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Write a literature review paper on a selected topic covered in the Schunk text. After you have selected a topic to review (for example, Anderson's ACT* theory or a motivational theory, such as Keller’s ARCS), you will then need to research that particular theory in more detail (you may use Online sources or journal articles for your research) and then write a brief (2 to 3 page) paper discussing your findings. End your paper with questions you feel are left unanswered by the readings. Be sure to include a reference page, with all references cited in the Chicago Manual of Style format.
Schunk, D.H. Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. 6th ed. 2012, Prentice Hall. ISBN-10: 0137071957, ISBN-13: 978-0137071951.
In this unit, students will be introduced to information processing theory, cognitive learning theory, and cognition and instruction. Students will think about the application of these theories in the development of educational programs for museums. Applications for technology approaches in museums are particularly relevant. Recently, there have been a variety of ways that museums are “customizing” museum experiences through technology. Some examples are podcasts, individualized tour approaches, and Second Life. Specifically, students will learn about:
Information Processing theory;
Cognitive learning processes;
Cognition and instruction;
Gagne's Nine events of instruction;
Gagne's Five levels of learning; and
Applications of cognitive and information processing theories to technology approaches in museums.
Cognitive and information processing theories relate to internal processes in the mind, in contrast to the external processes involved in behavioral and social cognitive theories. In some models, the brain may be compared to a computer, and the information processes of learning are analyzed. Cognition and instruction concepts relate to how instruction may be organized to facilitate cognition, or understanding. These cognitive or instructional strategies may be useful in facilitating learning. Gagne and Bloom have both created taxonomies that result in positive learning outcomes.
After writing a learning goal for the course, unit or lesson, it is helpful to determine the type of learning outcome the goal represents. This helps the designer to determine how to divide the learning goal into its component parts. Some learning tasks are very different from others in terms of the amount and kind of cognitive effort required in learning, the types of learning conditions that support their learning, and the ways to test for their achievement. For example, Smith and Ragan (1999) point out that the learning required in reciting a Prologue to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales is very different than learning to prove a geometric theorem. The learning task of memorization requires attention and perseverance, as well as rehearsal. Conditions which would support this type of learning are explaining the meaning and context of the prologue, breaking the task up into smaller pieces, memorizing one piece at a time, putting all of the pieces together, and then practicing the entire poem. In contrast, learning to prove geometric theorems requires a different kind of mental effort. A student must first keep rules in mind, select the appropriate ones, and then decide which sequence these rules (or principles) should be applied. One way to promote learning would be to remind students of appropriate principles. Two taxonomies are often used: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Types of Learning. Bloom’s work described differences among types of learning with a taxonomy of objectives in the cognitive domain: recall, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. This categorization is useful in lesson planning. However, Smith and Ragan (1999) recommend Gagne’s categorization system, as it is more widely used, and most useful in designing instructional materials.
Gagne (1985) categorized learning outcomes into five categories: verbal information (or declarative knowledge), intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and psychomotor skills. Gagne proposed that the type of mental processing required for achieving outcomes in each category is qualitatively different from the mental activities required in other categories. Therefore, the types of instructional support (the instructional strategy) needed in each category would be substantially different as well. Below, you will find Gagne’s types of learning outcomes clearly outlined, along with suggested instructional strategies for promoting each type of learning.
Gagne’s Five Types of Learning Outcomes (Gagne, 1985; Smith and Ragan, 1999)
Declarative knowledge objectives require a learner to recall in verbatim, paraphrased, or summarized facts, lists, names, or organized information. Learners are not required to apply the knowledge that they have acquired but merely to recall, recognize, or state in their own words. Declarative knowledge is sometimes described as “knowing that” something is the case. It is comparable to Bloom’s levels of recall and understanding. Examples of verbal information objectives include:
Write the names of at least three Native American tribes in Oklahoma;
Recite the multiplication table for the number nine; and
In your own words, summarize the three points in writing a learning objective.
Instructional strategies that are useful in promoting declarative knowledge include those that allow students to practice, recall, or describe. For example, you may want students to show that they know how to organize declarative knowledge into meaningful, memorable segments. These relationships may be represented graphically in a variety of ways including concept maps or flow charts.
Cognitive strategies are referred to as learning strategies or “learning how to learn.” The main strategies are: rehearsal, elaboration, organization, comprehension, and affective strategies, which are those that the learners use to “focus attention, maintain concentration, manage performance anxiety, establish and maintain motivation, and manage time effectively” (Smith and Ragan, p. 68). Instructional strategies that may promote cognitive strategies involve recall and application (practice).
Attitudes are mental states that predispose learners to engage in a particular behavior. Attitudes influence the choices that learners make. One way to promote an attitudinal change is to expose learners to other ways of thinking about a particular thing. Sometimes learners have formed attitudes based upon selective information. Simulation games in which a learner is actually playing a role may be a powerful tool in influencing learners’ attitudes. Similarly, films or videos along with discussion (for example, documentaries about a particular ethnic group and the hardships they endure) can be helpful. Finally, constant feedback, reinforcement, and instruction adapted to an individual’s level of proficiency may influence learners in a positive way. For example, many people, women in particular, dislike math and choose to avoid all courses with a math component. If instruction is adapted to the individual’s level, and constant feedback is provided, attitudes can change.
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of complex learning through information processing theory, cognitive learning processes and cognition and instruction;
Relate information processing theory, cognitive learning process, and cognition and instruction to opportunities for use of technology in museums;
Describe Gagne’s nine events of instruction and five levels of instruction and applications for the development of museum education programs;
Understand applications of cognitive and information processing theories for technology approaches in museums; and
Consider ways of customizing museum experiences for visitors.
Write a literature review paper on a selected topic covered in the Schunk text.