Name of the student Institutions Name Date THE POLICIES OF BOTH IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION INDURSTRALIZATION AND NEO-LIBERALISM STRONGLY INFLUENCED THE URBAN GEOGRAPHY OF LATIN AMERICA Import-substitution industrialization (ISI) refers to economic and trade policy which advocates replacing imported goods and services with domestic production. This policy is based on that a country should always strive to reduce its dependence on foreign products through local production. Most Latin American have implemented this policy with the aim of producing development and self -sufficiency through creating and international market(Braga 2010).This systems works through enabling the state to take charge of economic growth and development through subsidization of key industries nationalization and high protectionist trade initiatives. Neoliberalism refers to a shift in a subset of policies to a greater reliance on markets whereby there was an elimination of trade barriers such as tariffs and government subsidies of national industry and implementation of nation policies that of Global Adjustment Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publisher Colclough C. (1991). “Structuralism versus Neo-Liberalism: An Introduction.” In States or Markets? Neo-liberalism and the Extension Policy Debate (C. Colclough and J. Manor eds.).New York: Oxford University Press Weaver David B. "The evolving theory of eco-tourism and its potential impacts." International Journal of Sustainable Development vol. 5 no. 3 2002 p. 251. Production of drugs and Trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean: Hearing facing the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives Ninety-Eighth Congress First Session on Drug Production and Trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean May 12 1983. U.S. G.P.O 1984. McGrath Conor. Lobbying and interest group in Latin America Africa the Middle East and Asia: Essays on Drug Manufacture Chemical Manufacture Exchange Rates and Women's Interests. Edwin Mellen P 2009. Meadows Deborah R. The Environment/development Interface in Latin America: Ecotourism and Costa Rica's Search for Sustainable Development. 1993. [...]
1. The policies of both Import-Substitution Industrialization and Neoliberalism strongly influenced the urban geography of Latin America, but in profoundly different ways. First, differentiate between the two policies and then compare and contrast their effects on urban areas, including the distribution of cities as well as what is occurring within cities. Be sure to include ALL of the following terms/concepts in your answer: urban growth, overurbanization, urban primacy, informal sector (housing and employment), squatter settlements/favelas, privatization, gender and secondary cities. When using these terms, be sure they are put in bold. If not, points will be deducted. 2. On p. 94, Klak states that “Sustainable Development has become a universal goal in recent years”. Discuss what is meant by sustainable development, both culturally and environmentally, followed by a discussion of how that goal is threatened or enabled by various activities within the region such as an expanding export economy, tourism in its various forms (be sure you incorporate at least 3 forms of tourism in this discussion), and drug production. Lastly, do you feel that the gradual transition away from neoliberalism would improve or deter the region’s sustainability efforts? Why (be as specific as possible)? Each answer should be 2-3 pages, single-spaced. Late assignments will NOT be accepted under any circumstances.