, ... (OEIS A113420) and the number less than , , , , ... are 4, 10, 25, 58, 125, 250, 505, 1020, 2075, 4227, ... (OEIS A113412; Caldwell).As of Apr. 2010, the largest known Pierpont prime is , which has decimal digits (https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=87449).

Consider the Euclid numbers defined bywhere is the th prime and is the primorial. The first few values of are 3, 7, 31, 211, 2311, 30031, 510511, ... (OEIS A006862).Now let be the next prime (i.e., the smallest prime greater than ),where is the prime counting function. The first few values of are 5, 11, 37, 223, 2333, 30047, 510529, ... (OEIS A035345).Then R. F. Fortune conjectured that is prime for all . The first values of are 3, 5, 7, 13, 23, 17, 19, 23, ... (OEIS A005235), and values of up to are indeed prime (Guy 1994), a result extended to 1000 by E. W. Weisstein (Nov. 17, 2003). The indices of these primes are 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 7, 8, 9, 12, 18, .... In numerical order with duplicates removed, the Fortunate primes are 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 23, 37, 47, 59, 61, 67, 71, 79, 89, ... (OEIS A046066)...

The number of ways a set of elements can be partitioned into nonempty subsets is called a Bell number and is denoted (not to be confused with the Bernoulli number, which is also commonly denoted ).For example, there are five ways the numbers can be partitioned: , , , , and , so ., and the first few Bell numbers for , 2, ... are 1, 2, 5, 15, 52, 203, 877, 4140, 21147, 115975, ... (OEIS A000110). The numbers of digits in for , 1, ... are given by 1, 6, 116, 1928, 27665, ... (OEIS A113015).Bell numbers are implemented in the WolframLanguage as BellB[n].Though Bell numbers have traditionally been attributed to E. T. Bell as a result of the general theory he developed in his 1934 paper (Bell 1934), the first systematic study of Bell numbers was made by Ramanujan in chapter 3 of his second notebook approximately 25-30 years prior to Bell's work (B. C. Berndt, pers. comm., Jan. 4 and 13, 2010).The first few prime Bell numbers occur at indices..

RSA numbers are difficult to-factor composite numbers having exactly two prime factors (i.e., so-called semiprimes) that were listed in the Factoring Challenge of RSA Security®--a challenge that is now withdrawn and no longer active.While RSA numbers are much smaller than the largest known primes, their factorization is significant because of the curious property of numbers that proving or disproving a number to be prime ("primality testing") seems to be much easier than actually identifying the factors of a number ("prime factorization"). Thus, while it is trivial to multiply two large numbers and together, it can be extremely difficult to determine the factors if only their product is given. With some ingenuity, this property can be used to create practical and efficient encryption systems for electronic data.RSA Laboratories sponsored the RSA Factoring Challenge to encourage research into computational..

A Chen prime is a prime number for which is either a prime or semiprime. Chen primes are named after Jing Run Chen who proved in 1966 that there are infinitely many such primes (Chen's theorem).The first Chen primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, ... (OEIS A109611). The first primes that are not Chen primes are 43, 61, 73, 79, 97, 103, 151, ... (OEIS A102540).The lesser of any twin prime is always a Chen prime. Apart from twin prime records, the largest known Chen prime known as of Oct. 2005 was(https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=75857),which has 70301 digits.There are infinitely many cases of 3 Chen primes in arithmetic progression (Green and Tao 2005). The following 3074-digit case produces Chen primes for , 1, 2, where denotes the primorial:

Define an emirpimes ("semiprime" spelled backwards) as a semiprime whose (base 10) reversal is a different semiprime. The first such number is 15, because 15 reversed is 51 and both 15 and 51 are semiprimes (i.e., and ). A list of the first emirpimeses (or "semirpimes") are 15, 26, 39, 49, 51, 58, 62, 85, 93, 94, 115, 122, 123, ... (OEIS A097393). A binary plot of the semirpimes is illustrated above.The numbers of semirpimes less than for , 2, ... are 0, 10, 90, 898, 7200, 60732, ... (OEIS A097394).

A Cullen number is a number of the formThe first few are 3, 9, 25, 65, 161, 385, ... (OEIS A002064).Cullen numbers are divisible by if is a prime of the form .The first few prime Cullen numbers are numbers 3, 393050634124102232869567034555427371542904833, ... (OEIS A050920), corresponding to , 141, 4713, 5795, 6611, 18496, 32292, 32469, 59656, 90825, 262419, 361275, 481899, 1354828, 6328548, 6679881, ... (OEIS A005849; Caldwell). As of Nov. 2015, it is known that there are no other Cullen primes for (PrimeGrid).

The tribonacci numbers are a generalization of the Fibonacci numbers defined by , , , and the recurrence equation(1)for (e.g., Develin 2000). They represent the case of the Fibonacci n-step numbers.The first few terms using the above indexing convention for , 1, 2, ... are 0, 1, 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, 24, 44, 81, 149, ... (OEIS A000073; which however adopts the alternate indexing convention and ).The first few prime tribonacci numbers are 2, 7, 13, 149, 19341322569415713958901, ... (OEIS A092836), which have indices 3, 5, 6, 10, 86, 97, 214, 801, 4201, 18698, 96878, ... (OEIS A092835), and no others with (E. W. Weisstein, Mar. 21, 2009).Using Brown's criterion, it can be shown that the tribonacci numbers are complete; that is, every positive number can be written as the sum of distinct tribonacci numbers. Moreover, every positive number has a unique Zeckendorf-like expansion as the sum of distinct tribonacci numbers and that sum does..

A prime for which has a maximal period decimal expansion of digits. Full reptend primes are sometimes also called long primes (Conway and Guy 1996, pp. 157-163 and 166-171). There is a surprising connection between full reptend primes and Fermat primes.A prime is full reptend iff 10 is a primitive root modulo , which means that(1)for and no less than this. In other words, the multiplicative order of (mod 10) is . For example, 7 is a full reptend prime since .The full reptend primes are 7, 17, 19, 23, 29, 47, 59, 61, 97, 109, 113, 131, 149, 167, ... (OEIS A001913). The first few decimal expansions of these are(2)(3)(4)(5)Here, the numbers 142857, 5882352941176470, 526315789473684210, ... (OEIS A004042) corresponding to the periodic parts of these decimal expansions are called cyclic numbers. No general method is known for finding full reptend primes.The number of full reptend primes less than for , 2, ... are 1, 9, 60, 467, 3617, ... (OEIS A086018).A..

The fibonorial , also called the Fibonacci factorial, is defined aswhere is a Fibonacci number. For , 2, ..., the first few fibonorials are 1, 1, 2, 6, 30, 240, 3120, 65520, ... (OEIS A003266).The fibonorials are asymptotic towhere is the Fibonacci factorial constant and is the golden ratio.The first few values of such that is prime are given by 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, ... (OEIS A059709), with no others less than 500.The first few values of such that is prime are given by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 22, 28, ... (OEIS A053408), with no others less than 500.

Following Yates (1980), a prime such that is a repeating decimal with decimal period shared with no other prime is called a unique prime. For example, 3, 11, 37, and 101 are unique primes, since they are the only primes with periods one (), two (), three (), and four () respectively. On the other hand, 41 and 271 both have period five, so neither is a unique prime.The unique primes are the primes such thatwhere is a cyclotomic polynomial, is the period of the unique prime, is the greatest common divisor, and is a positive integer.The first few unique primes are 3, 11, 37, 101, 9091, 9901, 333667, ... (OEIS A040017), which have periods 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 9, 14, 24, ... (OEIS A051627), respectively.

Dickson states "In a letter to Tanner [L'intermediaire des math., 2, 1895, 317] Lucas stated that Mersenne (1644, 1647) implied that a necessary and sufficient condition that be a prime is that be a prime of one of the forms , , ."Mersenne's implication has been refuted, but Bateman, Selfridge, and Wagstaff (1989) used the statement as an inspiration for what is now called the new Mersenne conjecture, which can be stated as follows.Consider an odd natural number . If two of the following conditions hold, then so does the third: 1. or , 2. is prime (a Mersenne prime), 3. is prime (a Wagstaff prime). This conjecture has been verified for all primes .Based on the distribution and heuristics of (cf. https://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne/heuristic.html) the known Mersenne and Wagstaff prime exponents, it seems quite likely that there is only a finite number of exponents satisfying the criteria of the new Mersenne conjecture. In..

A Woodall prime is a Woodall numberthat is prime. The first few Woodall primes are 7, 23, 383, 32212254719, 2833419889721787128217599, ... (OEIS A050918), corresponding to , 3, 6, 30, 75, 81, 115, 123, 249, 362, 384, 462, 512, 751, 822, 5312, 7755, 9531, 12379, ... (OEIS A002234). The following table summarizes large known Woodall primes. As of Mar. 2018, all have been checked (PrimeGrid).decimal digitsdate1467763441847Jun. 20072013992606279Aug. 20072367906712818Aug. 200737529481129757Dec. 2007170166025122515Mar. 2018

, sometimes also denoted (Abramowitz and Stegun 1972, p. 825; Comtet 1974, p. 94; Hardy and Wright 1979, p. 273; Conway and Guy 1996, p. 94; Andrews 1998, p. 1), gives the number of ways of writing the integer as a sum of positive integers, where the order of addends is not considered significant. By convention, partitions are usually ordered from largest to smallest (Skiena 1990, p. 51). For example, since 4 can be written(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)it follows that . is sometimes called the number of unrestricted partitions, and is implemented in the Wolfram Language as PartitionsP[n].The values of for , 2, ..., are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 22, 30, 42, ... (OEIS A000041). The values of for , 1, ... are given by 1, 42, 190569292, 24061467864032622473692149727991, ... (OEIS A070177).The first few prime values of are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 101, 17977, 10619863, ... (OEIS A049575), corresponding to indices 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 36, 77, 132,..

Let a prime number generated by Euler's prime-generating polynomial be known as an Euler prime. Then the first few Euler primes occur for , 2, ..., 39, 42, 43, 45, ... (OEIS A056561), corresponding to the primes 43, 47, 53, 61, 71, 83, 97, 113, 131, 151, 173, ... (OEIS A005846).As of Feb. 2013, the largest known Euler prime is , which has 398204 decimal digits and was found by D. Broadhurst (https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=111195).

A prime is called a Wolstenholme prime if the central binomial coefficient(1)or equivalently if(2)where is the th Bernoulli number and the congruence is fractional.A prime is a Wolstenholme prime if and only if(3)where the congruence is again fractional.The only known Wolstenholme primes are 16843 and 2124679 (OEIS A088164). There are no others up to (McIntosh 2004).

A palindromic prime is a number that is simultaneously palindromic and prime. The first few (base-10) palindromic primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 101, 131, 151, 181, 191, 313, 353, 373, 383, 727, 757, 787, ... (OEIS A002385; Beiler 1964, p. 228). The number of palindromic primes less than a given number are illustrated in the plot above. The number of palindromic numbers having , 2, 3, ... digits are 4, 1, 15, 0, 93, 0, 668, 0, 5172, 0, ... (OEIS A016115; De Geest) and the total number of palindromic primes less than 10, , , ... are 4, 5, 20, 20, 113, 113, 781, ... (OEIS A050251). Gupta (2009) has computed the numbers of palindromic primes up to .The following table lists palindromic primes in various small bases. OEISbase- palindromic primes2A11769711, 101, 111, 10001, 11111, 1001001, 1101011, ...3A1176982, 111, 212, 12121, 20102, 22122, ...4A1176992, 3, 11, 101, 131, 323, 10001, 11311, 12121, ...5A1177002, 3, 111, 131, 232, 313, 414, 10301, 12121,..

The Euler numbers, also called the secant numbers or zig numbers, are defined for by(1)(2)where is the hyperbolic secant and sec is the secant. Euler numbers give the number of odd alternating permutations and are related to Genocchi numbers. The base e of the natural logarithm is sometimes known as Euler's number.A different sort of Euler number, the Euler number of a finite complex , is defined by(3)This Euler number is a topological invariant.To confuse matters further, the Euler characteristic is sometimes also called the "Euler number" and numbers produced by the prime-generating polynomial are sometimes called "Euler numbers" (Flannery and Flannery 2000, p. 47). In this work, primes generated by that polynomial are termed Euler primes.Some values of the (secant) Euler numbers are(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(OEIS A000364).The slightly different convention defined by(16)(17)is..

A Wilson prime is a prime satisfyingwhere is the Wilson quotient, or equivalently,The first few Wilson primes are 5, 13, and 563 (OEIS A007540). Crandall et al. (1997) showed there are no others less than (McIntosh 2004), a limit that has subsequently been increased to (Costa et al. 2012).

A Wieferich prime is a prime which is a solution to the congruence equation(1)Note the similarity of this expression to the special case of Fermat'slittle theorem(2)which holds for all odd primes. The first few Wieferich primes are 1093, 3511, ... (OEIS A001220), with none other less than (Lehmer 1981, Crandall 1986, Crandall et al. 1997), a limit since increased to (McIntosh 2004) and subsequently to by PrimeGrid as of November 2015.Interestingly, one less than these numbers have suggestive periodic binaryrepresentations(3)(4)(Johnson 1977).If the first case of Fermat's last theorem is false for exponent , then must be a Wieferich prime (Wieferich 1909). If with and relatively prime, then is a Wieferich prime iff also divides . The conjecture that there are no three consecutive powerful numbers implies that there are infinitely many non-Wieferich primes (Granville 1986; Ribenboim 1996, p. 341; Vardi 1991). In addition, the abc..

A Wagstaff prime is a prime number of the form for a prime number. The first few are given by , 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 31, 43, 61, 79, 101, 127, 167, 191, 199, 313, 347, 701, 1709, 2617, 3539, 5807, 10501, 10691, 11279, 12391, 14479, 42737, 83339, 95369, 117239, 127031, 138937, 141079, 267017, 269987, 374321, 986191, and 4031399 (OEIS A000978), with and larger corresponding to probable primes. These values correspond to the primes with indices , 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 18, 22, 26, ... (OEIS A123176).The Wagstaff primes are featured in the newMersenne prime conjecture.There is no simple primality test analogous to the Lucas-Lehmer test for Wagstaff primes, so all recent primality proofs of Wagstaff primes have used elliptic curve primality proving.A Wagstaff prime can also be interpreted as a repunit prime of base , asif is odd, as it must be for the above number to be prime.Some of the largest known Wagstaff probable primes are summarized in the following..

A Thâbit ibn Kurrah prime, sometimes called a 321-prime, is a Thâbit ibn Kurrah number (i.e., a number of the form for nonnegative integer ) that is prime.The indices for the first few Thâbit ibn Kurrah primes are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 18, 34, 38, 43, 55, 64, 76, 94, 103, 143, 206, 216, 306, 324, 391, 458, 470, ... (OEIS A002235), corresponding to the primes 2, 5, 11, 23, 47, 191, 383, 6143, ... (OEIS A007505). Riesel (1969) extended the search to . A search for larger primes was coordinated by P. Underwood. PrimeGrid has continued that search and has checked values of up to as of Nov. 2015 (PrimeGrid). The table below summarizes the largest known Thâbit ibn Kurrah primes.digitsdiscovererPrimeGrid (Dec. 2005; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=76506)PrimeGrid (Mar. 2007; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=79671)PrimeGrid (Apr. 2008; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=84769)PrimeGrid..

A Mersenne prime is a Mersenne number, i.e., anumber of the formthat is prime. In order for to be prime, must itself be prime. This is true since for composite with factors and , . Therefore, can be written as , which is a binomial number that always has a factor .The first few Mersenne primes are 3, 7, 31, 127, 8191, 131071, 524287, 2147483647, ... (OEIS A000668) corresponding to indices , 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61, 89, ... (OEIS A000043).Mersenne primes were first studied because of the remarkable properties that every Mersenne prime corresponds to exactly one perfect number. L. Welsh maintains an extensive bibliography and history of Mersenne numbers.It has been conjectured that there exist an infinite number of Mersenne primes. Fitting a line through the origin to the asymptotic number of Mersenne primes with for the first 51 (known) Mersenne primes gives a best-fit line with , illustrated above. If the line is not restricted to pass through..

The first few prime Lucas numbers are 2, 3, 7, 11, 29, 47, 199, 521, 2207, 3571, ... (OEIS A005479), corresponding to indices , 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 31, 37, 41, 47, 53, 61, 71, 79, 113, 313, 353, 503, 613, 617, 863, 1097, 1361, 4787, 4793, 5851, 7741, 8467, 10691, 12251, 13963, 14449, 19469, 35449, 36779, 44507, 51169, 56003, 81671, 89849, 94823, 140057, 148091, 159521, 183089, 193201, 202667, 344293, 387433, 443609, 532277, 574219, 616787, 631181, 637751, 651821, 692147, 901657, 1051849, ... (Dubner and Keller 1999, Lifchitz and Lifchitz; OEIS A001606). Only those up to index 56003 have been proven prime (Broadhurst and Irvine 2006; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=77992). As of Apr. 2009, the largest known Lucas probable prime is , which has decimal digits (R. Lifchitz, Mar. 2009)...

is prime for , 458329, 942841, 966289, 1510441, ... (OEIS A135430). These values are also known as Lehmer-Ramanujan numbers or LR numbers since the first of them was found by Lehmer (1965). The corresponding primes have explicit values given by , , ... (OEIS A265913).It is known that if is prime, then must be an odd square.Large values of for which is a (probable) prime are summarized in the table below (Lifchitz and Lifchitz).decimal digitsdiscoverer180524N. Lygeros and O. Rozier (May 2015)258571N. Lygeros and O. Rozier (May 2015)282048N. Lygeros and O. Rozier (May 2015)498503N. Lygeros and O. Rozier (May 2015)555339N. Lygeros and O. Rozier (Sep. 2015)

A prime is said to be a Sophie Germain prime if both and are prime. The first few Sophie Germain primes are 2, 3, 5, 11, 23, 29, 41, 53, 83, 89, 113, 131, ... (OEIS A005384). It is not known if there are an infinite number of Sophie Germain primes (Hoffman 1998, p. 190).The numbers of Sophie Germain primes less than for , 2, ... are 3, 10, 37, 190, 1171, 7746, 56032, ... (OEIS A092816).The largest known proven Sophie Germain prime pair as of Feb. 29, 2016 is given by where(Caldwell), each of which has decimal digits (PrimeGrid).The definition of Sophie Germain primes and the value of the largest then-known suchprime were mentioned by the characters Hal and Catherine in the 2005 film Proof.Sophie Germain primes of the form correspond to the indices of composite Mersenne numbers .Around 1825, Sophie Germain proved that the first case of Fermat's last theorem is true for such primes, i.e., if is a Sophie Germain prime, then there do not exist integers..

Let be a prime with digits and let be a constant. Call an "-prime" if the concatenation of the first digits of (ignoring the decimal point if one is present) give . Constant primes are therefore a special type of integer sequence primes, with e-primes, pi-primes, and phi-primes being perhaps the most prominent examples.The following table summarizes the indices of known constant primes for some named mathematical constants.constantname of primesOEIS giving primeApéry's constantA11933410, 55, 109, 141Catalan's constantA11832852, 276, 25477Champernowne constantA07162010, 14, 24, 235, 2804, 4347, 37735, 68433Copeland-Erdős constantA2275301, 2, 4, 11, 353, 355, 499, 1171, 1543, 5719, 11048ee-primeA0641181, 3, 7, 85, 1781, 2780, 112280, 155025Euler-Mascheroni constantA0658151, 3, 40, 185, 1038, 22610, 179849Glaisher-Kinkelin constantA1184207, 10, 18, 64, 71, 527, 1992, 5644, 8813, 19692Golomb-Dickman..

In a 1847 talk to the Académie des Sciences in Paris, Gabriel Lamé (1795-1870) claimed to have proven Fermat's last theorem. However, Joseph Liouville immediately pointed out an error in Lamé's result by pointing out that Lamé had incorrectly assumed unique factorization in the ring of -cyclotomic integers. Kummer had already studied the failure of unique factorization in cyclotomic fields and subsequently formulated a theory of ideals which was later further developed by Dedekind.Kummer was able to prove Fermat's last theorem for all prime exponents falling into a class he called "regular." "Irregular" primes are thus primes that are not a member of this class, and a prime is irregular iff divides the class number of the cyclotomic field generated by . Equivalently, but more conveniently, an odd prime is irregular iff divides the numerator of a Bernoulli number with .An infinite number..

Consecutive number sequences are sequences constructed by concatenating numbers of a given type. Many of these sequences were considered by Smarandache and so are sometimes known as Smarandache sequences.The most obvious consecutive number sequence is the sequence of the first positive integers joined left-to-right, namely 1, 12, 123, 1234, ... (OEIS A007908; Smarandache 1993, Dumitrescu and Seleacu 1994, sequence 1; Mudge 1995; Stephan 1998; Wolfram 2002, p. 913). In this work, members of this sequence will be termed Smarandache numbers and the th such number written . No Smarandache primes exist for (Great Smarandache PRPrime search; Dec. 5, 2016).The th term of the "reverse integer sequence" consists of the concatenation of the first positive integers written right-to-left: 1, 21, 321, 4321, ... (OEIS A000422; Smarandache 1993, Dumitrescu and Seleacu 1994, Stephan 1998). The terms up to are given by (1)(2)The..

A repunit is a number consisting of copies of the single digit 1. The term "repunit" was coined by Beiler (1966), who also gave the first tabulation of known factors.In base-10, repunits have the form(1)(2)Repunits therefore have exactly decimal digits. Amazingly, the squares of the repunits give the Demlo numbers, , , , ... (OEIS A002275 and A002477).The number of factors for the base-10 repunits for , 2, ... are 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 5, 2, 4, 4, 4, 2, 7, 3, ... (OEIS A046053). The base-10 repunit probable primes occur for , 19, 23, 317, and 1031, 49081, 86453, 109297, and 270343 (OEIS A004023; Madachy 1979, Williams and Dubner 1986, Ball and Coxeter 1987, Granlund, Dubner 1999, Baxter 2000), where is the largest proven prime (Williams and Dubner 1986). T. Granlund completed a search up to in 1998 using two months of CPU time on a parallel computer. The search was extended by Dubner (1999), culminating in the discovery of the probable prime ...

The Bernoulli numbers are a sequence of signed rational numbers that can be defined by the exponential generating function(1)These numbers arise in the series expansions of trigonometric functions, and areextremely important in number theory and analysis.There are actually two definitions for the Bernoulli numbers. To distinguish them, the Bernoulli numbers as defined in modern usage (National Institute of Standards and Technology convention) are written , while the Bernoulli numbers encountered in older literature are written (Gradshteyn and Ryzhik 2000). In each case, the Bernoulli numbers are a special case of the Bernoulli polynomials or with and .The Bernoulli number and polynomial should not be confused with the Bell numbers and Bell polynomial, which are also commonly denoted and , respectively.Bernoulli numbers defined by the modern definition are denoted and sometimes called "even-index" Bernoulli numbers...

A Belphegor prime (also known as a Beelphegor prime) is a prime Belphegor number, i.e., a palindromic prime of the form . The first few Belphegor primes are the Belphegor numberswith , 13, 42, 506, 608, 2472, 2623, 28291, 181298, ... (OEIS A232448). Shifting this sequence by one gives 1, 14, 43, 507, 609, ... (OEIS A156166).The above definition generalizes the original definition due to Pickover, who named"the" Belphegor prime after one of the Seven Princes of Hell who is the demon of inventiveness. This prime has a number of numerological properties, including a central beast number 666 which is surrounded on each side by 13 (a number traditionally associated with bad luck) zeros and an overall decimal number length of 31-which is 13 backwards.

Apéry's constant is defined by(1)(OEIS A002117) where is the Riemann zeta function. Apéry (1979) proved that is irrational, although it is not known if it is transcendental. Sorokin (1994) and Nesterenko (1996) subsequently constructed independent proofs for the irrationality of (Hata 2000). arises naturally in a number of physical problems, including in the second- and third-order terms of the electron's gyromagnetic ratio, computed using quantum electrodynamics.The following table summarizes progress in computing upper bounds on the irrationality measure for . Here, the exact values for is given by(2)(3)(Hata 2000).upper boundreference15.513891Rhin and Viola (2001)28.830284Hata (1990)312.74359Dvornicich and Viola (1987)413.41782Apéry (1979), Sorokin (1994), Nesterenko (1996), Prévost (1996)Beukers (1979) reproduced Apéry's rational approximation to using the triple..

A Fibonacci prime is a Fibonacci number that is also a prime number. Every that is prime must have a prime index , with the exception of . However, the converse is not true (i.e., not every prime index gives a prime ).The first few (possibly probable) prime Fibonacci numbers are 2, 3, 5, 13, 89, 233, 1597, 28657, 514229, ... (OEIS A005478), corresponding to indices , 4, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 23, 29, 43, 47, 83, 131, 137, 359, 431, 433, 449, 509, 569, 571, 2971, 4723, 5387, ... (OEIS A001605). (Note that Gardner's statement that is prime (Gardner 1979, p. 161) is incorrect, especially since 531 is not even prime, which it must be for to be prime.) The following table summarizes Fibonacci (possibly probable) primes with index .termindexdigitsdiscovererstatus2453871126proven prime; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=511292593111946proven prime; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=374702696772023proven prime; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=3553727144313016proven..

A Fermat prime is a Fermat number that is prime. Fermat primes are therefore near-square primes.Fermat conjectured in 1650 that every Fermat number is prime and Eisenstein in 1844 proposed as a problem the proof that there are an infinite number of Fermat primes (Ribenboim 1996, p. 88). At present, however, the only Fermat numbers for for which primality or compositeness has been established are all composite.The only known Fermat primes are(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(OEIS A019434), and it seems unlikely that any more will be found using current computational methods and hardware. It follows that is prime for the special case together with the Fermat prime indices, giving the sequence 2, 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537 (OEIS A092506). is a Fermat prime if and only if the period length of is equal to . In other words, Fermat primes are full reptend primes...

Just as many interesting integer sequences can be defined and their properties studied, it is often of interest to additionally determine which of their elements are prime. The following table summarizes the indices of the largest known prime (or probable prime) members of a number of named sequences.sequenceOEISdigitsdiscoverersearch limitcommentsalternating factorialA00127259961260448M. Rodenkirch (Sep. 18, 2017)100000 (M. Rodenkirch, Dec. 15, 2017)finite sequence; largest certified prime has index 661; the rest are probable primesApéry-constant primeA119334141141E. W. Weisstein (May 14, 2006)9089 (E. W. Weisstein, Mar. 22, 2008)status unknownApéry number A092825662410136E. W. Weisstein (Mar. 2004) (E. W. Weisstein, Mar. 2004)probable primeApéry number 87E. W. Weisstein..

A factorial prime is a prime number of the form , where is a factorial. is prime for , 4, 6, 7, 12, 14, 30, 32, 33, 38, 94, 166, 324, 379, 469, 546, 974, 1963, 3507, 3610, 6917, 21480, 26951, 34790, 94550, 103040, 147855, 208003, ... (OEIS A002982), the largest of which are summarized in the following table.digitsdiscoverer107,707Marchal, Carmody, and Kuosa (Caldwell; May 2002)142,891Marchal, Carmody, and Kuosa (Caldwell; May 2002)429,390D. Domanov/PrimeGrid (Oct. 4, 2010)471,794J. Winskill/PrimeGrid (Dec. 14, 2010)700,177PrimeGrid (Aug. 30, 2013)1,015,843S. Fukui (Jul. 25, 2016; https://primes.utm.edu/primes/page.php?id=121944) is prime for , 2, 3, 11, 27, 37, 41, 73, 77, 116, 154, 320, 340, 399, 427, 872, 1477, 6380, 26951, 110059, 150209, ... (OEIS A002981; Wells 1986, p. 70), the largest of which are summarized in the following table.digitsdiscoverer107,707K. Davis..

A double factorial prime is a prime number of the form , where is a double factorial. is prime for , 4, 6, 8, 16, 26, 64, 82, 90, 118, 194, 214, 728, ... (OEIS A007749), the largest of which are summarized in the following table.digitsdiscoverer169,435S. Fukai (Jun. 5, 2015)229,924S. Fukai (Jun. 5, 2015)344,538S. Fukai (Apr. 21, 2016) is prime for , 1, 2, 518, 33416, 37310, 52608, 123998, ... (OEIS A080778), the largest of which are summarized in the following table.digitsdiscoverer112,762H. Jamke (Jan. 3, 2008)288,864S. Fukai (Jun. 5, 2015)

A harmonic number is a number of the form(1)arising from truncation of the harmonic series.A harmonic number can be expressed analytically as(2)where is the Euler-Mascheroni constant and is the digamma function.The first few harmonic numbers are 1, , , , , ... (OEIS A001008 and A002805). The numbers of digits in the numerator of for , 1, ... are 1, 4, 41, 434, 4346, 43451, 434111, 4342303, 43428680, ... (OEIS A114467), with the corresponding number of digits in the denominator given by 1, 4, 40, 433, 4345, 43450, 434110, 4342302, 43428678, ... (OEIS A114468). These digits converge to what appears to be the decimal digits of (OEIS A002285).The first few indices such that the numerator of is prime are given by 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 21, 26, 41, 56, 62, 69, ... (OEIS A056903). The search for prime numerators has been completed up to by E. W. Weisstein (May 13, 2009), and the following table summarizes the largest known values.decimal digitsdiscoverer6394227795E. W. Weisstein..

The integer sequence defined by the recurrencerelation(1)with the initial conditions . This is the same recurrence relation as for the Perrin sequence, but with different initial conditions.The recurrence relation can be solved explicitly,giving(2)where is the th root of(3)Another form of the solution is(4)where is the th root of(5)The first few terms are 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, ... (OEIS A000931).The first few prime Padovan numbers are 2, 2, 3, 5, 7, 37, 151, 3329, 23833, ... (OEIS A100891), corresponding to indices ,3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 14, 19, 30, 37, 84, 128, 469, 666, 1262, 1573, 2003, 2210, 2289, 4163, 5553, 6567, 8561, 11230, 18737, 35834, 44259, 536485, ... (OEIS A112882). The search for prime numerators has been completed up to by E. W. Weisstein (Apr. 10, 2011), and the following table summarizes the largest known values.decimal digitsdiscoverer53648565518E. W. Weisstein (May 16, 2009)72773488874E. W. Weisstein..

While the Catalan numbers are the number of p-good paths from to (0,0) which do not cross the diagonal line, the super Catalan numbers count the number of lattice paths with diagonal steps from to (0,0) which do not touch the diagonal line .The super Catalan numbers are given by the recurrencerelation(1)(Comtet 1974), with . (Note that the expression in Vardi (1991, p. 198) contains two errors.) A closed form expression in terms of Legendre polynomials for is(2)(3)(Vardi 1991, p. 199). The first few super Catalan numbers are 1, 1, 3, 11, 45, 197, ... (OEIS A001003). These are often called the "little" Schröder numbers. Multiplying by 2 gives the usual ("large") Schröder numbers 2, 6, 22, 90, ... (OEIS A006318).The first few prime super Catalan numbers have indices 3, 4, 6, 10, 216, ... (OEIS A092839), with no others less than (Weisstein, Mar. 7, 2004), corresponding to the numbers 3, 11, 197,..

The Lucas numbers are the sequence of integers defined by the linear recurrence equation(1)with and . The th Lucas number is implemented in the Wolfram Language as LucasL[n].The values of for , 2, ... are 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76, 123, ... (OEIS A000204).The Lucas numbers are also a Lucas sequence and are the companions to the Fibonacci numbers and satisfy the same recurrence.The number of ways of picking a set (including the empty set) from the numbers 1, 2, ..., without picking two consecutive numbers (where 1 and are now consecutive) is (Honsberger 1985, p. 122).The only square numbers in the Lucas sequence are 1 and 4 (Alfred 1964, Cohn 1964). The only triangular Lucas numbers are 1, 3, and 5778 (Ming 1991). The only cubic Lucas number is 1.Rather amazingly, if is prime, . The converse does not necessarily hold true, however, and composite numbers such that are known as Lucas pseudoprimes.For , 2, ..., the numbers of decimal digits in are..

The integer sequence defined by the recurrence(1)with the initial conditions , , . This recurrence relation is the same as that for the Padovan sequence but with different initial conditions. The first few terms for , 1, ..., are 3, 0, 2, 3, 2, 5, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, ... (OEIS A001608).The above cartoon (Amend 2005) shows an unconventional sports application of the Perrin sequence (right panel). (The left two panels instead apply the Fibonacci numbers). is the solution of a third-order linear homogeneous recurrence equation having characteristic equation(2)Denoting the roots of this equation by , , and , with the unique real root, the solution is then(3)Here,(4)is the plastic constant , which is also given by the limit(5)The asymptotic behavior of is(6)The first few primes in this sequence are 2, 3, 2, 5, 5, 7, 17, 29, 277, 367, 853, ... (OEIS A074788), which occur for terms , 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 20, 21, 24, 34, 38, 75, 122, 166, 236, 355, 356, 930, 1042,..

Apéry's numbers are defined by(1)(2)(3)where is a binomial coefficient. The first few for , 1, 2, ... are 1, 5, 73, 1445, 33001, 819005, ... (OEIS A005259).The first few prime Apéry numbers are 5, 73, 12073365010564729, 10258527782126040976126514552283001, ... (OEIS A092826), which have indices , 2, 12, 24, ... (OEIS A092825).The case of Schmidt's problem expresses these numbers in the form(4)(Strehl 1993, 1994; Koepf 1998, p. 55).They are also given by the recurrence equation(5)with and (Beukers 1987).There is also an associated set of numbers(6)(7)(Beukers 1987), where is a generalized hypergeometric function. The values for , 1, ... are 1, 3, 19, 147, 1251, 11253, 104959, ... (OEIS A005258). The first few prime -numbers are 5, 73, 12073365010564729, 10258527782126040976126514552283001, ... (OEIS A092827), which have indices , 2, 6, 8, ... (OEIS A092828), with no others for (Weisstein, Mar. 8, 2004).The..

The Pell numbers are the numbers obtained by the s in the Lucas sequence with and . They correspond to the Pell polynomial . Similarly, the Pell-Lucas numbers are the s in the Lucas sequence with and , and correspond to the Pell-Lucas polynomial .The Pell numbers and Pell-Lucas numbers are also equal to(1)(2)where is a Fibonacci polynomial.The Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers satisfy the recurrencerelation(3)with initial conditions and for the Pell numbers and for the Pell-Lucas numbers.The th Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers are explicitly given by the Binet-type formulas(4)(5)The th Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers are given by the binomial sums(6)(7)respectively.The Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers satisfy the identities(8)(9)(10)and(11)(12)For , 1, ..., the Pell numbers are 0, 1, 2, 5, 12, 29, 70, 169, 408, 985, 2378, ... (OEIS A000129).For a Pell number to be prime, it is necessary that be prime. The indices of (probable) prime Pell numbers are 2, 3, 5,..

Primorial primes are primes of the form , where is the primorial of . A coordinated search for such primes is being conducted on PrimeGrid. is prime for , 3, 5, 6, 13, 24, 66, 68, 167, 287, 310, 352, 564, 590, 620, 849, 1552, 1849, 67132, 85586, ... (OEIS A057704; Guy 1994, pp. 7-8; Caldwell 1995). These correspond to with , 5, 11, 13, 41, 89, 317, 337, 991, 1873, 2053, 2377, 4093, 4297, 4583, 6569, 13033, 15877, 843301, 1098133, ... (OEIS A006794). The largest known primorial primes as of Nov. 2015 are summarized in the following table (Caldwell).digitsdiscoverer6845Dec. 1992365851PrimeGrid (Dec. 20, 2010)476311PrimeGrid (Mar. 5, 2012) (also known as a Euclid number) is prime for , 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 75, 171, 172, 384, 457, 616, 643, 1391, 1613, 2122, 2647, 2673, 4413, 13494, 31260, 33237, ... (OEIS A014545; Guy 1994, Caldwell 1995, Mudge 1997). These correspond to with , 3, 5, 7, 11, 31, 379, 1019, 1021, 2657, 3229, 4547,..

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