Individual Assignment 2 is a theoretically challenging assignment.
Helps for Individual Assignment 2 – The Scientific Method Hi Folks, Individual Assignment 2 is a theoretically challenging assignment. Definitions of the steps within the Scientific Method have challenged scientists to agree upon and have changed over the years. These concepts are theoretical and are difficult for most people to grasp and put into practice. Let me assure you that this is the most difficult assignment for the students so I do not want you to think that all the assignments are like this. You will find the others to be conceptually more manageable. After I explain a few things about experimental design, I will give you a simple example of an experimental design and then we will compare it, using the chart created below, to the experimental design given in Individual Assignment 2. This will help you to see how the scientific method is applied to a given question. Below is the Brophy Rubric that I will be using to grade your submission. Look at it carefully before you read these helps and before you submit your final sentences. Rubric for Individual Assignment 2 on the Scientific Method; ADD or ADT? Statement 1- The Hypothesis 4/4 - Correctly relates the independent variable to the dependent variable 1/1 – Sentence written in statement form 5/5 – Includes the data (numbers) yielding test 10/10 Statement 2 – The Control Set-up 4/4 – Shows understanding of the control variable and set-up 3/3 – Includes the constant factors 3/3 – Includes the data yielding test (numbers) 10/10 Submission 10/10 30/30 points total An experiment has two parts as is in this case before you.
The two parts are 1.the Experimental Set-up and 2. The Control Set-up.
The experimental set-up is given to you.
The “Experimental Set-up” contains all the constant factors plus the experimental variable, the variable which is to be tested during the experiment.
The “Control Set-up” contains all the constant factors plus the control variable (the normal variable), which during the analysis of the data from both set-ups will be used as the standard of comparison for the analysis of the experimental variable.
Your assignment is two-fold:
For Sentence 1: You need to formulate and write a Hypothesis for the total experiment.
For Sentence 2: You need to design the “Control Set-up” part of the experimental design describing all the conditions and including the “Normal variable”. Remember, the data from the analysis of the control variable will be used as the standard of comparison for the analysis and the conclusion of the experimental variable.
1) The Hypothesis: First sentence of Individual Assignment 2 Assignment:
Write an hypothesis [establishing an hypothetical question that can be physically tested and yield data (numbers) in an experimentally conditioned set-up, “the experiment”].
Think through the hypothesis. Think “Can I use this statement to really do and test the one, experimental variable as all other factors are the same and constant?”
Can I collect and record logical data (numbers) using my hypothesis? What would the data look like or be? Can I make a table that would generate a graph with my data? This is the hypothesis. It is a workable statement relating the independent variable ( the experimental variable manipulated by the experimenter) and the dependent variable (the variable responding to the independent variable) including a test that will yield data.
What is the experimental variable in this case? In this case it is the magnitude of sensory stimulation-sensory input.
So, in the first part of the experiment “decreased sensory input” (beach/vacation/ talk to only one friend scenario) represents the experimental variable – decreased sensory input.
Half of the experiment is given to you. So think back how to test this variable. You could write “If this, then that” - perhaps.
2) Second sentence of Individual Sentence 2 Assignment:
As I said earlier, half the experiment is given to you. We can call it the “Experimental Set-up” (or the experimental conditions). Remember, the experimental set-up contains the one experimental variable with all the constant factors.
Your job for the second sentence is to create the other half of the experiment, the “Control Set-up”.
The control set-up has all the same constant factors as the experimental set-up minus the experimental variable. Instead of the experimental variable, the control set-up has, for example, the “normal scenario/variable” which contrasts and can be compared to the “experimental variable” when the experiment is completed and the two sets of data from each set-up is ready for comparison. The key word here is normal.
Experimental Design to Compare with the Experimental Design for the question “Is it ADD or is it ADT?: Growing Tomatoes – Question: Will fertilizer increase the number of tomatoes yielded in one season? This year divide your garden into two sections, planting 12 seedlings grown from the same seed supply in each section. Each section should receive the same amount of rainfall and sunlight, be subjected to the same insects and other pests, and contain similar soil. However, add fertilizer to one section and not to the other. The fertilizer is the experimental variable. Experiment for Individual Assignment 2- Question: What’s my problem? Is it ADD or is it ADT? Remember a question is not an hypothesis. Individual Assignment 2 Instructions Background Information Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a syndrome in which a person has difficulty focusing sustained attention on a task for a significant amount of time. In some cases this is accompanied by hyperactivity as well. It is currently being diagnosed at an all-time high. Between 1989 and 1996, youth visits for ADD increased 90%, from 1.9% of total physician visits to 3.6%. Now a psychiatrist, Dr. Edward Hallowell is making a new distinction. He has described a similar set of characteristics in a large number of patients that he terms Attention Deficit Trait (ADT). It looks a lot like ADD in its day to day manifestation, but unlike ADD, ADT symptoms lessen when the sufferer goes on vacation or into a decreased sensory input setting for an extended time period (on the order of days or weeks). In such a long-term placid situation, the ADD sufferer's problems continue unabated. THE EXPERIMENT: We will pretend that you have the general set of symptoms described above. Ahh, but which of the two syndromes are causing your symptoms: the disorder (ADD) or the trait (ADT)? We’ll approach your problem using scientific methodology—developing a question, a hypothesis, an experiment, and a control for the experiment. Let’s share this assignment. I will supply both the initial question and the experiment we’ll perform on you. Your job is to state the hypothesis and to design the most important and most basic control for this experiment: Your Question: What's my problem? Is it ADD or is it ADT? (1)Your Hypothesis: State your hypothesis based directly on the above question. Your Experiment: Keeping your same diet, sleep habits, and basic activity level, you will be sent on a two week vacation to the Bahamas Islands where you will be given only a beach to walk and your favorite friend to talk to, following which you will be asked to read and memorize 10 sequential definitions from a standard dictionary in 30 minutes’ time. (2) Your Control for this Experiment: So you get a numerical result for the number of definitions you memorized. What does that number mean? Nothing—unless you have a control for your experiment. What’s the most obvious control for this experiment? Below is a chart that compares the two experiments: ADD or ADT? And Growing Tomatoes. On the chart are two large question marks “?”. These indicate the place within the scientific method where your two sentences, the hypothesis and the control set-up, are applied. Hopefully, these indicators will help you understand how to formulate your two sentences for Individual Assignment 2. BIOL 101 INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 2 COMPARISON OF TWO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Question? Will fertilizer increase the number of tomatoes yielded in one growing season? What’s my problem? Is it ADD or is it ADT? Hypothesis If x amount of fertilizer is added to my tomato plants than the number of tomatoes yielded at the end of the season will increase. ? If….then… (This is the part of the assignment that you have to do. Formulate the hypothesis. Take note that the independent and dependent variable make up the hypothesis) Independent Variable (Experimental Variable) X amount of Fertilizer Decreased sensory input setting (vacation scenario) Dependent Variable (Responding variable to independent variable) The number of tomatoes yielded at the end of the growing season The number of sequential definitions in a dictionary I am able to memorize after 30 minutes Experimental Design Experimental Set-up Control Set-up Experimental Set-up Control Set-up Constant Factors All the Same * species of seeds * amount of sunlight * kind of soil * amount of water * 12 tomato plants All the Same * species of seeds * amount of sunlight * kind of soil * amount of water * 12 tomato plants All the Same * One subject, YOU * sleep habits * diet * activity level * number of sequential definitions from a dictionary to memorize in 30 minutes All the Same * One subject YOU * sleep habits * diet * activity level * number of sequential definitions from a dictionary to memorize in 30 minutes Experimental Variable X amount of fertilizer ------------------- Decreased sensory input setting ----------------------- Control Variable No Fertilizer ? This control factor (variable) is what you need to identify in order to determine your control set-up. (To formulate a control set-up sentence, you will need to include this control variable and the constant factors). Results (Data) The number of tomatoes yielded at the end of the season Data example: 20 tomatoes The number of tomatoes yielded at the end of the season Data example: 10 tomatoes The number of sequential definitions in a dictionary you are able to memorize after 30 minutes. Data example: 8 definitions in 30 minutes The number of sequential definitions in a dictionary you are able to memorize after 30 minutes Data example: 5 definitions in 30 minutes Analysis (of data results) In the experimental set-up, the set-up that added fertilizer to the tomato plant soil, a 50% increase in the number of tomatoes was yielded. In the control set-up, the set-up that added no fertilizer to the tomato plant soil, a 50% decrease in the number of tomatoes was yielded. In the experimental set-up, the set-up that decreased the sensory input for one subject, you, you memorized more definitions in this situation than in the control situation. In the control set-up, that set-up that (………………) for one subject, you, you memorized less definitions in this situation than in the experimental situation. Conclusion (based on the data analysis) If x amount of fertilizer is added to tomato plants then the number of tomatoes per growing season will increase. Another way to say it is: Adding fertilizer to the soil around tomato plants will increase the crop yield. This conclusion statement supports the hypothesis. If no fertilizer is added to tomato plants then the number of tomato plants per growing season will decrease.