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Apéry's constant is defined by(1)(OEIS A002117) where is the Riemann zeta function. Apéry (1979) proved that is irrational, although it is not known if it is transcendental. Sorokin (1994) and Nesterenko (1996) subsequently constructed independent proofs for the irrationality of (Hata 2000). arises naturally in a number of physical problems, including in the second- and third-order terms of the electron's gyromagnetic ratio, computed using quantum electrodynamics.The following table summarizes progress in computing upper bounds on the irrationality measure for . Here, the exact values for is given by(2)(3)(Hata 2000).upper boundreference15.513891Rhin and Viola (2001)28.830284Hata (1990)312.74359Dvornicich and Viola (1987)413.41782Apéry (1979), Sorokin (1994), Nesterenko (1996), Prévost (1996)Beukers (1979) reproduced Apéry's rational approximation to using the triple..

The natural logarithm of 2 is a transcendental quantity that arises often in decay problems, especially when half-lives are being converted to decay constants. has numerical value(1)(OEIS A002162).The irrationality measure of is known to be less than 3.8913998 (Rukhadze 1987, Hata 1990).It is not known if is normal (Bailey and Crandall 2002).The alternating series and BBP-typeformula(2)converges to the natural logarithm of 2, where is the Dirichlet eta function. This identity follows immediately from setting in the Mercator series, yielding(3)It is also a special case of the identity(4)where is the Lerch transcendent.This is the simplest in an infinite class of such identities, the first few of which are(5)(6)(E. W. Weisstein, Oct. 7, 2007).There are many other classes of BBP-type formulas for , including(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)Plouffe (2006) found the beautiful sum(12)A rapidly converging Zeilberger-type sum..

The inverse tangent is the multivalued function (Zwillinger 1995, p. 465), also denoted (Abramowitz and Stegun 1972, p. 79; Harris and Stocker 1998, p. 311; Jeffrey 2000, p. 124) or (Spanier and Oldham 1987, p. 333; Gradshteyn and Ryzhik 2000, p. 208; Jeffrey 2000, p. 127), that is the inverse function of the tangent. The variants (e.g., Bronshtein and Semendyayev, 1997, p. 70) and are sometimes used to refer to explicit principal values of the inverse cotangent, although this distinction is not always made (e.g,. Zwillinger 1995, p. 466).The inverse tangent function is plotted above along the real axis.Worse yet, the notation is sometimes used for the principal value, with being used for the multivalued function (Abramowitz and Stegun 1972, p. 80). Note that in the notation (commonly used in North America and in pocket calculators worldwide), denotes the tangent and the..

Catalan's constant is a constant that commonly appears in estimates of combinatorial functions and in certain classes of sums and definite integrals. It is usually denoted (this work), (e.g., Borwein et al. 2004, p. 49), or (Wolfram Language).Catalan's constant may be defined by(1)(Glaisher 1877, who however did not explicitly identify the constant in this paper). It is not known if is irrational.Catalan's constant is implemented in the WolframLanguage as Catalan.The constant is named in honor of E. C. Catalan (1814-1894), who first gave an equivalent series and expressions in terms of integrals. Numerically,(2)(OEIS A006752). can be given analytically by the following expressions(3)(4)(5)where is the Dirichlet beta function, is Legendre's chi-function, is the Glaisher-Kinkelin constant, and is the partial derivative of the Hurwitz zeta function with respect to the first argument.Glaisher (1913) gave(6)(Vardi..

There are many formulas of of many types. Among others, these include series, products, geometric constructions, limits, special values, and pi iterations. is intimately related to the properties of circles and spheres. For a circle of radius , the circumference and area are given by(1)(2)Similarly, for a sphere of radius , the surface area and volume enclosed are(3)(4)An exact formula for in terms of the inverse tangents of unit fractions is Machin's formula(5)There are three other Machin-like formulas,as well as thousands of other similar formulas having more terms.Gregory and Leibniz found(6)(7)(Wells 1986, p. 50), which is known as the Gregory series and may be obtained by plugging into the Leibniz series for . The error after the th term of this series in the Gregory series is larger than so this sum converges so slowly that 300 terms are not sufficient to calculate correctly to two decimal places! However, it can be transformed..

The BBP (named after Bailey-Borwein-Plouffe) is a formula for calculating pidiscovered by Simon Plouffe in 1995,Amazingly, this formula is a digit-extraction algorithm for in base 16.Following the discovery of this and related formulas, similar formulas in other bases were investigated. This class of formulas are now known as BBP-type formulas.

The figure eight knot, also known as the Flemish knot and savoy knot, is the unique prime knot of four crossings 04-001. It has braid word .The figure eight knot is implemented in the WolframLanguage as KnotData["FigureEight"].It is a 2-embeddable knot, and is amphichiral as well as invertible. It has Arf invariant 1. It is not a slice knot (Rolfsen 1976, p. 224).The Alexander polynomial , BLM/Ho polynomial , Conway polynomial , HOMFLY polynomial , Jones polynomial , and Kauffman polynomial F of the figure eight knot are(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)There are no other knots on 10 or fewer crossings sharing the same Alexander polynomial, BLM/Ho polynomial, bracket polynomial, HOMFLY polynomial, Jones polynomial, or Kauffman polynomial F.The figure eight knot has knot group(7)(Rolfsen 1976, p. 58).Helaman Ferguson's sculpture "Figure-Eight Complement II" illustrates the knot complement of the figure eight..

The value for(1)can be found using a number of different techniques (Apostol 1983, Choe 1987, Giesy 1972, Holme 1970, Kimble 1987, Knopp and Schur 1918, Kortram 1996, Matsuoka 1961, Papadimitriou 1973, Simmons 1992, Stark 1969, 1970, Yaglom and Yaglom 1987). is therefore the definite sum version of the indefinite sum(2)(3)where is a generalized harmonic number (whose numerator is known as a Wolstenholme number) and is a polygamma function.The problem of finding this value analytically is sometimes known as the Basel problem (Derbyshire 2004, pp. 63 and 370) or Basler problem (Castellanos 1988). It was first proposed by Pietro Mengoli in 1644 (Derbyshire 2004, p. 370). The solution(4)was first found by Euler in 1735 (Derbyshire 2004, p. 64) or 1736 (Srivastava 2000).Yaglom and Yaglom (1987), Holme (1970), and Papadimitriou (1973) all derive the result, from de Moivre's identity or related identities. is given by the..

Clausen's integral, sometimes called the log sine integral (Borwein and Bailey 2003, p. 88) is the case of the Clausen function(1)(2)where is a dilogarithm.Clausen's integral has the special value(3)where is Catalan's constant (Borwein and Bailey 2003, p. 89). Other identities include(4)where ,(5)where , and(6)where is a Dirichlet L-series and (Borwein and Bailey 2003, pp. 89-90).BBP-type formulas include(7)(8)(Bailey 2000, Borwein and Bailey 2003, pp. 128-129).

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