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Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics dealing with integers or, more generally, numerical computation. Arithmetical operations include addition, congruence calculation, division, factorization, multiplication, power computation, root extraction, and subtraction. Arithmetic was part of the quadrivium taught in medieval universities. A mnemonic for the spelling of "arithmetic" is "a rat in the house may eat the ice cream."The branch of mathematics known as number theoryis sometimes known as higher arithmetic.Modular arithmetic is the arithmetic of congruences.Floating-point arithmetic is the arithmetic performed on real numbers by computers or other automated devices using a fixed number of bits.The fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem, states that any positive integer can be represented in exactly one way as a product of primes.The Löwenheim-Skolem..

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