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After reading Chapter 13 of your course text and viewing Brain Injuries and What is a Stem Cell?, which cover brain injury and repair, analyze the clinical, biological, and psychological factors that are important in successful brain function recovery outcomes. How can the brain repair itself or restore lost function after TBI or other brain damage (focus on the concept of neuroplasticity)? Wilson (2012) lists ways that the brain can repair itself, but reminds us later in the chapter that, in most areas of the brain, replication of neurons by mitosis to replace lost/dead neurons only occurs in immature brains (i.e., essentially those younger than age two). There are some areas (e.g., the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory) that have neurogenesis, but other areas of the brain must utilize neuroplasticity to restore lost function.
In addition, discuss what clinical, biological, and psychological factors are important in successful brain function recovery outcomes. What are some clinical interventions (e.g., medication, surgery, stem cell therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, rehabilitation techniques, and psychotherapy) that help facilitate the restoration of lost brain function? Include information on brain structures, pathways, neurotransmitters/receptors, and psychological factors when discussing the topic areas above. Additional emphasis should be placed on relating the underlying pathology of brain trauma and damage to the actual biologic mechanism of how various treatments support repair or restoration of function.
1. Read from your course text, Biological basis of behavior:
a. Chapter 13: Developmental Disorders and Brain Damage
This chapter analyzes brain development, types of brain damage, alcoholism, and the effects of age on the nervous system.
1. Sussman, S., & Sussman, A. N. (2011). Considering the definition of addiction (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(10): 4025–4038. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210595/
o This article provides a discussion on the terminology of addictionology.
1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.
o This is the manual of psychiatric diagnostic criteria used by mental health professionals.
1. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2009). What is a stem cell? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from the Films on Demand database.
o This video provides a discussion of the use of stem cells in management of illness and trauma.
2. Intelecom. (n.d.). Brain injuries (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://searchcenter.intelecomonline.net/playClip.aspx?fromSearch=true&searchTerm=brain+injuries&fromMyClips=false&id=fXSknMNzL00NzLcBmc9INzL&ssp=0&lid=23596559
o This video provides an overview of rehabilitation methods in traumatic brain injury.
o To access this resource, please view the video in Week 5 Discussion 2.
1. Donnelly, D. J. & Popovich, P. G. (2008). Inflammation and its role in neuroprotection, axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Experimental Neurology, 209(2) 378-388. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2692462/
o This article provides a discussion of the influence of the inflammatory response in relation to protection and recovery of function in spinal cord injury.
3. Priestley, J. V. (2007). Promoting anatomical plasticity and recovery of function after traumatic injury to the central or peripheral nervous system (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Brain, 130(4), 895-897. Retrieved from http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/130/4/895.full
o This article provides a discussion of concepts relating to neuroplasticity in patients with traumatic brain injury and trauma to the peripheral nervous system.
After reading Chapter 13 of your course text and viewing Brain Injuries and What is a Stem Cell?, which cover brain injury and repair, analyze the clinical, biological, and psychological factors that are important in successful brain function recovery outcomes.