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Bernoulli number

The Bernoulli numbers are a sequence of signed rational numbers that can be defined by the exponential generating function(1)These numbers arise in the series expansions of trigonometric functions, and areextremely important in number theory and analysis.There are actually two definitions for the Bernoulli numbers. To distinguish them, the Bernoulli numbers as defined in modern usage (National Institute of Standards and Technology convention) are written , while the Bernoulli numbers encountered in older literature are written (Gradshteyn and Ryzhik 2000). In each case, the Bernoulli numbers are a special case of the Bernoulli polynomials or with and .The Bernoulli number and polynomial should not be confused with the Bell numbers and Bell polynomial, which are also commonly denoted and , respectively.Bernoulli numbers defined by the modern definition are denoted and sometimes called "even-index" Bernoulli numbers...

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