Petersen's theorem states that every cubic graph with no bridges has a perfect matching (Petersen 1891; Frink 1926; König 1936; Skiena 1990, p. 244). In fact, this theorem can be extended to read, "every cubic graph with 0, 1, or 2 bridges has a perfect matching."The graph above shows the smallest counterexample for 3 bridges, namely a connected cubic graph on 16 vertices having no perfect matchings. This graph is implemented in the Wolfram Language as GraphData["Cubic", 16, 14].Errera (1922) strengthened Petersen's theorem by proving that if all bridges of a connected cubic graph lie on a single path of , then has a perfect matching.
The -ladder graph can be defined as , where is a path graph (Hosoya and Harary 1993; Noy and Ribó 2004, Fig. 1). It is therefore equivalent to the grid graph. The ladder graph is named for its resemblance to a ladder consisting of two rails and rungs between them (though starting immediately at the bottom and finishing at the top with no offset).Hosoya and Harary (1993) also use the term "ladder graph" for the graph Cartesian product , where is the complete graph on two nodes and is the cycle graph on nodes. This class of graph is however more commonly known as a prism graph.Ball and Coxeter (1987, pp. 277-278) use the term "ladder graph" to refer to the graph known in this work as the ladder rung graph.The ladder graph is graceful (Maheo 1980).The chromatic polynomial, independence polynomial, and reliability polynomial of the ladder graph are given by(1)(2)(3)where . Recurrence equations for the chromatic..